POSC 100 w/ Prof Julius (Part 2)
POSC 100 w/ Prof Julius (Part 2) POSC 100 - 02
Cal State Fullerton
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This 9 page Bundle was uploaded by Vivian Luong on Friday February 5, 2016. The Bundle belongs to POSC 100 - 02 at California State University - Fullerton taught by William Julius in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see American Government in Political Science at California State University - Fullerton.
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Date Created: 02/05/16
POSC 100 NOTES (Part 2) 1. The Federal Bureaucracy a. What is it? i. A hierarchically arranged organization which carries out tasks in a rational, compartmentalized fashion ii. U.S.: Implement laws passed by Congress iii. To give president resources to carry out the laws Congress passes 1. 1935 Social Security Act b. Development i. Began 1900s. Woodrow Wilson, Theodore Roosevelt ii. Republican scholars thought bureaucracy was the most efficient system iii. Urbanization: People in rural areas moved to urban areas iv. Progressive era (1900 -1920) 1. Made bureaucracy expand 2. 3 goals a. More direct citizen control b. Political equality: each citizen has equal influence over the government c. Clean merit based government i. Civil service protection v. New Deal, WWII Era (1932 -1950) vi. The Great Society (1964 -1980) 1. Social welfare programs enacted 2. Civil rights bureaucracies in justice department 3. Medicare program 4. Department of education vii. Expands when government is doing new things like fighting wars or providing public service c. Organization i. 15 different boxes each managed by a Secretary ii. Department 1. Department Agencies (Bureaus) 2. Independent Agencies/Bureaus not housed in a department a. Typically a more important agency b. CIA (own budget, doesn’t rely on funding, own director, doesn’t answer to department head) c. USPS 3. Independent Commission a. 5 members and given narrow task of regulating our taxes in our economy b. FEC, FCC 2. Civil Service Reform (created during progressive Era) a. Hiring based on merit b. Firing employees for legitimate cause 3. The Federal Bureaucracy a. Organization b. Politics + Administration 4. Common Law Legal System a. Short Legal Codes b. Adversarial Court Proceedings c. Make Decisions Based on Precedent (Stare Decisis) 5. Presidential Elections a. Requirements (formal) i. 35 years old ii. Natural born citizen of the US iii. Must be a resident of the US of at least 14 years b. Requirements (Informal) up to about 50 years ago i. White, male, married, heterosexual ii. Mainline protestant religion iii. 1960 first Catholic nominated (John Kennedy) iv. Prior government experience as a Governor or Senator c. Constitutionally limited terms i. Stepping down voluntarily after two 4 year terms ii. Made mandatory afterwards d. Campaigning and Campaign organization i. Political parties: get everyone to vote for one candidate 1. Raise money for candidates ii. Private group of citizens get together and raise money for candidates as well iii. Mass communication of media acts as a referee e. Process i. Candidate Agenda Setting ii. Primary/Caucus: when each party nominates their candidate iii. Issue Agenda Setting: media and both campaigns try to focus on certain issues over others iv. Party Convention v. General Election vi. Certification vii. Electoral College Votes viii. Inauguration jan 20th 6. The Judiciary a. Short Legal Codes b. Adversarial Proceeding: Every case has to have two adversaries. two people who have material interest over the outcome, fighting over meaning of law (Common Law legal system) look past decisions other judges made i. Civil law legal system: chile/france, the l aw is written such that every possible situation is written in the law. c. Stare Decisis: to abide by or adhere to previously decided cases d. Committed delegate: someone who’s committed to vote for a candidate for president in the national convention e. Convention delegate: person who goes to convention and casts a vote for who should be the nominee for their respective party f. Amicus Curiae 7. Civil Liberties: protect our natural rights a. Individual rights that all citizens possess protecting them from the power of the government. b. Even non citizens possess the most basic due process rights c. 1st d. 4th: No unreasonable search and seizure e. 5th: Quick speedy trial before taking away life liberty or pursuit of happiness i. Heart of civil liberties ii. Right to be free from self incrimin ation, remain silent iii. Most famous case: Miranda v Arizona f. 8th: No cruel and unreasonable punishment i. 1971 Furman Vs Georgia: capital punishment is banned ii. 1976: Greg Vs Georgia: if a murder was grisly and in process of committing another crime, then capital punishment is appropriate g. 14th (Due process) h. No Ex Post Facto Laws: laws written after the fact i. Writ of Habeas Corpus: must issue list of laws a person has broken 8. Prior Restraint: government cannot prevent publishing papers in advance 9. Mapp vs Ohio a. Exclusionary Rule: illegally obtained evidence is excluded from the case 10. Eminent Domain: Power to seize private property for public purpose with compensation a. Controversy: what constitutes as public purpose b. Have to go through certain amount of due process 11. Judiciary a. Marbury vs Madison: carved out power for itself to strike down laws deemed unconstitutional b. Mccullough vs maryland: power of fed gov: can exert judicial review on any other level of government. State governments can’t tax the national government. c. 