Psych 101 Bundle
Psych 101 Bundle Psych 101
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This 50 page Bundle was uploaded by Kaitlin Notetaker on Thursday February 4, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Psych 101 at University of South Carolina taught by levens in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at University of South Carolina.
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Friday, May 20, y Memory ShortTerm Memory • stores a limited amount of info for about 20 secs without rehearsing it repeat it and pushing it into memory LongTerm Memory • stores an unlimited amount of info for perhaps a lifetime (within reason) • most memory requires effort Types of Memory Declarative (explicit) facts or events Episodic when and where of your life happenings; autobiographical where did your parents take you to dinner after graduation? Semantic persons knowledge about the world; facts when did columbus sail the ocean? NonDeclarative (Implicit) no conscious recollection; how to ride a bike, classical reconditioning; implicit attitude formation Sensory lasts up to several seconds echoic auditory not paying attention to mom talking but can recall last sentence she said iconic visual seeing a cute boys face yesterday, what does he look like now? idk Memory Encoding • converting outside energy to electrochemical energy (energy for neurons) Friday, May 20, y • automatic vs. effortful rehearsal amount learned = time spent learning spacing effect rehearsal works best when spaced out (cramming is bad) • Strategies meaning think of examples that are personally meaningful imagery mental images help us remember better mnemonics • Organizing Info. chunking (acronyms) • roygbiv, pemdas hierarchies • tables, charts Storage • longterm potentiation increase in synaptic efficiency RNA synthesis increases during learning enriched rats • Short term memory 7 + 2 units decays rapidly over time needs rehearsal to become longterm • Where in the brain? everywhere eternal sunshine of the smallest mind hippocampus how to make new memories amygdala emotional memories (not fearful if it is damaged) cortex higher thinking (connecting current situation w memory) Friday, May 20, y cerebellum implicit memories (walking & why you can ’t walk when you’re drunk) Retrieval • recall v recognition recall pull answer out of nowhere (shortanswer) recognition recognize answer when you see it (multiple choice) • Factors that affect retrieval distinctiveness flashbulb memories, von Restorff effect testing effects retrieval is helped by previous retrieval retrieval cues (priming “wakening of associations”) • associations tablechair • encoding specificity cues present at encoding will help with retrieval context (music, odor, temp, timeofday, body kinesthetic, pain) mood state (drunk or high) • all have found that retrieval is best in matching conditions Forgetting • Ineffective coding • Proactive and Retroactive interference proactive interference: because you know it so well, it makes it hard to learn new, similar information or task • going from manual to automatic driving or learning a language retroactive interference: learn something new and it pushes out the old information • learning french and pushes out the spanish • Misinformation Friday, May 20, y ncorporating misleading info into one ’s memory of an event • Source Amnesia attribution of a wrong source to an event • Reagan gave a speech about WW2 and talked about “hero” in a movie • False Retrieval istaken recall of some stimulus of event that did NOT actually occur lizabeth Loftus reconstruction of memory • memory is not a replay it is a reconstruction in that moment yewitness testimony did you see a barn in the film?” direct did you see a station wagon in front of the barn?” false presupposition • Time • Repressed memories ounger than 3 don ’t believe it drugs or hypnosis don ’t believe it Friday, May 20, y Research Methods in Psychology The Scientific Method • Theory explanation that organizes and predicts observations • Hypothesis specific, testable prediction (if, then) • Operational Definitions the procedures used in the research • Replication repeating a study to see if the original findings generalize to other participants and situations *psychology is a science Research Strategies A. Description 1. Case study • one or a few individuals is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principals • example: • study of serious brain injury (H.M.), Freud theory of personality, Piaget and child development • Freud takes out temporal lobe to get rid of seizures worked but he could no longer form new memories • PROBLEM: small sample size • limitations: any given individual can be atypical, therefore it becomes easy to make false conclusions 2. Survey • must use a representative, random sample • examples: dating practices, political polls, drug surveys • limitations: sampling errors, response rate • ex: hoover expected to win election over FDR during great depression because they did the survey over phone only people Friday, May 20, y with phones are rich who want hoover & don ’t care about GD (sampling error) • the best basis for generalizing is not from the exceptional cases at the extremes, but from a representative sample of cases 3. naturalistic observation • observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without direct intervention with subjects • example: Jane Goodall and chimps, child interactions at playgrounds, pace of life (Levine & Norenzayan, 1999) like people watching • big data