POSC 100 w/ Prof Julius (Part 1)
POSC 100 w/ Prof Julius (Part 1) POSC 100 - 02
Cal State Fullerton
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This 7 page Bundle was uploaded by Vivian Luong on Friday February 5, 2016. The Bundle belongs to POSC 100 - 02 at California State University - Fullerton taught by William Julius in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see American Government in Political Science at California State University - Fullerton.
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Date Created: 02/05/16
POSC 100 NOTES w/ Professor Julius A Brief Overview of America and Politics • US is socially liberal and economically conservative • Americans embrace equality (a lot of opportunity relative to other countries) o John Locke (equality of opportunity) • American views on social issues o Abortion: against exc ept under certain circumstances o Gun Control: support increased recently (in favor of gun control) o Gay Rights: found a requirement under 14th amendment § Generation Y: major generation divide betw social and cultural issues § 30 years ago opposed to gay marriag e § 60% support today • Geography correspondence with political views o Conservative Republican Red South Greater Area o Liberal Democrat Blue Coasts Denser Populations liberal Radical: upend the entire system liberal Anarchy: any social gov is bad, no gov = peace liberal Communism: upend economical system, seize money from wealthy liberal Socialism: higher taxes to take money from rich to give to poor liberal US Green Party: think Dem. too conservative (TP of Republicans) liberal US Democrats: higher levels social welfare spending, less restrictive immigration policy, increased min wage, tax on wealthy and corporations to fund projects conservative US Republicans: lower taxes, strict immigration laws, less environmental regulations, less welfare spending conservative US Tea Party: more conservative Republicans conservative US Libertarians: argue to get rid of gov for freedom, no taxes. no gov = richer ppl conservative Christian Democratic Party (CDP): socially conservative party conservative Nazis: Hitler, genocidal, racist stigma, subset of Facism conservative Facists: Mussolini, lack of respect for civil liberties, use gov power to retain social order conservative Reactionaries: stop social change and keep things the way they are Founding of US • Declaration of Independence (Thomas Jefferson) o founding ideals, natural law o Major Premise: all are entitled to pursuit of happiness o Minor Premise: England has infringed upon the colonists pursuit of happiness o Conclusion: colonists have right to form own go vernment o Second statement of DoI: “all men are created equal, they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights...Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness” • Federalist Papers (James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, John Adams) o James Madison originally Anti -Federalist • Politics: who gets what, when, and how (Harold Laswell) o process thru which power and resources are gained and lost • Government: system/organization for exercising authority over a body of people o Authority: power citizens view as legitimate • Power: ability to get other people to do what you want them to do • Social order: way we organize/live our lives Early US Community Problems • Inability to levy taxes: gov can’t sustain itself • No common currency: states printed own money • Domestic Insecurity: no central/state militia, difficulty maintaining social order (lack of safety within our country) • Shay’s Rebellion o returning war vets expected to get paid and go back to farming o no pay, farms were foreclosed upon o highlighted domestic insecurity o Shay burned buildings and banks in Massachusetts Constitution 2 Parts (1787) • statement of core values of government • 1) formal structure scope and nature of powers of government • 2) specify rights of individual being governe d (Bill of Rights) • 18th century influence from the Enlightenment/Renaissane o people had a belief that we could understand the laws of nature o greater role in society o John Locke proposed idea of popular sovereignty (power in gov should come from ppl) o Charles D’Montesquieu (French Philosopher) proposed 3 part system of government o Isaac Newton’s concept of action/reaction influenced the balance of powers Federalism: The Division of Sovereignty betw State AND National government Unitary Government: Gov makes al l decisions, does everything Separation of Powers (Sharing of powers between the NATIONAL government) • Legislative o advise and consent o override impeachment o Congress • Executive (President) o recognize and carry out laws Congress passes o appointment of Judicial nominations o implementation of laws • Judicial (US Supreme Court) o Judicial Review: strike down laws and execute orders deemed by circumstance o Marbury v Madison o “court of last resort” o can go back to cases it previously looked over • Supremacy Clause: if conflict between state and national gov, national gov is supreme • Necessary and Proper Clause: Congress can write laws on any topic it finds proper o Elastic Laws: Congress can stress powers • Commerce Clause: Congress can regulate interstate an d international commerce • 10th Amendment: any power not mentioned in Constitution belong to the States Institutional Arrangements • Presidential : independently elected president o more effective, more representation, more citizen involvement(efficient) • Parliamentary Government: ppl choose parliament, parliament choose the executive (prime minister) o