99% of all things that happen happen on state and local level d. USSC > Appeals Courts (16) > District/Trial Courts > State Courts i. District/State Courts decide matters of fact ii. USSC/Appeals Courts: decide matters of law 12. Structure of the Federal Judiciary 13. The Courts + Politics 14. Theories of Constitutional Interpretation a. Plain meaning: no interpretation necessary, words of constitution are taken as they are. b. Original intent (most conservative): when constitution requires interpretation, the only valid interpretati on, is the one that looks back at the intention of the Founders c. Living constitution (liberal): the Constitution written in general terms bc it was intended to involve over time, the meaning evolves over time. 1. Political Parties a. Development (5 Eras) i. Anti Federalists vs Federalists (1790-1827) ii. Thomas Jefferson’s successor, Andrew Jackson: Democratic -Republican Party (1828-1860) 1. the Era of Good Feeling 2. Federalists disappeared, only one party iii. Democratic vs Republican party (1854 two party sy stem - 1874) 3. Abraham Lincoln opposition to slavery iv. (1896-1932) Parties had to deal with factions within own party 4. ended with great depression v. 5th party system (1933 - 5. Classical Economics (republicans) a. Government does not touch economy at all b. Economy will balance itself through supply and demand 6. Keynesian Economics a. When the economy is in recession, government should actively borrow money and artificially create demand within the economy until it can pay off debt it ran. b. Fundamentals i. Function: Representation c. Ultimate Goal: Translate policy preferences → Public Policy i. PIE > PO > PIG (translating members policy preferences into public policy) 1. party in electorate a. people who belong to the party 2. party organization 3. party in government d. Functions i. Nominate a Candidate ii. fundraising 1. hard money: raised under a set of regulations 2. soft money: raised outside of regulations (through loophole) iii. information cue: shortcut so we don’t have to learn about every policy iv. mobilization: organize their members to get t hem to vote e. Immediate Goal: get members elected f. The Forms of Parties g. responsible vs non responsible i. responsible: prob parliamentary: both policy making branches (exec and parliament) are controlled by same political party. if something goes wrong, easy to tell who is at fault ii. non responsible: makes it hard to figure out who to blame h. discipline vs non dis ciplined how much power leaders in legislative parties have over their members i. discipline: party leaders have total control over their members i. inter vs intra party conflict i. Inter: republicans fighting with democrats ii. Intra: fighting within a political party 2. Interest Groups: An organized group that tries to influence the government to adopt certain policies or measures or protect certain rights a. AARP, NRA, ALU, NAACP, AFL CIO, AMA, Trial Lawyers, Chamber of Congress b. Sources of Power i. Campaign money ii. votes iii. mobilization and organization iv. Connections v. Information c. Two views of the US Interest Group System i. pluralism: bc there are so many interest groups, everybody gets represented pretty well 1. Consequences of a pluralistic, open interest group system a. whether it short circuits democratic process i. proper way is to vote in polls ii. interest groups would have more priority bc of funding etc b. policy gridlock c. creates non rational policy outcomes d. non rational gov growth e. maintenance of political equality 2. US has a relatively big wide open pluralistic system ii. Elite: only certain groups have “real” power 3. Mass Communications Media a. Constitutionality b. Structure + Bias i. c. Power i. power is not used to persuade us to believe things ii. power to set public agenda: what we think about d. Tragedy of the Commons: to many people try to draw from a common resource e. Pentagon Papers Case i. some docs published by NY Times would damage national security f. NY Times Vs. Sullivan: public officials dont have same rights as public g. Nixon VS NY Times i. No Prior Restraint h. Speeches i. Lible: written something thats not true ii. slander: spoken word iii. Obscenity: dirty words, indecency iv. Fighting Words i. Framing: angle mass media takes on a story j. Priming: attend to some issues and not others and thereby alter the standa rds by which people evaluate election candidates, media repeats chooses which news to repeat k. Agenda Setting i. Influence on the Public 1. can act as a gatekeeper for which stories deserve the public's attention a. gatekeeper decides what moves forward and what does n't 2. can act as referees in an election 3. muckraking: searching and making public scandalous info 4. campaign tool: d ii. How they set the agenda 1. editing: what the news believe is most important about a story 2. emphasis: what details are chosen to be emphasized upon 3. selection: which stories are presented and which are not 4. Media in US Politics 5. progressive goals a. clean merit based government b. direct citizen control of government c. political equality 6. direct democracy a. initiative: citizens write their own law i. 6 or 8 percent of number of people who voted in previous election for governor b. referendum: allows citizens to accept or reject a law already written by a state legislature c. recall: remove and replace any public official i. requires 10 percent of people voted i n last election of governor 7. California State Government Politics a. diversity: 8. California State Legislature