World History II weeks 3&4 notes
World History II weeks 3&4 notes
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Date Created: 02/04/16
World Hist. II- HIST1004 Buckel Professor: Dr. John McNay Week 3 notes Ottoman Empire (OE) Periods o Expansion 13-15 centuries o Maturity 15-17 centuries th o Decline 17-19 centuries Ended in WWI- Ottomans sided with the Germans o Germans lost, allowing Britain/France to explore Middle East for themselves Modern problems in Iraq resemble the flaws of the Ottoman Empire Named after Osman (1258-1326) Expansion Mehemet II (1432- 1481)- Conquest of Constantinople (1453) Prominent rulers o Byzantine Empire- Didn’t recognize the Pope, but did recognize the figure of Constantinople o Constantinople- Named for Constantine, Roman Emperor/General that settled soldiers in that area Siege technology- developed large immovable cannons, etc. to break through kingdom/castle walls St. Sophia (Hagia Sophia)- turned from church -> mosque -> museum o has survived many earthquakes over the years Selim (1512-1520)- expanded Ottoman Empire into Egypt and Iran Suleiman the Magnificent (1520-1566)- Siege of Vienna (1529) o Sieged Vienna twice o Built a grand palace in his capital city Organization Ghazi- highly educated soldiers of Empire- highly skilled Ghulam System (civil service)- have skilled people get skilled jobs o Devshirme- top dogs of program o Janissary Corps- warriors put in bureaucratic positions after siege of locations- highly educated They were trained soldiers at a young age Were very loyal to their leading force- didn’t know where they came from or their families- they were feared by all Provinces- Timar system- taxed land granted by Ottomans- taxes paid for the military service Religious tolerance: o Let people believe what they wanted to believe o Didn’t force conversions but allowed self-gov’t within neighborhoods separated by religion (Millet system) Decline Lepanto (1571)- ottoman fleet defeated by Venetians- last major attempt at acquiring Mediterranean Large navies were popular because of trade in the Mediterranean Siege of Vienna (1683)- over 100,000 Turkish troops vs Vienna’s 30,000 troops o Didn’t want casualties- multinational army led by Poles (Poland) attacks Turks surrounding Vienna and defeat them After siege of Vienna, Ottomans lose grip: o OE has been major controller or Eurasia Discovery of New World changed power of OE o Cheaper to ship across ocean -> Europe wanted to find water route to China -> discovery of New World 19 Century OE called “Sick Man of Europe”- lost its power and grip until its fall at the end of WWI European Discovery of New World Exploration Europeans wanted others’ wealth because of their poverty o This economic state fueled the want for exploration Vikings discovered America first (1200’s) o Iceland and Greenland were inhabited and are very close to Canada Many primitive societies (like in South America) had pyramids because of simple stable structure Columbus After his discovery, world was very different Spain/ Spanish Conquest- o 1. Opportunity for expansion -> Spanish wanted a way around the Italians in the Mediterranean o 2. Spain was Catholic Islamic population in southern Spain had cities and universities with Islamic influence Jews also in southern Spain Spain’s Problem = highest educated citizens were Jews, who they wanted to move out of Spain Jews were driven out and it cripples Spain’s potential development Conquest Cortez and the Aztecs o Cortez brutalized many natives- used human sacrifice with conquered people Natives thought conquerors were odd with boats as big as “small islands”, beards, and odd animals (horses) o In the beginning, they could have wiped out the Spaniards because of their numbers They thought the Spanish were returning gods and didn’t fight them, giving the Spanish time to defeat them Warfare was a ritual for the Aztecs Natives were dying of diseases and didn’t know why- they thought their Gods were angry at them Pizarro and Incas o Disease already ran through S. America- it already weakened all natives Disease caused a civil war in the Incan Empire Atahualpa (Incan ruler)- seized as prisoner and held hostage to give Pizarro the gold o The Spanish believed in a big city of gold in the New World By 1560, Aztecs and Incas were controlled by the Spanish Spanish were only Europeans to strike rich in the New World Tokugawa Japan (1600-1868) Origins of Japanese State Heian Era 794-1192 o Heavily influenced by Chinese- wanted to make their own culture o Women (just short of prostitutes) were most educated in society World’s first novel: Tale of Genji by Lady Murasaki o Form and style were very important to creating a unique Japanese culture o Very good at borrowing ideas and making them uniquely Japanese Borrowed much of China’s base and built it from there o Japan had an emperor (like China) but emperors were not affiliated with military- they had clans of soldiers War of State Era- three war lords force unification of separate states after clans of armed forces fight o War lords force unification of separate states after clans of armed forces fight o War Lords- Oda Nobunaga- killed in battle Toyotomi Hindeyoshi- unified much of Japan, attacks Korea (back then part of China) 3.Tokugawa Ieyasu- Becomes leader of Japan, disagreed with invading China and focused on unifying Japan Battle of Sehiguhara- last battle he fought for unification of Japan o He doesn’t become emperor but is the power behind the emperor (shogan) where emperor is not really in charge o Daimyo- lords/nobles of Japan- owe allegiance to emperor that a nobleman would to the king Samuri- driven