when google fills in rest of sentence or ads pop up from sites ive shopped on before B. *Correlation statistic used for descriptive or pseudoexp. studies • statistical measure of the extent to which two factors predict each other • example: intelligence and achievement? IQ and drug use? extraversion and risktaking? • there are exceptions, but one does not disprove a correlation • why do we use correlation? • when experimentation is unethical • smoking and cancer • when experimentation is impossible or too difficult • when you ’re looking at traits that can’t be controlled • gender, personality, psychological disorder can ’t assign it • no Question: does correlation mean causation? C. Experimentation • An investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process (the dependent variable) • Basic terms: • experimental condition exposes participants to the exp. treatment Friday, May 20, y • control condition serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment • random assignment • the exp. factor that is manipulated; the variable whose independent variable effect is being studied • dependent variable the exp. factor that is being measured; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the IV’s • be careful of extraneous variables! Friday, February 5, y Development Prenatal Development • 4 stages of neural development 1. proliferation 2. migration (816 weeks) 3. differentiation 4. continued differentiation synapse formation, myelination • post natal myelination, synaptic pruning • moderate malnutrition schizophrenia • teratogen any disease, drug or other noxious agent that causes abnormal prenatal development tobacco SIDS, slowed cognitive development, ADHD alcohol fetal alcohol syndrome • critical period a period when an organism’s exposure to stimuli or experiences promotes or hinders proper development ex) baby has trouble seeing when first born because there is no light in the womb Newborn Development • babies come out with 2 reflexes: rooting reflex • if you put anything close to his mouth he will try to put it in his mouth grasping reflex 1 Friday, February 5, y • baby will try to grab anything • social responsiveness babies prefer sights and sounds (highpitched) that are humanlike Cognitive Development • universal pattern? cultural? • Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development Sensorimotor Stage (02) experiencing the world through senses and actions • object permanence (objects continue to exist when not perceived) develops gradually until about 18 months Pre operational Stage (27) representing things with words and images but lacking logical reasoning • lack of conservation (quantity remains the same despite changes in shape) • egocentrism inability to perceive things from another’s point of view Concrete Operational Stage (712) thinking more logically about concrete events • can now perform conservation and math transformations • can classify objects on several dimensions Formal Operational Stage (12 and up) • abstract, logical, systematic and reflective thinking begin • start thinking about where they fit in the world: start caring about image where do i fit in? where is my place? project themselves into the future 2 Friday, February 5, y • Beyond Piaget Piaget underestimated • young children’s cognitive development • role of cultural variability Vygotsky ’s Sociocultural Theory • cognitive development is fueled by social interactions and culture influences this development. Language acquisition is key to cognitive development Social Development • attachment body contact: harlows monkeys • spent most of the time with soft fake mother rather than “milk mother” or “warm mother” familiarity • critical period • imprinting (Konrad Lorenz) responsive parenting: secure, avoidant or anxious/ambivalent attachment • secure: resilience, competence, selfesteem, leadership, better peer and romantic relationships importance of early nurturing • Philadelphia Study (2010): nurturing and hippocampal size at age 4, IQ and memory more nurture = bigger hippocampi, smarter, better memory 3 Friday, February 5, y • effects of low socioeconomic status brain growth IQ spoken words from parents to children • welloff families speak almost 4x more words to their children (2100 v 616) face to face interaction 4 Friday, May 20, y Mental Disorder and Biology Microbiota • skin • gut • digestion, metabolism, extract and make vitamins, build and maintain gut wall, block harmful bacteria and influences bran and behavior gut has its own nervous system, 100 million neurons that continue to function if cut off from the brain • neural development, brain chemistry (makes up about 95% of serotonin), behavior (emotion, pain, stress) gut biome can influence behavior • 3 different studies animals changed behavior when gut biome changed (given antibiotics or bacteria) how does gut bacteria influence behavior? • through immune system or vagus nerve (when severed, behavioral effects of gut biome disappear) vagus nerve stimulation tried as treatment for depression two way street • stress suppresses beneficial bacteria • infants of startled mother rats have less beneficial bacteria • mice exposed to social disrption had less beneficial bacteria students had less beneficial bacteria during exam week 1 Friday, May 20, y hygience hypothesis • developed nations suffer from more chronic inflammatory diseases allergies, autoimmune diseases, inflammatory bowel disease, anxiety&depression • nervous system • single cell organisms outnumber our own cells 101 • coevolution • the human microbiome is far more diverse than the human genome Parasites & Behavior • spinochordodes tellinii “horsehair worm” insects infected with this “commit suicide” by jumping into water • toxoplasma gondii single celled protozoa excreted in cat feces humans mainly by contact with cats or raw veggies/undercooked meat needs to get back into the car to complete reproductive cycle.. by changing behavior • Infected rats attracted to cat urine (but not dog, or rabbit) rats had more pleasure with fear and aggression female rats are more attracted to infected males instead of noninfected infected people • delayed reaction times on computer task 2 Friday, May 20, y • 2.5x increase in risk of car accident • 23x more mental illness including schizophrenia • increased risk for suicide • infected men are more introverted, suspicious, oblivious to opinions about themselves and more likely to disregard rules • infected women are more outgoing, trusting, imageconscious, and rule abiding Conclusions • impact of environment, novel therapies, human diversity 3 Friday, May 20, y Operant (Instrumental) Conditioning Operant Conditioning • presentation of an US depends of the subject’s behavior. A particular response (instrumental response) is required to obtain a specific stimulus or consequence. saying “please” when you ask a favor Terms • primary reinforcer innately reinforcing stimulus (biological) • conditioned reinforcer a stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through tis association with a primary reinforcer • shaping development of a new response through positive reinforcement of successive approximations • positive reinforcement an instrumental response increases in likelihood as a result of a stimulus being presented following the response and not presented in the absence of the response • negative reinforcement if the instrumental response is performed, the aversive stimulus is terminated or prevented from occurring if you get all ’s, parents take away the chores you had to do • punishment occurrence of the instrumental response results in delivery of an aversive stimulus if you’re failing, good bad give positive reinforcement punishment 1 Friday, May 20, y good bad punishment negative reinforcement take Reinforcement Schedules • continuous • partial harder to extinguish than continuous fixedratio • you get the reinforcement every x number of times (consistent) variableratio • harder to extinguish than fixed (inconsistent) • like fishing you don’t get a fish every time or gambling fixedinterval • time (paychecks, holidays, game day) variableinterval • harder to extinguish than fixed • waiting time for pizza delivery, waiting time for packages in the mail, pop quizzes Learning by Observations • observational learning learning by observing others rules of sports, walking and talking, how to cook, fashion, slang • modeling the process of observing and imitating a specific behavior 2 Friday, May 20, y watching parents drive you know the basics, • examples: lion cubs learn to hunt by watching their mother Bandura ’s bobo clown experiments TV violence and child aggression • sevenfold increase in violent play after watching “Power Rangers” Stress effects • increase in cortisol = decrease in immune functioning • cardiovascular stress increases atherosclerosis which is main cause of heart disease • gender differences hositlity in men is significant predictor of heart disease women “tend & befriend” combo of estrogen an oxytocin Stress and Drug Use • do people use drugs because they are stressed out? animal studies show that when stressed, drug selfadministration is more likely to occur • social defeat, foot shock, and food deprivation results are also found in adult animals stressed early in life or prenatally • what about humans? experiments are unethical but, comorbidity between PTSD and substance abuse 3 Friday, May 20, y early stressful events are comorbid with later cigarette smoking EARLY AND OFTEN MOST DELETERIOUS • now what? be good to your children don ’t use drugs and alcohol to soothe negative affect seek treatment for depression, it helps! early intervention is important change your way of thinking, have a positive outlook you do have control minimize stress Minimizing Stress • social support “lonely people die younger” social support leads to lower blood pressure and higher immune system • exercise negative correlation between exercise and depressive symptoms improves symptoms of depression healthy diet • stress undermines selfregulation (delaying immediate gratification for long term gains) • selfregulation can be fatigued choose your battles • optimism 4 Friday, May 20, y • no smoking • hardiness commit, control, accept challenges • rational coping exposure therapy • relaxation therapy yoga, etc 5 Friday, May 20, y Classical Conditioning the simplest mechanism whereby organisms learn about relationships between stimuli and alter their behavior accordingly • ex: animals learn to approach signals for food and salivate when they are about to be fed (Pavlov got dogs to salivate when he rang the bell) • learning of emotional reactions such as fear and pleasure to stimuli that initially do not elicit these emotions (feeling when you hear football song) Basic Terms • unconditioned stimulus (US) a stimulus that naturally triggers a response anything that causes pain ouch, taking yourself away from that stimulus • conditioned stimulus (CS) an originally irrelevant stimulus that after associated with the US, comes to trigger a conditioned response