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Developmental Psych- "Introduction to the Life-Span Perspective"

by: Maria Vann

Developmental Psych- "Introduction to the Life-Span Perspective" Psych 260

Marketplace > University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point > Psychlogy > Psych 260 > Developmental Psych Introduction to the Life Span Perspective
Maria Vann
GPA 3.5

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Notes from 1/26/16-2/4/16
Developmental Psychology
Dr. Debra Palmer
75 ?




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This 27 page Bundle was uploaded by Maria Vann on Thursday February 4, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Psych 260 at University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point taught by Dr. Debra Palmer in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point.

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Date Created: 02/04/16
Psychology 260 Introduction to the Life-Span Perspective Development Across the Life-Span . . . § How is it defined? Pattern of change that begins at conception and continues through the life-span § When does development occur? Life long; in the womb. § What are characteristics of the life-span perspective? § Multi-dimensional (Biological, Emotional) § Multi-layered, Complex § Multi-directional (Gaining techniques; losing them too) § Contextual (Financial hardships; food sources. Affects cognitive and physical development as well.) Ways of Considering Development §Chronological age: Knowing the age; actual age of a person. §Biological age: Functioning abilities of your internal system. (Ex: 20 yr olds lungs vs. 60 yr olds lungs) §Social age: Roles and responsibilities in our socialite groups. (Ex: Seeing an 18 yr old- Not knowing he’s a father vs. Single guy in college) Figure 1.5: The Aging of America “Women  live  longer  than  men.”   Environmental:  Men  are  more  reckless   Biological:  Men’s  Y-­‐Chromosome  is  smaller   Context:  Women  seek  more  help  then  men,   which  makes  men  more  suscep▯ble  to   commi▯ng/contempla▯ng  suicide.   Views On Human Nature: Historical and Current Perspectives? Children are born into a world Original sin view corrupted with inclination toward evil Children born as “blank slates” Tabla rasa view and acquire characteristics through experience (Locke) Innate goodness Children born inherently good view (Rousseau) Things to Contemplate Developmentally Extent to which development Nature and Nurture is influenced by nature and by nurture Stability and Degree to which early traits and characteristics persist Change through life or change Extent development involves Continuity- gradual, cumulative change Discontinuity (continuity) or distinct stages (discontinuity) FACT   Baby  monkeys  who  were  raised  by  their  peers  have   lower  serotonin  levels-­‐  which  meant  they  had  more   aggressive  behavior.     Monkeys  raised  by  their  mothers  have  higher  serotonin   levels.     *Heritability:  A  ra▯o  of  calcula▯ng  how  much  something   is  by  nature  or  nurture  by  IQ     *Canaliza▯on:  Gene▯cally  programmed  on  a  life  track.   (To  grow,  adapt,  etc.)  To  change  the  canaliza▯on,  it   would  take  a  lot  go  get  knocked  off  the  track.     Figure 1.9: Continuity and Discontinuity in Development What, exactly, is a Theory? § A unified set of ideas that can be used to explain data (past, present, & future) and to make predictions (hypotheses) § Select examples of major developmental theories, both past & present: §Behavioral §Cognitive §Ethological §Ecological Behavioral Theories § Focus  is  on  observable  behavior  and  the   environment  (nurture)     v Classical  Condi▯oning  (Pavlov)   v Operant  Condi▯oning  (Skinner)   v Social  Cogni▯ve  Theory  (Bandura)   Cognitive Theories §Focus on conscious processes, particularly thoughts and language vCognitive Development (Piaget) and sociocultural (Vygotsky) and information- processing approaches Ethological Theories §Focus is on biology, particularly evolution (comparative) §This approach has also proposed critical periods or sensitive periods for development vImprinting process (Konrad Lorenz) vAttachment Theory (Bowlby, Ainsworth, Main) Ecological Theory § Primary focus is on the social environment: §immediate context (family, siblings, peers) §more distant contexts (mass media, family friends, culture) §But, also how individual’s innate characteristics interact with environment § Urie Bronfenbrenner: Main task was to show how complicated context is and why it is important. Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory The Scientific Method, Step-By-Step Revise/Develop Theory Draw Develop Conclusions Hypotheses Gather and Analyze Data Naturalistic & Structured Observation § Specific, well-defined behavior of interest is observed and recorded § Occurs in laboratory or laboratory-like settings (structured) and natural/ field (naturalistic) § NOTE: the degree of contact between observer & observed varies Self-Report Measures §Questionnaires involve asking questions that are usually answered via pencil and paper or via electronic (i.e., computer, texting). The problems with this is that people can be bias, lie, and can focus on the (+) or (-) in their life: causing the questions to be swayed. §Extremely hard to construct valid* interviews and questionnaires. *Validity(or Valid): What you intend as true and honest or understandable questions. Physiological Studies §Tend to focus on CNS development and impact of hormones §Non-human studies are conducted when work with human participants cannot be undertaken due to ethical or practical concerns General Research Designs § Correlational/Non-Experimental v Examines associations or relationships between two or more events or variables v Although are able to make predictions, correlation does not imply causation!! § Experimental v Does the Independent Variable (IV) cause theips: Dependent Variable (DV)? Cause → Effect = IV → DV Figure  1.19  -­‐  Possible  Explana▯ons  for  Correla▯onal   Data   IVs, DVs, & Hypotheses §  A  variable  is  anything  in  which  a  quan▯ta▯ve  or  qualita▯ve   dis▯nc▯on  or  difference  can  be  made  (must  have  at  least  2  levels)   and  is  clearly  defined   §  Independent  Variable  (IV)  is  manipulated  by  the  experimenter  and   the  Dependent  Variable  (DV)  is  the  behavior  that  is  thought  to  be   influenced  by  the  IV     §  The  hypothesis  is  the  statement/predic▯on  of  the  expected   influence  that  the  IV  will  have  on  the  DV   An Example §Hypothesis: Children who watch violent television programs will engage in more aggressive behavior than children who watch non-violent television programs. vWhat is the IV? vHow many levels of the IV are there? vWhat is the DV? Another Example §Hypothesis: When pre-school children are on the playground, the children who drank sugar-free Kool-Aid will engage in more aerobic activities than will children who drank regular Kool-Aid. vWhat is the IV? vHow many levels of the IV are there? vWhat is the DV? Example  One:   IV:  Kids  watching  violent  T.V./video  games.   Levels:  2   DV:  The  amount  of  violent  behavior  observed.     Example  Two:   IV:  Sugar  free  Kool-­‐Aid,  The  kids  who  drank   sugar  free  Kool-­‐Aid.   Levels:  2   DV:  The  engagement  of  the  kids  who  drank   sugar  free  Kool-­‐Aid.       Developmental Research Designs § Cross-sectional-can assess only 1 time, cheaper vdifferent age groups are compared – most often only once § Longitudinal-varied derailed info, drops outs/ deaths vindividuals (usually the same age) are followed and studied repeatedly over a period of time, for several months or years (even decades!) § Sequential-can get the drawbacks of both vcombines cross-sectional, longitudinal design – individuals of different age groups are followed and studied repeatedly over a period of time, for several months or years (even decades) Developmental Research Ethics § Inclusion of minors in research – what are the concerns? Parental permission/withdrawal can change the results/numbers. § Inclusion of the elderly in research – what are the concerns? Death can change the results/numbers. § Inclusion of other “vulnerable” or “at risk” populations? May be a small handful of people needed which can vary/change the results/ numbers.


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