by code of conduct (Bushio) Knights- driven by chivalry o Japanese religion very similar to Native Americans, where souls and spirits are belief of system (with river, skies, etc) Many belief systems at the same time held these beliefs o Peasants- tied to the land, bottom of “food chain”, majority of population Overall, Europe and Japan had very similar structures Tokugawa Shogunate (bakufu) (1600s) European presence was very strong- Europe was trying to join Chinese market Europe/ priests (Jesuits) in China were there to convert citizens to Christianity o Japanese were open to new ideas but China was very resistant Converting to Christianity in China meant rejecting all current beliefs Converting to Christianity in Japan -> accepted new ideas without rejecting current beliefs Tokugawa doesn’t like cultural parallels with Europeans and kicks them out o if they don’t practice Japanese culture = execution o if you aren’t Japanese, don’t come to Japan o If you are Japanese, don’t leave or you are executed o Wanted to cut off outside world and Japan is frozen in time (mid 19 century “unseal” of Japan was practically the same Japan that was left behind) Dutch Window Only people Japan was allowed to trade with Small island in Nagasaki became strict trading post Dutch Window- Japanese learned about Europe from Dutch, but Japanese views were skewed by Dutch opinion o not all things the Dutch said were bad- some medical procedures were learned from both sides Development of US forced Japan to rejoin the world Enlightenment Origins Natural laws governing mankind’s behavior Major Figures John Locke (1632-1704) o Believed state should be governed to benefit people, not the king Montesquieu (1689-1755) o Gov’t needs checks and balances- not all power in one person o Describes politics as a science Voltaire (1689-1778) o Attacks church in that people shouldn’t have life imposed on them and that everyone should feel as if they can be king o Satirical book, Candide Adam Smith (1723-1790) o Wealth of Nations- book saying economy will balance things out and not to interfere with the gov’t Attempt to apply natural laws to gov’t o Mercansolism (European economy) only puts power in gov’t from economy, he wanted economy to control gov’t actions There was no economic safety net= Irish potato famine = England didn’t help the Irish and let them starve Growth of European Empires Portugal Small countries with small resources = wanted to expand for resources Gunpowder Empire- put cannons on their ships Big target was India, which wasn’t united under one ruler Goa- trading post established by Portuguese and not relinquished until the 1990s Expanded into East Africa as well first to create slave trade to move to canary islands for land workers o African diseases and power prevented Europeans from entering the whole of Africa hence a trading post on the outside Spain After kicking out Muslims and Jews (their most wealthy and educated citizens), Spain entered a downward slope Controlled much of North and South America and the Entire Philippines o Spanish-American war resulted in America taking Philippines from Spain France South America (Brazil, etc) spoke Portuguese Napoleonic Era – France had control of Europe Indo-China (Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia) Britain Latecomer to New World and other empires due to lagging development (internal power struggles) Make up for lost time in 1700’s Wanted “get rich quick” as Spain did but they never found the gold Many early British settlers died in the New World and other places Britain gained some control of India and Australia Many ventures were gov’t run and funded in Europe o British gov’t didn’t fund expeditions, but rather joint-stock companies did Ex) Virginia Company in Jamestown Note: control of slave trade continually changed- by that point (1700s), Britain was in control The Great War for Empire (1756-1763) Origins This was technically the first “world war” with 3 battlefields o Europe (known as 7-years war) o North America (known as French-Indian War) o India Indians were fragile because they were split by religions ,etc India French and British fight for political control of India Robert Clive- led British forces in India against French British East India Company- waged war in India British forces (made up of Indian citizens) and French forces (also made up of Indians) battled in the Battle of Plasse where British won control North America French were good explorers (into Great Lakes and Mississippi river) but were very underpopulated French made good relations with Native Americans because of their low population o Traded with the natives and learned from them When Great War comes, Natives join forces with the French to fight the British Big French settlement in North America (now Quebec) British send over General James Wolfe to invade Quebec o Picked up a nubmer of American colonists who wanted to continue to expand westward and thought if British won, French and Natives will be wiped out Battle commences on the Plains of Abraham in Quebec o Americans told British they could scale cliffs at night time o Next morning, British army is on the plains of Abraham and were surprised o French came out of the city walls to fight for several hours o General Montculm- leader of the French forces- dies the day after the battle o The British won French gave up North America and India The French wanted Natives to control mountains and the rest of American Land Treaty of Paris Proclamation Line (1763)- British couldn’t cross into midwest British agreed because they spent a lot of money fighting the French and didn’t want any