the office: CS the computer sound US the mint • unconditioned response (UR) the naturally occurring response to the US water (US) drink it (UR) cold (US) shiver (UR) • conditioned response (CR) the learned response to the previously neutral CS when you ’re in the br and you hear the 2001 (CS) you run (CR) bc game is about to start • US cause a UR CS (predicts) US CS causes a CR • acquisition the stage where the USUS relationship is being learned 1. temporal contiguity the CS and US have to be close to each other in time (except taste aversion) 1 Friday, May 20, y 2. spacial contiguity the CS and US have to be close to each other in space (except auditory conditioning) 3. CS must precede US 4. biology is a limiting factor • extinction the diminishing of the CR accomplished by CS not being followed by US • generalization the tendency for stimuli similar to the CS to elicit similar responses. when bart chokes when ned yells at him bc homer always does • secondorder conditioning the ability of stimuli to predict the CS to elicit the CR blue light > food blue light> salivation tone > blue light > food tone = salivation Historical Beginnings • Ivan Pavlov (18491936) and his dogs originally studied to learn about digestion technicians noticed increase in stomach juice secretion at sight of food or even person who fed them 2 Friday, May 20, y Motivation Maslow ’s Hierarchy of Needs • physiological needs (hunger and thirst) • safety needs (need to feel safe, secure, stable) • belongingness and love needs (need to love and be loved, be accepted) • esteem needs ( need for selfesteem, achievement, competence, respect from others) • selfactualization needs (need to live up to one’s fullest and unique potential) Maslow claims most people don ’t reach this level What affects our motivation? • Internal state ex: drugs, hunger, feeling cold • incentives external ex: when you smell food and even though you just ate you want it (are motivated) • our own learning history ex: when you try and fail or succeed affects further motivation • when you eat a food and get food poisoning you don’t want it anymore • health when you get the flu, no motivation for class motivation for sleep • culture Americans love burgers, Hindus can ’t eat burgers 1 Friday, May 20, y Maslow ’s Hierarchy • physiological needs met through drivereduction • aroused state that drives the organism to reduce the need when its cold put on a hoodie, when you ’re hungry get food homeostasis balanced internal state temperature (cold = blood vessel constriction) blood glucose (triggers hunger) water level (triggers thirst) hunger hunger mechanisms blood glucose levels hypothalamus monitors through feedback from the stomach, intestines, liver, blood, etc based on glucose levels, hyp signals hunger of satiety hypothalamus lateral hypothalamus signals hunger • stimulation = eating • destruction = lack of eating even if starving ventromedial hypothalamus signals satiety • stimulation = stop eating • destruction = overeating even if full 2 Friday, May 20, y • physiology of obesity • fat cells size and number can never get rid of them they shrink and grow • set point/metabolism basal metabolic rate ( rate of energy expenditure at r)st want a high BMR • genetic • environmental (family, McDonalds, etc) exercise and eat a low fat diet!!! Achievement Motivation • intrinsic vs. extrinsic extrinsic: motivator that comes from outside (people, money, grades) intrinsic: motivator that comes from inside (personal gain, enjoyment) • people are more likely to achieve goals if intrinsically motivated Sexual Motivation • hormones direct development of male and female sex characteristics activate sexual behavior • estrogen peaks at ovulation and female becomes receptive • male hormones levels more constant but loss of testosterone=loss of sexual behavior … but in humans this relationship is not as straightforward women ’s sexual desire is only slightly higher at ovulation and women have sex throughout menstrual cycle 3 Friday, May 20, y sexual desire in women is actually more closely related to testosterone levels • human sexual behavior influenced by: • physiology • external cues (environment) • imagination Attitudes • men are more likely to mistake friendliness as a sexual comeon • gender differences apply to homosexuals as well • Clark & Hatfield (1989) “would you like to go to bed with me tonight?” 0% of women said yes 75% of men said yes 4 Friday, May 20, y Personality an individual’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting Psychoanalytic Perspective • psychoanalysis (Freud) our thoughts and actions are derived from the unconscious motives • methods dream analysis, free association, Freudian slips (something you say but didn’t mean to), case studies • personality arises from conflicts bet aggressive/pleasure seeking impulses and internalized social restraints against them id pleasure principal immediate gratification (i want cookie steal it from baby) superego how on ought to behave (thats a baby be nice) ego reality principle personality chief, mediator (go buy your own) • personality development sychosexual stages id’s pleasure seeking energies focus on erogenous zones • oral stage (018 months) babies want to put everything in mouth (rooting reflex) • anal stage (1836 months) potty training • phallic stage (36 years) oedipus complex • latency (6puberty) 1 Friday, May 20, y • genital stage (puberty) maladaptive behavior results from unresolved conflicts “fixation” defense mechanisms reduce or redirect anxieties (repression, projection, regression, etc) • assessing the unconscious projective tests involve ambiguous stimuli • TAT thematic apperception test (visual test) • DAPT draw a person test • word association, complete the sentence • rorschach inkblot test Social Cognitive Development • Bandura behavior is influenced by the interaction bet persons (and their thinking) and their social context how we and the environment interact helps shape our personalities (reciprocal determinism) learned helplessness v personal control • selfefficacy high more likely to stick to exercise, follow the rules Trait Perspective • BRI tests: emotional stability extraversion openness 2 Friday, May 20, y agreeableness trusting v suspicious conscientiousness organized v disorganized • MMPI (Minnesota Multiphase Personality Inventory assess abnormal personality traits (depression, hysteria, paranoia, etc) Humanistic Perspective • focuses on the strivings of healthy people for selfdetermination and selfrealization • Maslow and Carl Rogers people are basically good and want to self actualize Carl Rogers person centered therapy • need to provide an environment that promotes growth (genuineness, acceptance, and empathy) acceptance unconditional positive regard selfconcept (who am i?) help others to know, accept, and be true to themselves ideal v actual self 3 Friday, May 20, y Evolutionary Psychology The study of the evolution of the mind and behavior. How decisions and behaviors our ancestors made effect our own behavior. • based on principles of natural selection David Buss • “The Evolution of Desire” 1994 • men and women have different mating strategies why? • the genders invest different amounts in the reproductive process Reproductive Investment • women have a limited amount of eggs (around 400) • men produce unlimited sperm (12 mil/hour) • women can’t reproduce after menopause • men can reproduce throughout life • fertilization and gestation occur in the female Major differences between men and women • Women’s Strategies quality • economic capacity: present or future • social status 1 Friday, May 20, y • age older than the female Men’s Strategies quantity • youth • physical beauty body shape (waist to hip ratio; .70 most attractive) symmetry • healthy homosexual mate preferences men place greater emphasis on youth and physical appearance women do not rank beauty as important in want ads, lesbians list own beauty least and straight women list it most Casual Sex physiological cues human males have a relatively large testicle size to body weight ratio • this normally correlates with the promiscuity of the species gorilla (.018) orangutan (.048) neither are promiscuous human (.079) chimp (.279) the longer couples are separated the more sperm per ejaculate that are produced by the man • 100% time together 389 mil sperm/ejac • 5% time together 712 mil sperm/ejac 2 Friday, May 20, y in a British study married women were most likely to cheat during ovulation psychological cues men desire more sex partners in any given time interval and over the span of their lives Coolidge effect male become sexually rearoused upon presentation of a novel female • cows get tired of one so they put a new one in and he's aroused again men pursue and have more affairs than women (50% vs 26%) men have more sexual fantasies and those fantasies are more likely to involve sex with strangers, multiple partners or anonymous partners women are morel likely to fantasize about familiar partners (58% vs 28%) casual sex standards males standards for most attributes considered important for long term mating including attractiveness and age decrease women standards stay more consistent except these are more important for short term mating • spends a lot of money on them • gives them gifts • haves an extravagant lifestyle • is generous with resources closing time phenomenon • people get more attractive closer to when they’re leaving bc more desperate males compete and females hold out for the best male 3 Friday, May 20, y Psychological Disorders Mental Disorders • DSMV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition) defines all psychological disorders, information about them, treatments clinically significant dysfunction internal source (drugs) involuntary manifestation (faking it) Anxiety Disorders • distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety general anxiety disorder continually tense and uneasy for no apparent reason panic disorder sudden intense dread (Tony Soprano) phobias irrational avoidance of a specific object or situation (snake, heights, crowds) obsessivecompulsive disorder unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsession) and/or actions (compulsions) • compulsions reduce anxiety caused by obsessions • Causes genetics (identical twins have 50% chance of being schizophrenic if their twin is) psychological factors reaction to stress? Mood Disorders • emotional extremes 1 Friday, May 20, y depression (feelings of worthlessness, decreased pleasure and interest, depressed mood, change in diet, thoughts of suicide, significant weight loss/gain, sleep disturbancenot enough or too much) • depression and puberty girls are more likely to be depressed if go through earlier than others boys are more likely to be depressed if go through later than others depression %s peaks at 1824 y/o • recurrent and chronic condition best to get help early • risk factors that lead to depression genetics stress • adverse (traumatic) events gender • female has higher rates than males around the world pessimism, low