Sociology 1020 Chapters 2 and 3 notes
Sociology 1020 Chapters 2 and 3 notes
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Date Created: 02/04/16
Soc 1020 Buckel Professor Lambert Chapters 2 & 3 W.E.B. Du Bois BA from Fisk University First Harvard PhD for an African American (society was very racist at the time so this was quite an accomplishment) Published a book of his observations of society each year from 1896-1914 Neglected by sociologists until recently Talcott Parsons & C. Wright Mills May early American sociologists saw society as corrupt and in need of reform Parsons developed Objective Analysis and Models of Society Mills deplored Theoretical Abstractions in favor of social reform o He wrote heavily about the Power Elite Continuing tension in sociology Basic/Applied/Public Sociology Basic Sociology- constructing theories and testing hypotheses o Research on basic social life, how groups affect people Public Sociology- Middle ground; criticisms of society and social poverty o Analyzing problems, evaluating programs and suggesting solutions Applied Sociology- Implementing solutions The Three Theoretical Perspectives Symbolic Interactionism Functionalism Conflict Theory Symbolic Interactionism Symbols in everyday life- wedding rings, tattoos, traffic lights (the colors red, yellow, green have meaning) Applying SI: - Meaning of Marriage - Meaning of Divorce - Meaning of parenthood - Meaning of love Things with meaning change over time (ex. Meaning of marriage/divorce in the 1890s vs now) Functional Analysis Society is a whole unit made up of interrelated parts that work together Structural functionalism/functionalism- mental states are identified by what they do rather than by what they are made of Manifest and Latent Functions- Robert Merton and Functionalism Conflict Theory Karl Marx Conflict Theory today o Focus on all types of conflict between groups over resources o Feminists and conflict theory- women have gained more power inside and outside the home Example of Applying conflict theory o Explaining divorce rates: high divorce rates don’t mean marriage has weakened Research Model 1. Select a topic 2. Define problem 3. Research 4. Formulate hypothesis 5. Choose method 6. Collect data 7. Analyze data 8. Share results Generalizability- taking data and expanding it beyond study sample o Ex) do a study in Cincinnati -> representing the US with those results Ethics and Values in Research Committed to honesty, truth, and openness Falsification of results is forbidden Plagiarism is condemned Research subjects should know htye are being studied Research subjects should never be harmed Debate over values in research Value-free and objectivity (Weber) Replication Example of Problematic Research 1960s US soldiers were given LSD as a sort of “legitimate testing” Laud Humphreys and the Tearoom Trade- homosexual acts in public restroom Tuskegee Study 1932-1972- Chlamydia research and denying certain people treatment to study long term effects of the disease Culture All human groups possess culture Culture- language, beliefs, norms, behaviors o Passed on through generations Material Culture- material objects that distinguish a group of people o Art, buildings, weapons, utensils, machines, hairstyles, clothing, jewelry Nonmaterial Culture- a group’s way of thinking o Beliefs, ideas, values, language Taken-for-granted Orientations What is normal, natural, or usual Internalizing culture- culture becomes a lens through which we perceive and evaluate things Culture and moral imperative o Culture shock, ethnocentrism (judging other cultures based on your own culture) Cultural Relativism Cultural Relativism- understanding cultures on their own terms Components of Symbolic (nonmaterial) Culture Symbols- something to which people attach meaning and that they use to communicate with one another Components of symbolic culture: o Gestures- o Values- o Sanctions- o Mores- o Language- symbols that can be combined in and infinite number of ways to communicate abstract thoughts Language and Perception Sapir-Whorf hypothesis o Language has embedded in it ways of looking at the world Sapir-Whorf reverses common sense o Rather than objects and events forcing themselves onto our consciousness, it is our language that determines our consciousness and hence our perception of objects and events Values, Norms, and Sanctions Values- standards by which people define what is desirable/undesirable, good/bad, beauty/ugly Norms- expectations or rules for behavior Sanctions- expressions of approval for following norms or disapproval for breaking norms o There are positive and negative sanctions o Moral holidays and moral holiday places Ex)Mardi Gras, superbowl, 4/20 Folkways, Mores, Taboos Folkways- norms not strictly enforced o Ex) cutting in line, not holding norms Mores- essential to our core values- taken seriously o Ex) rope, theft, murder Taboos- extremely strong norms o Ex) cannibalism, incest Subcultures and Countercultures Subcultures- groups of people in smaller social locations, tend to develop specialized ways to communicate with one another o Ex) occupations (doctors, surgeons), sports fans