Developmental Psych- "Introduction to the Life-Span Perspective"
Developmental Psych- "Introduction to the Life-Span Perspective" Psych 260
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This 27 page Bundle was uploaded by Maria Vann on Thursday February 4, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Psych 260 at University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point taught by Dr. Debra Palmer in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point.
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Date Created: 02/04/16
Psychology 260 Introduction to the Life-Span Perspective Development Across the Life-Span . . . § How is it defined? Pattern of change that begins at conception and continues through the life-span § When does development occur? Life long; in the womb. § What are characteristics of the life-span perspective? § Multi-dimensional (Biological, Emotional) § Multi-layered, Complex § Multi-directional (Gaining techniques; losing them too) § Contextual (Financial hardships; food sources. Affects cognitive and physical development as well.) Ways of Considering Development §Chronological age: Knowing the age; actual age of a person. §Biological age: Functioning abilities of your internal system. (Ex: 20 yr olds lungs vs. 60 yr olds lungs) §Social age: Roles and responsibilities in our socialite groups. (Ex: Seeing an 18 yr old- Not knowing he’s a father vs. Single guy in college) Figure 1.5: The Aging of America “Women live longer than men.” Environmental: Men are more reckless Biological: Men’s Y-‐Chromosome is smaller Context: Women seek more help then men, which makes men more suscep▯ble to commi▯ng/contempla▯ng suicide. Views On Human Nature: Historical and Current Perspectives? Children are born into a world Original sin view corrupted with inclination toward evil Children born as “blank slates” Tabla rasa view and acquire characteristics through experience (Locke) Innate goodness Children born inherently good view (Rousseau) Things to Contemplate Developmentally Extent to which development Nature and Nurture is influenced by nature and by nurture Stability and Degree to which early traits and characteristics persist Change through life or change Extent development involves Continuity- gradual, cumulative change Discontinuity (continuity) or distinct stages (discontinuity) FACT Baby monkeys who were raised by their peers have lower serotonin levels-‐ which meant they had more aggressive behavior. Monkeys raised by their mothers have higher serotonin levels. *Heritability: A ra▯o of calcula▯ng how much something is by nature or nurture by IQ *Canaliza▯on: Gene▯cally programmed on a life track. (To grow, adapt, etc.) To change the canaliza▯on, it would take a lot go get knocked oﬀ the track. Figure 1.9: Continuity and Discontinuity in Development What, exactly, is a Theory? § A unified set of ideas that can be used to explain data (past, present, & future) and to make predictions (hypotheses) § Select examples of major developmental theories, both past & present: §Behavioral §Cognitive §Ethological §Ecological Behavioral Theories § Focus is on observable behavior and the environment (nurture) v Classical Condi▯oning (Pavlov) v Operant Condi▯oning (Skinner) v Social Cogni▯ve Theory (Bandura) Cognitive Theories §Focus on conscious processes, particularly thoughts and language vCognitive Development (Piaget) and sociocultural (Vygotsky) and information- processing approaches Ethological Theories §Focus is on biology, particularly evolution (comparative) §This approach has also proposed critical periods or sensitive periods for development vImprinting process (Konrad Lorenz) vAttachment Theory (Bowlby, Ainsworth, Main) Ecological Theory § Primary focus is on the social environment: §immediate context (family, siblings, peers) §more distant contexts (mass media, family friends, culture) §But, also how individual’s innate characteristics interact with environment § Urie Bronfenbrenner: Main task was to show how complicated context is and why it is important. Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory The Scientific Method, Step-By-Step Revise/Develop Theory Draw Develop Conclusions Hypotheses Gather and Analyze Data Naturalistic & Structured Observation § Specific, well-defined behavior of interest is observed and recorded § Occurs in laboratory or laboratory-like settings (structured) and natural/ field (naturalistic) § NOTE: the degree of contact between observer & observed varies Self-Report Measures §Questionnaires involve asking questions that are usually answered via pencil and paper or via electronic (i.e., computer, texting). The problems with this is that people can be bias, lie, and can focus on the (+) or (-) in their life: causing the questions to be swayed. §Extremely hard to construct valid* interviews and questionnaires. *Validity(or Valid): What you intend as true and honest or understandable questions. Physiological Studies §Tend to focus on CNS development and impact of hormones §Non-human studies are conducted when work with human participants cannot be undertaken due to ethical or practical concerns General Research Designs § Correlational/Non-Experimental v Examines associations or relationships between two or more events or variables v Although are able to make predictions, correlation does not imply causation!! § Experimental v Does the Independent Variable (IV) cause theips: Dependent Variable (DV)? Cause → Effect = IV → DV Figure 1.19 -‐ Possible Explana▯ons for Correla▯onal Data IVs, DVs, & Hypotheses § A variable is anything in which a quan▯ta▯ve or qualita▯ve dis▯nc▯on or diﬀerence can be made (must have at least 2 levels) and is clearly deﬁned § Independent Variable (IV) is manipulated by the experimenter and the Dependent Variable (DV) is the behavior that is thought to be inﬂuenced by the IV § The hypothesis is the statement/predic▯on of the expected inﬂuence that the IV will have on the DV An Example §Hypothesis: Children who watch violent television programs will engage in more aggressive behavior than children who watch non-violent television programs. vWhat is the IV? vHow many levels of the IV are there? vWhat is the DV? Another Example §Hypothesis: When pre-school children are on the playground, the children who drank sugar-free Kool-Aid will engage in more aerobic activities than will children who drank regular Kool-Aid. vWhat is the IV? vHow many levels of the IV are there? vWhat is the DV? Example One: IV: Kids watching violent T.V./video games. Levels: 2 DV: The amount of violent behavior observed. Example Two: IV: Sugar free Kool-‐Aid, The kids who drank sugar free Kool-‐Aid. Levels: 2 DV: The engagement of the kids who drank sugar free Kool-‐Aid. Developmental Research Designs § Cross-sectional-can assess only 1 time, cheaper vdifferent age groups are compared – most often only once § Longitudinal-varied derailed info, drops outs/ deaths vindividuals (usually the same age) are followed and studied repeatedly over a period of time, for several months or years (even decades!) § Sequential-can get the drawbacks of both vcombines cross-sectional, longitudinal design – individuals of different age groups are followed and studied repeatedly over a period of time, for several months or years (even decades) Developmental Research Ethics § Inclusion of minors in research – what are the concerns? Parental permission/withdrawal can change the results/numbers. § Inclusion of the elderly in research – what are the concerns? Death can change the results/numbers. § Inclusion of other “vulnerable” or “at risk” populations? May be a small handful of people needed which can vary/change the results/ numbers.
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