emotional stability high risk factors + high stress = depression • depression is a disorder of stress manic episode hyperactive, wildly optimistic state, high confidence • why is this bad? reckless behavior (shopping binges, drug binges, spurofthemoment trips, risky sexual behavior) • often not seen alone seen with depression too 2 Friday, May 20, y bipolar disorde r alternating between depression and mania Causes of Mood Disorders biological influences • genetics evolutionary advantage of depression in past lowers use of energy so helpful during winter months when there isn ’t a lot of food (similar to hibernation) • the brain low levels of serotonin and norepinephrine (drugs like Prozac, Zoloft and Paxil increase serotonin) does low levels cause or are they an effect? can ’t test it we just know they’re related less active brains • hippocampus (shrunken in people who are depressed) short attention spans, trouble concentrating, social cognitive perspective outlook on life can influence your mood • vicious cycle negative thoughts create negative moods and negative moods create negative thoughts Personality Disorders • behavior patterns that impair social functioning (narcissistic, histrionic and borderline personality disorders) • antisocial personality disorder (psychopath) symptoms: • lack of conscience and remorse 3 Friday, May 20, y (every serial killer is a psychopath, not every psychopath a serial killer) • may be ruthless, aggressive, conartist, very charming as young children, antisocial adolescents tended to be impulsive, uninhibited, unconcerned with social rewards, low in anxiety Clinical Diagnostic Tools • interview (client & family/friends) • history (family & medical) • direct observation • IQ tests (WAIS) • personality tests (MMPI, Big Five) • brain imaging (CAT, PET, MRI) • DSMIV 4 Exam 4 Study Guide I. Mental Disorders: A. Anxiety Disorders 1. distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety 2. Types: a) Generalized (GAD) (1) continually tense and uneasy (for no apparent reason) b) Panic (1) sudden and intense dread c) OCD (obsessivecompulsive disorder (1) unwanted, repetitive thoughts (obsession) and/or actions (compulsion) (a) compulsions reduce anxiety caused by the obsessions (2) least common d) Phobias (1) irrational avoidance of a specific object or situation (2) most common 3. How do they develop? a) Learning Perspective: (1) fear conditioningneutral stimulus becomes fearful following pairing with aversive stimulu), stimulus generalization fear acquired to one stimulus transfers to another, similar stis), reinforcement, observational learning b) Biological Perspective (1) evolution(scared of what ancestors are scared , genes, physiology (unusually high frontal lobe activity) B. Mood Disorders 1. emotional extremes 2. Types: a) Depression (1) symptoms: feelings of worthlessness, decreased pleasure and interest, change in diet, thoughts of suicide, sleep disturbance, depressed mood b) Mania (1) symptoms: hyperactive, wildly optimistic state, high confidence (a) leads to reckless behavior c) Bipolar Disorder (1) alternating between depression and mania 3. Causes: a) Biological Perspective: (1) genetics (evolutionary advantage in the past) (2) the brain (low levels of serotonin and norepinephrine, less active brains and shrunken hippocampus in depression) b) SocialCognitive Perspective: (1) outlook on life can influence mood (neg thoughts > neg mood, vice versa) C. Schizophrenia 1. Definition: disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions and actions a) Positive Symptoms: hallucinations, delusions, bizarre behavior, incoherence, disassociated thoughts, illogicality b) Negative Symptoms: toneless voice, expressionless face, rigid posture, blunted effect, apathy, social withdrawal 2. Causes: a) brain abnormalities (1) dopamine overactivity (2) brain anatomy (low frontal lobe activity, thalamus, shrunken brain tissue) (3) maternal virus during pregnancy (flu/infections) b) genetics c) psychological factors (possible reaction to stress) D. Personality Disorders 1. Definition: behavior patterns that impair social functioning 2. Types: a) Antisocial Personality Disorder (psychopaths) (1) symptoms: lack of conscience and remorse, ruthless, aggressive, very charming b) Borderline (1) affects how you feel about yourself, relationship with others, and behavior (2) symptoms: extreme reactions, distorted/unstable selfimage, patterns of unstable relationships, rapid changes in selfidentity, risky behavior, wide mood swings, periods of stressrelated paranoia (loss of contact w reality), frequent loss of temper, recurring thoughts of suicide E. DSMV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders) 1. defines all psychological disorders, info about them and treatment 2. 