a. Character b. culture: pretty individualistic, people can do what they want c. Functions i. water policy ii. write state budget d. Internal Institutions i. Assembly (80) Terms 3 x 2 years (6) 1. speaker of the assembly: speech and debate a. decide what procedure to follow if there is a conflict b. makes all committee assignments c. schedule bills for votes ii. Senate (40) 2 x 4 years (8) 1. senate president pro tempore is top leader in senate and longest serving member of the entire legislature 2. no filibuster e. The Legislative Process i. Bill intro ii. committee referral iii. committee consideration iv. summary reading v. 2nd reading vi. floor amendments vii. floor debate viii. 3rd reading ix. 1st floor vote x. repeat 1-9 in opposite chamber xi. conference committee xii. gubernatorial disposition: governor signs or veto bill xiii. possible veto override 9. Term Limits a. are term limits a democratic? is it contrary to what we think of democracry to tell voters you’re not allowed to vote someone into office again who’s served for 6 years? b. trying to create a more diverse legislature. c. people opposed to term limits think a person most qualified for the job, the last person serving has the most expertise and is the only one not able to run d. long term public policy making, suffers as a result of term limits e. influence of interest groups: the only ones with experience with the legislature are interests groups bc they’re always there and have most knowledge f. political ambition: 10. CAlifornia State Executive Branch a. we have a plural executive i. no true chief executive like president ii. we elect a bunch of separate executives iii. the governor is just one of them which is why the president has more power b. Governor powers i. budget making ii. play same role in policy making process iii. state of state address every january iv. responsible for implementing lawas that state legislature passes v. have a veto (blanket veto: take or reject an entire law) can strike parts a bill he does not like vi. can call legislature into special sessions 1. if some issue needs to be discussed immediately vii. clemency powers: pardons, blanket pardons, make sentences less severe, issue reprieves: postpone punishment for another trial at a higher court viii. commissions can be appoint ed by gov ix. power to persuade 11. similarities and diff betw gov and pres a. similarities i. both get to make large number of appointments and supervise a number of officials ii. 4 year terms iii. rely on power to persuade to have office holders to go with them iv. have to deal with other levels of gov 1. state relies on national funds to carry out certain laws 2. national rely on state to carry our laws v. gov have to deal with same issues as fed gov like immigration b. differ i. pres: commander in chief (warmaking policies and international relations) 1. gov do not have this power ii. gov are one among elected executives, president is chief executive and ppl in the executive branch serve under him 12. Judiciary a. lot of spanish influence b. 99% of legal matters get disposed of at the state level c. CA state supreme court (court of last resort) 7 members i. appeals courts ii. superior courts 13. Local Government a. every local gov has police and fire services b. Counties i. general law: follow laws set up by state legis lature for all counties in the state (OC) 1. 5 member board of supervisors 2. chief administrative officer (similar to governor) 3. required to elect treasurer, county clerk, auditor, sheriff, tax collector, controller, license collector, district attorney, recorn er, assesser, public administrator, coroner ii. charter county: design own gov write own constitution (LA) iii. reasons for counties 1. allows cities to coordinate things like public transportation 2. emergency services iv. Legislative body: county board of supervisors that does the same thing that congress and state legislature does c. Cities d. Special Districts i. vector control district: pest control ii. local agency formation commission iii. 14. Chart a. State Gov i. Country ( b. Legislature c. CSSC 15. State: State legislature: governor 16. County: Board of Supervisor: CAO (chief administrative officer) 17. City: City Council: Special District, Strong Mayor, City Manager a. strong mayor: indep elected chief exec b. council manager( city manager): does not have ties with poltical parties, one member of city council calls himself as mayor but doesn’t have any real power c. 18. no independent judiciary beneath state. state is CSSC 19. US Foreign Policy a. set by the president of the us under the treaty making power of article in the constitution b. bush doctrine: after 9/11 attacks. says that any nation not helping with the war against terrorism can be subject to attack by the US c. Internationalism vs Isolationism i. whether, or how much, the united states ought to be engaged with the rest of the world committee and foreign nations ii. in WWI, president Wilson took US into first world war, which is first example of modern internationalism, and then tried to create League of Nations iii. after WWI, US turned inward and became very isolationalist iv. WWII led to foreign policy consensus that isolation is not ideal v. late 1940s, conference held in Bretton Woods, and design a set of international financial institutions d. Multilateralism vs Unilateralism i. Unilateralism: get involved on its own independently 1. in order to avoid surrending independence of action ii. Multilateralism: e. Clash of civilizations?
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