more conflict in North America o Stamp act (1765) and other British-controlled acts and taxes were implemented for the Americans in order to pay off British debt this causes upset in colonies “no taxation without representation” there were no colonial representatives in parliament British argued “virtual representation” World Hist II Buckel Professor McNay Week 4 American Revolution Context Separate development of colonies politically and culturally “brilliance vs bunglers” o Colonial leaders (Washington, Jefferson, etc) George III- was going through a series of madness o He relied upon the prime ministers to make decisions Lord Grenville- small-minded accountant-type person o Primary issue for him was making the colonies pay lots of money Political Clashes Currency Act (1764)- British banned the printing of paper money in order to be paid with currency of worth (backed by silver, etc) Sugar Act (1764)- Rum was distilled a lot in the colonies rum requires sugar to make sugar came from the French British then put ban on sugar John Hancock and others smuggled sugar people were tried with military tribunals and not by peers because peers found them innocent Stamp Act (1765)- tax on any business transaction papers o Ex) buying a horse, house, etc. needed a gov’t stamp of approval saying they paid tax on it o Colonies didn’t like the taxes and their lack of representation Lord Rockingham- replaced Grenville and repealed stamp act, but imposed: o Declaratory Act (1766)- Parlaiment had the right to tax colonists Champagne Charlie- Playboy/social figure- not a serious politician o Passed a series of laws to try to solve problems with Britain- he put taxes within prices of things (ex. Gas nowadays) such as glass, paper, lead, paint During this time, tea became popular in Britain and the colonies and tax was then put on it East India Company provided colonies with tea at a lower tax rate Troops Arrive Quartering Act (1766)- American colonists had to house British soldiers stationed in amarica Violence Ensues Boston Massacre (1770)- Small crowd of colonists taunted soldiers- there was a mix of orders for the soldiers they fire on crowd and kill 5 people Crispus Attucks- victim of Boston Massacre- he was a mixed race of Black and Native American Boston Tea Party (1773)- political group (one leader Sam Adams (John Adams’s brother)) o They dressed as Native Americans, boarded ships loaded with tea, and threw it in the harbor Really angered the British sent in many soldiers and formed a blockade to find perpetrators Over the next few years, leaders meet in Philadelphia and discuss opposition to British Lexington and Concord- British hear word of weapons outside Boston (30 miles) there were no weapons and on their 30 mile walk back the colonists were shooting at them Bunker Hill (1775)- Americans hold off British and then retreat – it was a moral victory for Americans because of casualties inflicted on British War Declaration of Independence (1776)- considered an enlightenment document o Appeal to reason list of grievances Washington wanted to train troops to fight like the British o He lost almost all of his battles o He knew keeping the Continental Army would prolong the Revolution and British would tire of fighting This was repeated by the Vietnamese against the Americans in the Vietnam War Treaty of Paris (1783)- gave US all the land from the east coast to the Mississippi river Battle of Yorktown- France allied with America because of common British enemy o France sent troops and fleet in places they can assist (General: Marquis de Lafayette) o British were stuck in peninsula waiting for supply ships France blocks the supplies Cornwallis (British general) surrenders to Lafayette, who makes him instead surrender to Washington Without France, America couldn’t win the war France almost went bankrupt helping the Americans o Seeing the Americans enlightened inspired revolution in France French Revolution Louis XVI Estates General (1789)- called into meeting (divided society by class) Tennis Court Oath (June 20)- indoor tennis court where meeting occurred wouldn’t stop meeting until one-man = one-vote Declaration of Man and Citizen (1789) National Assembly (1791) o Jacobins- radicals during revolution Reign of Terror (early 1793) France eliminated titles, days, months, and renamed some structures Had a “Committee of Public Safety” that killed people who sympathized with the gov’t o Killed King Louis and Marie Antoinette Republic all men were legally, socially and politically equal Thermidorean Reaction Robespierre- was a leader executed European powers targeted France because of weakness in gov’t and social standings War and Napoleon Napoleon wasn’t actually French, but spoke French and rose from nowhere French didn’t have professional soldiers- anybody joined to fuel the revolution and brought spirit to battles that others didn’t have Napoleonic Era Background Wasn’t French, but spoke French and therefore had a connection to France o Ex) more recent history Hitler wasn’t German Revolution French revolution wipes out status barriers for the military o Gave Napoleon opportunity French create Armie on Masse (“army of the people”)- not professional large patriotic armies of citizens 1798- Opportunity to join other armies to fight Italians o Napoleon’s own main army didn’t do well and the small force won Napoleon returns to France a hero and diplomat Egypt Important British trade partner o No British army there Napoleon sees this as a weak point Battle of Pyramids (1799)- Nap. Invades Egypt and brings archaeologists etc. to Egypt to study/analyze them Rosetta Stone- stone uncovered in Rosetta with ancient hieroglyphics and helped decipher them because of 2 other understood languages on the stone British navy traps Nap.