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Child Family Studies Chapter 1 Notes

by: Heidi Mullins

Child Family Studies Chapter 1 Notes CFS 210

Heidi Mullins
GPA 3.52

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About this Document

Detailed notes of chapter 1 containing information from in class and in the book.
Human Development
Sally Beville Hunter (P)
CFS 210
75 ?




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This 3 page Bundle was uploaded by Heidi Mullins on Thursday February 4, 2016. The Bundle belongs to CFS 210 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Sally Beville Hunter (P) in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see Human Development in Child and Family Studies at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.


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Date Created: 02/04/16
Chapter 1: Human Development Life-Span Perspective. - Development: Begins at conception; continues to end of life. - Life-Span Perspective: Development is a lifelong, multidimensional, multidirectional, plastic, multidisciplinary, and contextual, and as a process that involves growth, maintenance, and regulation of loss. - Lifelong: Early adulthood is not the endpoint of development. - Multidimensional: Development consists of biological, cognitive, and socioemotional dimensions. - Multidirectional: Some components may shrink while others expand. (ex. a teenager may begin a romantic relationship and relationships with friends may decrease.) - Plastic: We become more “plastic’ as we age, meaning we become less suggestible. - Multidisciplinary: Different disciplines - Contextual: Development occurs within a context of setting. - Life-Span Approach: People continue to grow and change throughout childhood and adulthood. Nature of Development - Biological, Cognitive, and socioemotional processes influence overall development. - Biological Processes produce changes in an individual’s physical nature. - Cognitive Processes refer to the changes in an individual’s thinking, intelligence,a dn language. - Socioemotional processes involve changes in the individual’s relationships with other people, changes in emotion, and changes in personality. - Developmental period: Time frame in a person’s life characterized by certain features. 1. Prenatal: Conception to Birth. It’s the time frame in which you grow from one cell to a complete organism. 2. Infancy: Birth to 18-24 months. It’s the time your psychological activities are beginning.(ex. language, sensorimotor coordination) 3. Early Childhood(the preschool years): End of Infancy to age 5-6. The time you become more self-sufficient. 4. Middle and Late Childhood: 6 to 11 years. The time you master the fundamental skills of reading, writing, and arithmetic. 5. Adolescence: 10-12 years until 18-20 years. the time you hit puberty and pursue independence. 6. Early Adulthood: 20s and 30s. The time you gain independence, start your career, and maybe even finding a mate and starting a family. 7. Middle Adulthood: 40 to 60 years. The time you kind of just live your life. 8. Late Adulthood: 60s, 70s, and death. The time you are retired and your health decreases. Conceptions of Age - Four types of Age. - Chronological Age: Number of years that have elapsed since your birth. - Biological Age: Relates to biological health. (capacities of your body) - Psychological Age: Adaptive capacities compared with other individuals who have the same chronological age. - Social Age: Connectedness with others and the social roles individuals adopt. Developmental Issues - Nature and Nurture - Nature-Nurture Issue: The extent to which development is influenced by nature and by nurture. - Nature: Biological inheritance. - Nurture: Environmental experiences. - Stability and Change - Stability-Change Issue: The degrees to which early traits and characteristics persist or change over time. - Continuity and Discontinuity - Continuity-Discontinuity Issue: Focuses on the degree to which development involves either gradual, cumulative change(continuity) or distinct stages(discontinuity). Theories of Development - Psychoanalytic Theories: Describe development primarily in terms of unconscious processes that are heavily colored by emotion. - Freud’s Theory: Freud determined we pass through five stages of psychosexual development as we grow from infant to adult. 1. Oral Stage: Birth to 1 and a half years. Infant’s pleasure centers on the mouth. 2. Anal Stage: 1 and a half years to 3 years. Child’s pleasure is focused on the anus. 3. Phallic Stage:3 to 6 years. Child’s pleasure focuses on the genitals. 4. Latency Stage: 6 years to puberty. Child represses sexual interest and develops social and intellectual skills. 5. Genital Stage: Puberty onward. A time of sexual reawakening; source of sexual pleasure becomes someone outside the family. - Erikson’s Theory: Eight stages of development unfold as we go through life. (“crisis” at each stage) 1. Trust vs. Mistrust: first year of life. 2. Autonomy vs. Shame and doubt: 1 to 3 years. Babies realize their behavior is their own. 3. Initiative vs. Guilt: 3 to 5 years. Children take responsibility for their actions, or not. 4. Industry vs. Inferiority: 6 years to puberty. Children now need to direct their energy toward mastering knowledge and intellectual skills. 5. Identity vs. Identity Confusion: 10 to 20 years. individuals face finding out who they are, what they're all about, and where they are going in life. 6. Intimacy vs. Isolation: 20s and 30s. Individuals face the task of forming intimate relationships and families. 7. Generatively vs. Stagnation: 40s and 50s. Concern for helping the younger generation to develop and lead useful lives. 8. Integrity vs. Despair: 60s onward. A person reflects on their past. - Cognitive Theories: Emphasize conscious thought. - Piaget’s Theory: Children go through four stages of cognitive development as they actively construct their understanding of the world. 1. Sensorimotor Stage: Birth to 2 years. The infant constructs an understanding of the world by coordinating sensory experience with physical actions. 2. Pre operational Stage: 2 to 7 Years. The child begins to represent the world with words and images. 3. Concrete Operational: 7 to 11 years. The child can now reason logically about concrete events and classify objects into different sets. 4. Formal Operational Stage: 11 years to adulthood. The adolescent reasons in more abstract, idealistic, and logical ways. - Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Cognitive Theory: Emphasizes how culture and social interaction guide cognitive development. - Information-Processing Theory: Emphasize that individuals manipulate information, monitor it, and strategize about it. - Behavioral and Social Cognitive Development Theories: Development can be described in terms of behaviors learned through interactions with our surroundings. - Skinner’s Operant Conditioning: Behaviors increase with reward and decrease with punishment. - Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory: Observational Learning, Imitation, and Modeling. Behavior, environment, and person/cognition factors are the key factors in development. - Ethological Theory: stresses that behavior is strongly influenced by biology, is tied to evolution, and is characterized by critical or sensitive periods. - Lorenz’s research: The mother goose scenario. - Ecological Theory: emphasizes environmental factors. - Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory: Development reflects the influence of several environmental systems. Methods of Data Collecting 1. Observation Laboratory: Artificial, Controlled setting. Naturalistic: In people’s natural environment. 2. Surveys and Interviews 3. Standardized tests: uniform procedures for administration and scoring. 4. Case Study: In-depth look at a single individual. 5. Physiological Measures: Such as blood levels, MRIs. Research Designs 1. Descriptive: Observing and recording data. 2. Correlation: Describe the strength of the relation between two or more characteristics. 3. Experimental: Controlled, carefully regulated procedure to manipulate one factor and hold all others stable. Time Span of Research 1. Cross-sectional: Simultaneously compares individuals of different ages. 2. Longitudinal: Studies the same people over time - Cohort: A group of people who were born at a similar point in history and share similar experiences as a result. - Cohort Effects: due to a person’s time of birth, era, or generation but not to actual age. - Millennials: Individuals born 1980 and later - Generation X: Individuals born between 1965 and 1980 - Baby Boomers: Individuals born between 1946 and 1964 - Silent Generation: Individuals born between 1928 and 1945 Conducting Ethical Research - The Importance of considering the rights of human research subjects. 1. Informed Consent: All participants must know what their research participance will involve and what risks might develop. 2. Confidentiality: Confidential and, if possible, completely anonymous. 3. Debriefing: Informed of purpose and methods. 4. Deception: Any case of deception must not harm the participants.


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