3 criterion to diagnose a mental disorder: a) clinically significant dysfunction b) internal source (drugs) c) involuntary manifestation (faking it) F. Clinical Diagnostic Tools (8) 1. interview (client & family/friends), history (family & medical), direct observation, IQ tests, personality tests, projective tests, brain imaging, DSM IV II. Therapy A. Biomedical Therapies 1. Drug Therapies a) Antipsychotics treats psychotic disorders through blockade of dopamine (1) traditional only relieved positive symptoms through specific blockade of D2 receptors (antagonists) (a) side effects: dizziness, nausea, blurred vision, sexual impotence, Parkinson’s symptoms, tardive dyskenesia (b) examples: chlorpromazine (thorazine), haloperidol (haldol) (2) atypical reduce both positive and negative symptoms (antagonism of DA not as great and more specific and 5HT2) (a) side effects: sedation, weight gain, constipation, 914% increase in developing type 2 diabetes (b) examples: clozapine (Clozaril), olanzapine (zyprexa), aripiprazole (abilify) b) Antianxiety reduces anxiety, most helpful for generalized anxiety disorder (1) benzodiazepines (valium, Xanax, Ativan) (a) side effects: lightheadedness, slurred speech, drowsiness, physical dependence, highly addictive c) Antidepressants (1) SSRI’s (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors) (a) works for depression and anxiety (b) effects only serotonin (block presynaptic transporter of 5HT reuptake (c) examples: Prozac, Paxil, Zoloft (d) concern of slow onset (46 weeks) (2) Prozac (fluoxetine) (a) 5HT syndrome (b) withdrawal in 60% of patients (flulike symptoms, sleep problems, anxiety, agitation, sensory disturbances) (c) can cause: sexual dysfunction (80%), increase risk of suicide in teens, issues with pregnancy and breastfeeding (d) side effects: anxiety, agitation, insomnia, sexual i) no sedation or cognitive impairments d) Lithium (1) used to treat bipolar disorder (a) helps to level manic and depressive episodes (works for 7075%) (2) side effects: toxic at high doses, weight gain e) Other therapies: (1) ECT (electroconvulsive shock therapy) (a) most effective treatment for severe depression (b) treatment occurs in series of every 23 days for 2 weeks (c) electric current runs through the brain to produce seizure (temp memory loss) (2) Vagus Nerve Stimulation (a) treats epilepsy and depression (b) boosts GABA (inhibitory neurotransmitter) and possibly norepinephrine (c) side effects: sleep apnea, effects on throat, invasive (3) Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (a) treats neuropathic pain and depression (b) generates electric current under scalp (less invasive) (4) Deep Brain Stimulation (a) treats Parkinson’s, chronic pain, (possibly depression and OCD) (b) electric current inserted into and running through brain (invasive) B. Psychological Therapies 1. Behavior Therapies a) classical conditioning (1) treats anxiety disorders (2) types: (a) systematic desensitization (OCD) i) exposure therapy that associates relaxed sate with gradually increasing anxietytriggering stimuli (b) aversive conditioning (addictions) i) replacing positive respond with negative response (Antabuse&alcohol) b) operant conditioning (OCD, ADHD, phobias, GAD) (1) token economy giving rewards for a desired behavior 2. Cognitive Therapies a) basic goal: teach people new, more adaptive ways of thinking/acting (1) rational emotive therapy (Albert Ellis) (a) negative thinking patters influence mental health i) “catastrophizing” taking small incidents and turning it into a catastrophe ii) “musterbating” “awfulizing” (2) motivational interviewing and CBT (cognitive behavior therapies) (Andrew’s lecture) (a) change selfdefeating thinking and behaviors (3) homework (Aaron Beck) (a) write in a diary (release feelings), go exercise (release endorphins), make conversation in a coffee shop (help with anxiety?) 3. Humanistic Therapies a) focus on selffulfillment (1) past is not important (2) conscious (3) responsibility for one’s feelings (4) promote growth b) Carol Roger’s ClientCentered Therapy (non directive) (1) genuineness, acceptance and empathy (2) activelistening (3) ideal and actual selves 4. Psychodynamic a) understanding of current symptoms by exploring childhood (1) difference from psychoanalysis: facetoface, fewer sessions, deemphasizes sexual conflicts, less about repression and more about actual events III.Social Psychology B. Prejudice (prejudgement) unjustifiable and (usually) negative attitude towards a group 1. social roots: a) social inequality b) ingroup (us) and outgroup (them) (1) ingroup bias tendency to favor one’s own group c) scapegoating blaming is an outlet for anger (1) ex: nazis and jews, saddam hussein 2. cognitive roots: a) stereotypes come from how we cognitively simplify the world (1) categorization: overestimate the similarity of people within groups different from our own (2) vivid cases: easily remembered and bias judgement (a) ex: 9/11 & bias against muslims (3) justworld phenomenon: people get what they deserve (a) ex: people saying planned parenthood shooting deserved it because the people were going to get abortions C. Fundamental attribution error 1. tendency when analyzing other’s behavior to underestimate the impact of a situation and overestimate impact of personal disposition a) ex: when someone cuts you off you think they suck but maybe they’re in a hurry because they're having a baby D. attitudes and behaviors 1. attitudes guide behaviors if: a) outside influences are minimal (peer pressure) b) attitude is specifically relevant to behavior c) keenly & explicitly aware of our attitudes 2. behaviors guide attitudes if: a) footinthedoorphenomenon: tendency for people who agreed to a small action to comply later with a larger one (saleswoman in mall free hand cream to tubs of lotion) b) roleplaying (1) Zimbardo’s prison experiment c) cognitive dissonance theory (1) we act to reduce discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two or our thoughts or behaviors (cognitions) are inconstant (a) ex: smoking i can quit whenever, diets i deserve the cheat meal bc ill go to the gym later E. Social Influences 1. conformity and obedience a) conformity Asch’s line measuring experiment (1) when 6 people before person picks wrong answer, he