more accountable, more effective, • Why does it matter? President Obama (Dream Act) allows child immigrants to come into the country w/o a guardian • Brown vs. Board of Education (1954) o School desegregation’ o US supreme court overturned Plessy v Fergusen o ordered school districts in the southern states to desegregate schools o southern school districts and governers said no § president eisenhower used federal troops to integrate them by force o Congress then got involved, passed ESEA (elementary and secondary education act). had a provision said only schools that integrated system will receive money from national government § schools began to change due to the monetary i ncentive § ordered busing to bus white students to black schools and black students to white schools (found to be inefficient and ppl didnt like the system) • Presidential Democracy: President elected by the people, split power betw parties • Parliamentary Democracy: Prime Minister elected by the Parliament, more efficient, more accountable • typically one party is president and the other party has control over one/both houses of Congress Presidential election of 2000 Bush vs Gore • judicial branch prevented florida from counting votes while bush was ahead • even if counted bush still would’ve won • Gore won popular vote • example of how the three branches undermined each other’s power • infringed on house of rep and executive by indirectly choosing the president • inconvenient to get Congress in session at the time to prevent the stoppage of Florida’s votes Representation in the US • Development (important Amendments with respect to representation) o 14th Citizenship for former slaves (Civil Rights 1868) post civil war along with 15th § equal protection clause: our right to be treated equally regardless of race, gender, etc o 15th Former male slaves rights to vote 1870 § paired with 14th amendment o Progressive Era 1900-1920 § 17th 1913 made US senators popularly elected • prior to 1913, US senators were not elected, were chosen by state legislators § 19th women’s right to vote 1920 • few states did allow prior, but majority did not • women majority of population o 24th 1964 poll tax § tax people had to pay when voting at polls § made them unconstitutional § removed the Jim Crow law that prevented former slaves to vote o 26th 1971 § allowed 18-21 year olds to vote § argument was if 18 year olds were allowed to fight in wars, th ey should also have opportunity to select the President o Civil Rights Act of 1964 § to get rid of segregation in Southern State § discrimination in housing, public facilities o 1965 Voting Rights Act § many southern states still did not allow african americans to vote § federal officials sent to districts to make sure they could vote • How Representative is the US Government? o if gov set up properly, all groups would have their interests properly reflected by the policies of gov (James Madison) o Individual Representation (2015) • Slow Response to Hurricane Katrina o demographic of those affected were poor African -Americans o hypothesized that politicians were uninterested because the victims to be saved would provide small benefit § can’t “donate” to campaigns • diff betw civil rights and civil liberties o civil rights: group rights (voting rights) o civil liberties: individual rights • two different forms of representation o proportional representation § people vote for a party, not a person § political parties receive equal seats in parliament based upon percentage from voting (percent of votes=percent of seats) o winner takes all § winner with most votes win § second place gets nothing § used in US for all forms of election • Congress most powerful bran ch in government o two primary functions: § public policy making: make laws we have to live by § representations: representing the people who live in each congressmen’s district/state o made up of § House of Representatives § Senate o Constitutional powers of Congress Debate among republican candidates that want to be nominated for who is running Congress • Powers: o enumerated powers § spending powers: congress has to authorize taxation and expenditures of public funds § can borrow money on credit for the US § power to declare war • not president • president still declares war in a sense and congress doesn’t do anything about it § impeachment: ability to indict a public official for a high crime or a misdemeanor, put on trial in Senate to decide whether or not to remo ve them • Andrew Johnson only one to be removed • Nixon close but resigned • Clinton was just impeached but acquitted § regulate commerce with foreign nations and among the states (interstate/international) § 3 powers folded into one for 6th power • establish uniform bankruptcy laws • establish naturalization laws • establish copyright laws § power to coin money (power to print money) § power to establish a post office and post roads § power to establish lower federal courts, beneath the US Supreme Court § necessary and proper cla use, congress can write laws to help with enumerated powers • Division of Labor (committees vs floor) • Heirarchically o party leaders that make all the decisions, and everyone else represents ppl from their state (rank in file members) • Division of Labor o (committees floor) divides itself up into committees to get work done faster, make sure everyone has some expertise • Bicameralism o two houses • Congress o Organization § House (435) • Majoritarian: rules that allow them to pass anything. one majority decides what they want to do, they just do it • Rules Committee: every bill after