Countercultures- groups within norms and values that are at odds with the dominant culture o Ex) motorcycle gangs, KKK Core Value in Pluralistic US Society Achievement/success Individualism Hard work Efficiency/practicality Science/technology Material comfort Freedom Democracy Equality Group superiourity Education Religion Romantic love Value Clusters and Contradictions Value Cluster- values that together form a larger whole o Ex) success- values of hard work, education, material comfort, and individualism Emerging US value clusters: o Leisure, physical fitness, concern for environment, self-fulfillment, youthfulness Value Contradiction- Values that contradict one another o Ex) valuing group superiority at the same time that cue value freedom, democracy, and equality o How does democracy, freedom, and equality exist while we still have sexism and racism? Values and Culture Culture wars- when values clash between traditionalists and those advocating change o Ex) efforts to change gender roles, same-sex marriage, etc Value and distorting lenses- see what life ought to be like and not what it actually is o Ex) American value of individualism “ideal” vs “real” culture o Ideal- values, norms, and goals that a group considers ideal or worth aiming for o Real- norms and values people actually follow Technology in the Global Village The New Technology- a technology development that makes a major impact on human life o Ex) computer, satellites, internet William Ogburn: Cutural Lag and Cultural Change- material culture and non- material lags behind o Ex) sperm donors and alternative methods to pregnancy Chapter 3 What is Socialization? Process by which we learn the way of society (or particular groups) through human contact/interaction Subtle, pervasive process Begins at birth and continues throughout life Society Makes us Human How much of a person’s characteristics are hereditary and how much come from the social environment? Nature vs Nurture o Nature- Hereditary (characteristics at birth) o Nurture- environment (how you are raised) The importance of Human Contact Feral Children- Children assumed to be raised by animals, in the wilderness, isolated from humans Isolated Children- the example of “Isabelle” o Was isolated but was found at age 6 and was able to recover Institutionalized children- 1930s Skeels/Dye Orphanage Experiment Research in India orphanage supports findings “Genie” and the importance of timing in human development Deprived animals- Margaret and Harry Harlow monkey experiments Heritage does not determine specific behaviors, attitudes, or values No language- makes it difficult to understand relationships with others No warm interactions- makes it difficult to bond and cooperate with others Socialization into the self and mind Charles Cooley o Symbolic interactionist o Claimed that our sense of self develops from interactions with others Looking-glass self o A process by which we imagine how we appear to others and come to view ourselves as we believe they see us George Herbert Mead- symbolic interactionist who elaborated on Cooley’s work o Added the idea of role taking Taking the role of the other, or putting ourselves in someone else’s shoes, allows us to understand how others think/feel/anticipate how others act Learning to take the role of the other occurs through play: Imitation, play, team games Jean Piaget- psychologist o The development of Reasoning (aka operational) 1. The sensorimotor stage (0-2 yrs/ direct contact) 2. Preoperational stage (2-7 yrs/ use of symbols) 3. Concrete operational stage (7-12 yrs/ concrete thinking) 4. The formal operational stage (12+ yrs/ abstract thinking) o Global aspects of the self and reasoning Cooley and Mead’s ideas occur worldwide Piaget’s ideas apply, but ages may differ from person to person Learning Persality, Morality, and Emotions Sigmund Freud- psychologist- founded psychoanalysis- long-term exploration of the subconscious Elements of Personality o Id- immediate fulfillment of needs o Ego- balances the id and society’s expectations o Superego- conscious (norms and values we have internalized) Sociological Evaluation: sociologists disagree that we are driven by subconscious motivations Socialization into Emotions Biology and 6 Global Emotions: o Facial expressions of anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, surprise Rules for expressing emotion: o Gender rules, social class rules, setting rules, cultural rules, relationship rules What we feel- Ex.) giving birth to a girl in the US vs Zimbabwe Agents of Socialization The family o Social class and type of work The neighborhood Peers Media Religion Day care The school and peer groups The workplace Gender Socialization Attitudes and behaviors that are expected of us because we are either male or female (masculine vs feminine) Gender is not innate, we must learn it Gender Socialization o the subtle, pervasive process of becoming masculine or feminine o begins at birth and continues throughout life what does it mean to be “masculine” or to “act like a man” what does it mean to be “feminine” or be “ladylike”
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