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Environmental Factors Affecting Growth

by: Mallory McMullen

Environmental Factors Affecting Growth 4100

Marketplace > Ohio State University > Microbiology > 4100 > Environmental Factors Affecting Growth
Mallory McMullen

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About this Document

Notes covering Dr. Daniel's lectures from Monday February 1- Friday February 5 AND outline of what Dr. Daniel would like us to know for the exam (given verbally during lecture on Weds. and Fri.)
Charles Daniels
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This 5 page Bundle was uploaded by Mallory McMullen on Friday February 5, 2016. The Bundle belongs to 4100 at Ohio State University taught by Charles Daniels in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Microbiology in Microbiology at Ohio State University.


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Date Created: 02/05/16
Monday, February 1, 2016 Environmental Influences▯ How the Environment Affects Growth - Most bacteria grow at sea level between 20-40*C with neutral pH and 0.9% salt▯ - Thermophilic organisms thrive at high temperatures vs. thermotolerant organisms that can survive temporarily at high temperatures with a moderate growth rate ▯ - Cardinal temperatures: minimum, maximum, and optimum ▯ • The growth rate roughly doubles for every 10*C rise ▯ • Most organisms have a 30*C temperature range▯ - At low temperatures the lipid membrane becomes semi-crystalline and enzyme activity slows▯ - Thermophilic proteins are more tightly packed with more ionic interactions ▯ - DnaJ-DnaK slowly folds up denatured proteins by binding to their hydrophobic regions ▯ • It will be passed to GroEL-GroES if it’s only partially folded ▯ • Dependent on ATP hydrolysis ▯ • Basically recycles proteins ▯ - Barophile/piezophile: adapted to grow at very high pressures up to 1000atm▯ 1 Monday, February 1, 2016 • Many barophiles are also psycrophiles because they live on the ocean floor where the temperature is extremely low (2*C)▯ • Barotolerant organism growth falls off about 500atm▯ - Water availability = a w solution vapor pressure/water vapor pressure (varying between 0-1) ▯ • Inversely related to osmolarity▯ - Aquaporins: membrane channels that rapidly open/close in response to osmolarity ▯ - Under hypertonic stress the organisms synthesize compatible solutes in amino acid, carbohydrate, alcohol, or other types▯ - Halophiles: require high salt concentrations (2-4M/ 10-20%, seawater is 3.5%)▯ • Archaea that live in the dead sea, the great salt lake, and solar salterns ▯ - Most organisms have a growth range of 1-2 pH units between 5-9▯ • Alkaliphiles (basic) also use a sodium motive to power work in the cell in addition to a proton motive work with anti porters▯ 2 Monday, February 1, 2016 - Most organisms use oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor in aerobic respiration▯ • vs. nitrate or something else for anaerobic respiration/fermentation where ATP is generated by substrate level phosphorylation▯ - Microaerophiles: aerobes that can only tolerate a lower level of O2▯ - Facultative anaerobes: aerobic organisms that can grow anaerobically under the right nutrient conditions ▯ - Aerotolerant anaerobes: tolerate small amounts of O2 but don’t use it as an electron acceptor ▯ - Most oxygen exists in the triplet state ( O )2but also exists in the superoxide anion (O 2) which is very toxic, the hydroxyl radical (OH-) which is very reactive and has a short half life, or H2O2which is the most stable ▯ • Most microbes have enzymes that can detoxify these reactive species ▯ ▯ ▯ 3 Monday, February 1, 2016 - Oxygen solubility in water is temperature dependent▯ - For strict anaerobes sometimes we have to add reducing agents to make sure there is absolutely no oxygen▯ - Oligotrophs: have a higher growth rate at lower solute concentration (i.e. require low nutrients)▯ • Prothecae stalk extensions of the plasma membrane ▯ - Sterilize (kill everything) vs. disinfect (remove pathogens from inanimate objects) vs. antisepsis (remove pathogens from tissues) vs. sanitation (reducing microbes) vs. bacteriocidal (stops microbial viability) vs. bacteriostatic (decreases growth)▯ - Decimal Reduction Time: AKA D-value; efficacy of a lethal agent ▯ • Microbes die logarithmically; it’s harder to kill spores and larger populations▯ - Microbial growth can be controlled by high/low temperature, pasteurization, filtration, irradiation, disinfectants, antibiotics, probiotics, and phage therapy ▯ • Lyophilization: freeze drying▯ • UV light is only good for surface sterilization; gamma, electron beams and X-rays are more effective in irradiating food ▯ Commercial disinfectants damage proteins, lipids, and DNA▯ • - Compare effectiveness using a phenol coefficient test (the highest dilution that kills the cells in 10 minutes but leaves survivors after 5)▯ • Antibiotics are derived from other microbes and destroy the cell wall ▯ • Phage therapy: treats infectious diseases with a virus directed to the pathogen 
 4 Monday, February 1, 2016 - KNOW FOR THE EXAM: short answer/matching▯ • Domains (early, middle, modern periods)▯ - Not dates but the microscope and Koch’s postulate, etc▯ • How light interacts with objects in microscopy▯ • Gram staining ▯ • Membrane structure▯ - The difference between the lipid makeup of archaea vs. bacteria▯ - Biosynthetic pathway of peptidoglycans ▯ - Cell division (how cocci differ from bacillus)▯ • Why is FtsZ important▯ - Specialized structures exist but know micro compartments can encapsulate something toxic▯ - Motility and chemotaxis ▯ - Transport systems (where does energy come from)▯ Active vs. passive. vs. facilitated▯ • • ATP synthesis vs. substrate level phosphorylation▯ • Growth curves (calculate doubling time via a graph and the different stages)▯ • Biofilms (why is it helpful and where can it grow)▯ • Endospores (how does it protect its DNA, protoplasm vs. cytoplasm)▯ • Relate growth conditions of thermophilic vs. thermotolerant, etc▯ • Oxygen detoxification (pathway) 5


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