does too b) obedience Milgram’s shock experiments (1) 63% delivered highest shock of 450 volts when instructor told them to F. Group Influences 1. social facilitation improved performance in tasks in presence of others a) ex: mirror experiment people put the pencil down at right time when mirror was in front of them 2. groupthink mode of thinking when the desire of harmony in a decision making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives a) ex: Challenger explosion 3. deindividuation loss of selfawareness and selfrestraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity a) ex: women with hoods (zimbardo 1970) 4. social loafing people n a group tend to exert left effort a) ex: group projects in school (idea that someone else will do it) 5. group polarization enhancement of a group’s attitudes through discussion within the group Friday, February 5, y Social Psychology Social Relations • prejudice “prejudgment” unjustifiable and usually negative attitude towards a group social roots of prejudice: social inequality ingroup (us) and out outgroup (them) • ingroup bias tendency to favor one’s own group • scapegoating blaming is an outlet for anger ex: nazis and jews, saddam hussein cognitive roots of prejudice: • stereotypes come from how we cognitively simplify the world categorization: • we overestimate the similarity of people within groups different from our own vivid cases easily remembered and bias judgement • ex: 9/11 and bias against muslims justworld phenomenon people get what they deserve • ex: people saying planned parenthood shooting deserved it bc going to get abortions Social Thinking 1 Friday, February 5, y • fundamental attribution error the tendency when analyzing another’s behavior to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition ex: when someone cuts you off, they suck but maybe they ’re in a hurry bc they’re having a baby or Napolitan & Goethels (1979) • attitudes and behaviors attitudes will guide behaviors if: • outside influences are minimal (ie peer pressure) • the attitude is specifically relevant to the behavior • we are keenly&explicitly aware of our attitudes (Deiner mirror studies) behaviors will guide attitudes if: • footinthedoor phenomenon tendency for people who agreed to a small action to comply later with a larger one saleswoman in mall when you take free hand cream she wants you to buy more • roleplaying Zimbardo’s prison experiment (1972) • cognitive dissonance theory we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts or behaviors (cognitions) are inconsistent *on a diet* oh i deserve that cheat meal, ill go to the gym later, only once *smoking* i can quit whenever Social Influence • conformity Asch (1955) line measuring experiments • obedience Milgram’s shock experiments 63% delivered highest stocks of 450 volts 2 Friday, February 5, y 65% delivered highest shock with learner that reported a “heart problem” 93% delivered highest shock when someone else was pressing buttons • group influence social facilitation improved performance of tasks in the presence of others social loafing people in a group tend to exert less effort group polarization enhancement of a group ’s attitudes through discussion within the group groupthink the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decisionmaking group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives (e.g. Challenger explosion) deindividuation loss of selfawareness and selfrestraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity • e.g. women with hoods (zimbardo, 1970) 3 Friday, February 5, y Therapy Biomedical Therapies • drug therapies antipsychotics used to treat psychotic disorders through blockade of dopamine • traditional (typical) only relieved positive symptoms through specific blockade of D2 receptors antagonists • blocks dopamine release so people have blah life and sometimes Parkinson’s • other effects dizziness, nausea, blurred vision, sexual impotence, tardive dyskinesia • see motor side effects at about 70% receptor occupancy • examples: chlorpromazine (Thorazine) , haloperidol (Haldol) atypical antipsychotics reduce both positive and negative symptoms without the motor side effects • why? antagonism of DA (not as great and more specific) and 5HT2 • examples: 6 on the market clozapine (Clozaril) specific to D4 receptors, peaks in blood 14 hours; half life 930 hours— can cause agranulocytis olanzapine (Zyprexa) aripiprazole (Abilify) DA partial agonist • other effects sedation, weight gain, constipation • warnings: 914% increase in risk of developing type 2 diabetes; elongation of QT interval (heart) 1 Friday, February 5, y antianxiety drugs reduce anxiety, most helpful for generalized anxiety disorder • benzodiazepines Valium, Xanax, Ativan other effects: lightheadedness, slurred speech, drowsiness, physical dependence, highly addictive antidepressants • SSRI’s (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors) Prozac, Paxil, Zoloft effects serotonin only, block presynaptic transporter of 5HT reuptake most commonly prescribed class of antidepressants good for depression and anxiety Prozac (fluoxetine) • 5HT syndrome • 5HT withdrawal 60% of patients (flulike symptoms, sleep problems, sensory disturbances, anxiety, agitation, crying) • sexual dysfunction 80% (orgasm, erection, desire, arousal) • pregnancy and breastfeeding • increased risk of suicide in children/teen • few anticholinergic and antihistaminic side effects (no sedation or cognitive impairments) • n
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