- “Teflon” Character o Declares victory, smuggles himself back to France and is greeted as a hero (left his army behind) Return in France Ends the French Revolution Implements Napoleonic Code- written law (Louisiana’s basis of law modern day) that is still in place today Military Leader Always outnumbered in battle- still beats several coalitions Very pragmatic- was very good with mental logistics Armies converge from several different roads so the front of the army wasn’t too far ahead of the back Lived off the land so they didn’t have to wait for supplies Always kept reserve troops to send to battles to turn the battle to his favor Russian Invasion (1812) 1.5 million soldiers were collected to invade Russia Tzar and Russian gov’t set fire to Moscow and fled city to avoid Napoleon o Nobody to surrender to Nap. So he turns around and is attacked by Russia Russia defeats Nap’s army eventually as Nap gets to France Finale Battle of Nations (1813)- All other nations (especially Britain) jump on Napoleon Napoleon still was the emperor of France and is exiled on the island of Elba Returns to France and al soldiers and citizens support him Battle of Waterloo (1815)- Nap loses- another attack on Nap by European nations St. Helena- island in the middle of the South Atlantic was Nap’s new exile location o British soldiers always on guard o Napoleon becomes sick and dies- rumors surface that British poisoned him After his death, locks of his hair were given to his family and recently were collected to investigate the rumors it turned out he had high concentrations of arsenic in his system, confirming the rumors Legacy Spread ideas of French Revolution on his conquests – peoples he passed by were inspired by these ideas of “nations of the people”, etc. Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) Founding: o Yuan Dynasty- began when the Chinese drove out Mongols o “Ming”- “clear and bright” High point: o Emperor Shenzong (1563-1620)- ruled for decades, reigns at the height of Ming Dynasty power Decline: o Emperor Weizong (1611-1644) Characteristics of Ming Dynasty: o Economy was very complex Had a very good agricultural base, and produced food surplus “handicraft economy”- People in villages were producing all different kinds of goods Porcelain industry reaches its height- it produced a lot of gov’t revenue because of taxes Urbanization- people moved to cities and produced wealth o Culture: Silk, alcohol, tobacco, porcelain, and a variety of food crops were very important Revenue generated from these helped them purchase many European items- Clocks from Europe, tobacco from America Large Cities came about: Beijing, Nenjing, Xian, Chengdu o Treasure Fleets (1433) Sailed by Africa, India, Indonesia They weren’t looking to tap into great wealth but rather wanted to awe the world and demonstrate their impressive ships and ability for travel (more info on week 1 notes) o Produced a few novels during this period o Science: Studied astronomy and wrote several books on this Studied agriculture- figured out crop rotation Developed military technology Made gun powder and eventually guns Beijing o “Forbidden City”- used construction and art form previous generations Large palace with over 70,000sqft Every structure within the city is related to the number 9 Either nine, or multiples of nine The number 9 in Chinese is pronounced similar to “hopeful” therefore they wanted prosperity Least decorated hall contained the throne so the throne could “radiate power” to the whole city Qing (“pure”) Dynasty (1644-1911) Toward the end of the Ming Dynasty, emperor doesn’t demonstrate that he is in control and citizens rise up against him Manchu see disorder and come in to seize opportunity for power o More like Mongols- very adventurous, unlike Chinese, who were city people o There are vast populations of Chinese so they are worried about a full resistance from China o They talk to court officials and scholars (who believed in peace and stability, which China no longer had) Mandate of Heaven- the imperial dynasty is there because heaven wanted them to be- that they had the right to rule o They no longer had power, and it was assumed they (Ming Dynasty) didn’t have the Mandate of Heaven any more Manchu saw this and they came in and earned the Mandate (encouraged and supported by scholars and officials) Manchu are welcomed by many because they could impose control and established themselves as the new emperors They organize China in a different way Ex) Armies are led by Manchu leaders They span the scale of the empire and it becomes substantially bigger than it used to be they expand westward and to the northeast where they were from Jesuits failed to convert many people to Christianity Mateo Ricci- Italian scientist and mathematician and adopted many Chinese ways ex.) learned the language o Developed memory skills (Memory Palace- house, doors, rooms, etc) Kang-shi (1662-1722)- (excerpt in book pages 650-659) o was the longest ruler in Qing Dynasty- was a remarkable, intelligent man with a “real gift for administration” o Helped improve the waterways in China (2 big rivers connected by canal) for internal trade Qienlong (1736-1795)- o wanted the best and brightest out of the Confucian exams o eliminated Mongol raiders o expanded into Vietnam and other southern “satellite” nations to owe credit to the power of China Manchu only made up 2% of China’s population but ruled all of China for so many years
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