Week 1-3 Notes
Popular in Social Psychology
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Psychlogy
This 7 page Bundle was uploaded by Kirsten Notetaker on Thursday February 4, 2016. The Bundle belongs to at Lewis University taught by Dr. Greenwood in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 66 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at Lewis University.
Reviews for Week 1-3 Notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/04/16
Social Psychology 1/9 – 1/13 Social psychology – study of the psyche (human mind) modified by social o Psychology that focuses on interpersonal relationships, including your relationship with yourself o Study of thoughts, feelings, and actions of individuals as affected by the actual, imagined or implied presence of other persons o Emotions = causes of behavior o Loss of emotional feeling = loss of all actions o Implied presence, like God Science x => y o Scientific philosophy o X – variable o Y – variable o => arrow of causation o Tradition in science, we assume causality (events have causes) o Determinism – absolute causation and lawful patterns (theories) o Theories that are true based on evidence o Theories are judged on the basis of evidence o Evidence, data, etc. can explain everything and predict everything o Goal of science is to describe in order to explain in order to predict in order to control o We want to be able to control our world Chaos theory – no predictability possible o No certainty in particular events o Allows us to attain some notion of free will o Patterns mostly stable o Minor evens lead to and cause (=>) major effects Personality vs. situation o Causality – controlled by the individual, focus on the person, their attitudes, genetics, instinctive tendencies o Causality – controlled by situations, factors in the situation are more important, like the difference between the environment in a small or a large class size o We are biased in trying to find simple situations Cognitive bias – nature vs. nurture; emotion vs. logic (are we controlled by emotion or logic) o We act because of emotion and act to that in a logical way, but that logic can be distorted due to emotion o There are almost no absolutes, everything is complicated o Different people in the same situation will behave differently o There has to be an interaction between nature and nurture, emotion and logic, and personality and situation o False absolute – dynamic interaction between the two things, it changes over time o What we believe to be true changes overtime o Emotion is the enemy of logic Locus of control – your belief that you control your own outcomes o Internal – you control it, in your mind, you believe that o External – your outcomes are controlled by external “forces” you do not control what happens to you o Dynamic interaction example – college students today feel their control is more external, however it was not that way in the past, the changing of things overtime Social psychology history o First social psychology experiment by Triplett called social facilitation, the presence of other people changes how we act, example: people work more efficiently when surrounded by other, working in groups, BUT it can also be distractive 2 The presence of other people does change our behavior, sometime it’s good, sometimes it’s bad o McDougall explained behavior in terms of instincts, biological response tied to natural selection, reflexes are hardwired, measure of arousal (later rejected) Curiosity, those who are more curious are more likely to survive, but we do have instincts and genetic programs, it is outside of our awareness why we do some things, and we justify it afterwards because we want to be in control and we believe we are in control o Sherif talked about norms and social influence, how you can convince a person of one thing or another, o Kurt Lewin believed in a virtually created field, was a Jew during the rise of Hitler, prosecution of Jews got his attention, did applied psychology to get people to eat certain foods in abundance, focused on perception (the meaning people attach) and goals, example: it’s good to eat carrots, there is a lot of them, they are good for you, it is patriotic to eat carrots Cognitive theorist Gestalt theorist, psychological intentional actions Field theory – psychological reality-life space [B = f (p, e0 ] choices are based on perceptions action research as method Two types of research: basic and applied “Nothing is as practical as a good theory!” Behavior is a function of the interaction between our perceived factors in ourselves and the environment, always biased by our past experiences What’s in our mind right now = life space 3 Change of intention based on change of logic, psychological, logic based upon physiological needs, whole model comes back to field theory, what you are perceiving in the moment QUIZ # 1 Social Psychology 1/15 – 1/20 Expansion of research but limited by sample bias, descriptive nature, ethical problems (deception studies), micro-focus Sample bias – categories like age, gender, education, any difference in the group Now there is a strong gender shift but limited ethnic diversity with a cognitive, biological, and evolutionary emphasis Research methods, all equally scientific, no best method, serve different purposes Research Method – Focus – Question Answered o Observational – description – what is the nature of the phenomenon? o Correlational – prediction – from knowing X, can we predict Y? o Experimental – causality – is variable X a cause of variable Y? Showing association NOT causality Archival data supports correlational research Aggression – the intent to cause injury Negative correlation, as one variable goes down, the other goes up Positive correlation, as one variable goes up, the other goes up The number for the correlation, shows how strong the relationship is, closer to one, is a strong relationship The sign for the correlation shows the direction for the correlation o Example: -.5 = stronger relationship than +.3 4 Operational definition – definition of the operations you use to convert a theoretical variable to one that is concrete Variable is theoretical or abstract QUIZ #2 Social Psychology 1/22 – 1/27 Anatomy of an experiment: o Subjects – Who are we going to study? What are we trying to understand? What group? Will help shape the experiment o If you want to survey a population, say the students of LU, you take a sample, that sample will hopefully represent your population well o Two types of samples: Stratified sample – names put in alphabetical th order, pick every 10 name Randomly assigned – lottery style, everyone’s name is put in a hat and you pick o Need to assign each subject to a group o Two groups: experimental and control group o Independent variable – what are you testing for? The causal variable, the one you are manipulating. What you are hypothesizing for, is caused by this variable. Prediction based on your theory Example: experimental group: children are shown violent TV programs, control group: children are shown nonviolent TV programs o Also need to define what you are considering violence in TV o Dependent variable – the response from the independent variable, effects are measured here Example: levels of aggression in the children playing a video game, then you need to measure how aggressive they were o Also need to once again define what you consider as aggressive 5 o Look at the data, is there a correlation? What is the difference between the experimental and control group’s results? o Is there a statistically significant result? Correlational methods – only associations among variables, not causality o Naturalistic/participant observation, surveys/archival research/ simulations Experiments – allow causal inferences, due to higher control o Random assignments to control confounding variables, experiment and control groups Independent, and dependent variables Statistical significance, generalizability, replication, experimental/mundane realism, laboratory/field/quasi experiments Field – high levels of mundane Lab – high levels of experimental realism because they can be controlled Quasi – is not a real experiment like comparing men to women Factors damaging research validity: o Sample bias, order effects, weak variables, social desirability/norm-based self presentation o Unintended demand characteristics o Experimenter bias/participant observer bias – manipulating the situation to get the result they want o Response sets – you are set (preprogramed – either by genetics or experience) to respond in a particular way o Acquiescence or “screw-you effect” – make you respond in a particular way, like in cases of child abuse, the children want to be good and go along with the abuse, do what the researchers want you to do 6 o Availability bias – you don’t have the behavior (experience) o Central tendency bias – people respond neutrally, in the middle, because people do not want to support their answers, most people are comfortable when they are in the average, the belly of the bell curve o Confirmation bias – as a researcher you’re looking for what you want to see, say 9/10 experiments failed, but you look at that one good outcome as what you wanted so you see the study as successful o Mood effects – SAD, the mood you are in affects your behavior, example of an unintended demand characteristic Corrective measures o Double-blind studies – an attempt to avoid any biases, like experimenter bias who may shape participant’s behavior to get their desired outcome (one that matches up to their hypothesis), also helps to not sway participants to not do what they think they are supposed to do o Counterbalancing of variables o Unobtrusive measures – paths that are naturally chosen by participants, no distortion in behavior o Deception – active lying/deception to manipulate participants, can be a very powerful manipulation, strong test of hypothesis, leave negative effects, causes people to perceive researches as being liars o Simulation – an effort to deal ethically and practically with potent variables o Replication – repetition of a study to test the quality of the results QUIZ #3 7
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'