committee writes it, it goes here, and it sets the conditions where that bill will be considered o “writes rules of how the bill is going to be debated” o time bill can be debated o which amendments will be offered to the bill and proposed change o list specific time where the bill will be voted on • Germaneness Requirement o any amendment thats offered must be relevant to the subject matter of the bill to be considered • Discharge Petition o last resort majority has to bring bill to floor o allows 218 members (majority) to bring a bill to the floor to vote o can bypass rules committee • strict debate limits § Senate (100) • 2 members from each state and ppl get to vote • Counter Majoritarian: everyone allowed to speak as long as they choose o majority doesnt always get their way • Tradition of extended debate • filibuster: use of wait time to kill a bill. a speech designed to waste time, delay o Rule XXII (22): if 60 members want the person doing the filibuster to stop, then he/she must stop • hold:when a member tells a party leaders in advance • unanimous consent agreement (UCA) • call for closure vote if they have 60 o Rules + Procedures • Great Compromise o compromise betw big and small states o divided congress into two o house of representatives where big states get representation o and senate where everyone gets equal representation • Congressional Committees o Committee: group of people assigned to some task o Purposes § Division of Labor: § Develop Expertise: each member develops in depth knowledge in one area of law § Write Legislation: end goal, main purpose, to come up with a law § Oversight: certain committees “oversee” certain things § analyze, accept, amend, and someti mes pass federal law o Types § Standing vs Select • standing: permanent committee that exists as long as Congress exists • select: created for single purpose until the purpose is fulfilled (watergate/9-11) § Legislative vs Nonlegislative • some committees have authority to write bills some dont § Intra-chamber vs Inter-chamber • intra: exist only in house or senate • inter: some representatives from both house and senate o conference committee: compromise house and senate version of a bill o Powers § information collection § draft legislation § agenda setting: determining the subject of a conflict • can also be set by party leaders • when committees set agenda, its sometime called gatekeeping • Party Leadership o House of Representatives § Speaker of the House • constitutionally mandated po sition • agenda setting • committee appointment t § Majority Leader/Minority Leader • does what the speaker wants • produces results/makes legislation § Majority/Minority Whips: exert discipline on members of their party • get members of their party to vote whatever way their leaders want them to § Caucus/Conference Secretary: Democrat Caucus Republican Conference: presides when the party meets on their own § Steering of Policy Committee Chair: usually the same person as the Speaker of the House • solicit feedback from rankin fine members and • makes committee assignments (most important power) • assign party members to other house committees • advises party leaders on policy o Senate § President of the Senate (VP of USA) • tiebreaker in favor of president’s party • constitutionally mandated position § President Pro Tempore: longest serving member of the majority party • symbolic § Majority Leader/Minority Leader: holds most of the power § Majority and Minority Whip § Steering Policy Committee Chair for the majority party • committee of majority party o decide what bills are most important and must be voted on first o assign members to various committees • Legislative Process 1. Bill introduction: some member of CONGRESS introduces a bill a. any member can introduce as many as they choose 2. committee Referral . distributed to committee(s) sequentially or simultaneously or broken apart to concerning committees 3. Committee Consideration (90% bills die here) . can have ammendment a. hearing: collect info b. mark up sessions: exact wording for the bill, proo fread c. vote: vote for whether they want to report to the parent chamber/vote on the floor i. from chamber and it is to see if vote is good 4. Scheduling Process . amendment can happen a. schedules debate and vote . house i. senate: majority 5. Debate: ppl most active writing the bill make a case for a bill and opposition leaders make a case against it . amendment can happen 6. 1st Floor Vote . happens where the original bill came from (House/Senate) 7. Steps 1-6 occur again, but in the opposite chamber . amendment can occur 8. Conference Committee . amendment can occur a. process to make sure bill is written in same language betw the house and senate b. compromised version of the bill c. called a conference report 9. 2nd + 3rd floor votes . amendment can happen before third floor vote a. goes back to house and senate b. now house and senate vote c. senate and house both vote at the same time d. both chambers vote same time but separately so it counts as 2 separate votes which is why it is called 2nd + 3rd vote 10. Presidential Disposition . sign or veto the bill 11. Veto Override (possible) . Congress if ⅔ of house and ⅔ of senate wants to pass a bill, it can override the president. Reapportionment Primary Election: when parties fight to figure who the no minees are going to be General Election: election after primary after nominees are discovered presidential gov: president individually elected by ppl parliamentary gov: ppl elect parliament who elect pres
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