HIST 1301 Chapters 1 to 2, Lecture 3, and PowerPoint Notes
HIST 1301 Chapters 1 to 2, Lecture 3, and PowerPoint Notes HIST 1301 - 001
Popular in History of U.S. to 1865 - 22096
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HIST 1301 Notes “New World Encounters” The American Story Chapter 1 Native Americans were in America way before others came over Animals came with the Europeans (animals carried disease) along with metal pots, knives o These things were never seen by the Native Americans before and we highly valuable at the time Europeans would try to take land, but the Native Americans would laugh at their attempts to take land o Native Americans were called Savages (savage=less that human) Reservations were worst land; good land taken by Europeans and left the bad land to the Native Americans People not of same color or same customs (culture and norm) were seen as inhuman o Idea would carry unto this day o Racism is big this early and would develop more in the future ID: Columbian Exchange: The Columbian Exchange refers to the transfer of people, animals, plants, and disease between the Old and New Worlds Civilization vs. Savagery According to Europeans, “savages” were excessively violent and merely hunted and gathered food without developing complex forms of agriculture, art, language, literature, science, religion, or government On the other hand, civilized societies endorsed agriculture, private property, and Christianity Europeans used this terminology to rank themselves culturally and racially superior to Native Americans HIST 1301 Notes Y-Values 8 7 Total Population 6 Colonials 5 4 3 2 Indians 1 0 1500 1550 1600 1650 1700 1750 1800 1850 “The Colonial Experiment” The American Story Chapter 2 1606: England released first charter to Virginia Jamestown 1608: disease-ridden land o Ideal place for building a fort Built wall around it to protect them from Spaniard/Indian attacks Chief Powhatan o Leader of Indian tribe 30 tribes by 1608 (Population: 14,000 approx.) o Relations with the English were less than friendly (Pocahontas capture) Pocahontas remained a hostage, learned English, married a tutor, moved to England (seen as a princess); Death in 1670 Found ways to make money in the colony (plants, tobacco, etc.) ID: Indentured Servitude In exchange for transportation across the Atlantic, indentured servants agreed to serve a master for a stated number of years. In return, the master promised to give proper care and freedom at the end of their contract. This system of forced labor was predecessor to slavery. Lord Baltimore was seen as “King” in Maryland HIST 1301 Notes o People swore oath, o Population included planters, ordinary folk Puritanism o Started in 16 century as movement to reform Church of England o Hoped to create a “city upon a hill”; would stand as a beacon of righteousness for the rest of the Christian world. o Lord wanted them to live according to the scriptures o Set up own government Freemen o The Puritans in Massachusetts extended the right to vote and hold office to all “freemen”, or all adult male church members; larger population of men could vote in Massachusetts than in England New England Colonies Middle Colonies New Hampshire Pennsylvania Massachusetts Bay New York Connecticut Three counties of Delaware Rhode Island East and West Jersey (New Jersey Plymouth Bay Quakers o Rejected the Puritan belief in predestination. Instead they insisted that salvation was available to all. It came from within each individual, not through the church. Pennsylvania became a haven for predestined Quakers. “Slavery and Empire” Lecture III ID: Slave (defined) o A slave is the property of someone else. They are subjected to overwork, cruel, punishment, and sexual exploitation. They are HIST 1301 Notes stereotyped as immoral, childlike, dim-witted, and incapable of being productive members within a free society. Africa: Primary source of slaves for the world-leading countries o Largest amount of people in the Americas More so than Europeans Many believed that the Europeans were capturing the slaves in Africa, and some were but, o In many cases Africans were capturing their own to sell to the Europeans 1808: Slave transportation was stopped o Many women were conceiving children while in the Americas, causing the children to automatically become slaves once old enough o Did not need more as they were “growing their own” 10-11 million slaves came to the Americas Triangular Trade o Slaves to the Americas, raw materials to England, Manufactured goods to Africa ID: The Middle Passage o The middle part of the Triangular Trade, from Africa to the Americas, in which slaves were transported abroad ships and suffered from horrendous conditions. At least 2 million Africans died on the infamous Middle Passage. Equatorial Doldrums o Type of “quarters” that were lacking proper sanitation, had wooden planks as “beds” Many laid in their own waste as they traveled across the ocean. Many became sick and died during this travel (i.e. Middle Passage) Slaves were treated like animals o Colonists separated families, they had no names, and their lives were made into a living hell o But, many lived through it and prospered by themselves ID: Bacon’s Rebellion o Bacon’s Rebellion revealed intense class conflict between poor and rich whites in Virginia. This led to a change in the labor system, as HIST 1301 Notes the leading planters chose black slavery instead of white servants. Slavery helped to unify rich and poor whites on the racism towards blacks. ID: Virginia Slave Code o This written set of laws, which would serve as a model for other colonies. Declared (among other things) that the death of a slave during punishment would not be considered a crime. o Slavery was written into the law Colonists can get away with anything they wanted without punishment from the law Tobacco was greatest product 1750: rice production was big; indigo was first produced (became huge cash crop for dresses, ink, etc.) The success of the British Empire was largely due to the work of African Slaves o Without their work, would they have been the strongest? ID: Mercantilism o Economic system based on the idea that national wealth and power were best gained by increasing exports and collecting precious metals (gold and silver) in return. English mercantile policy defined their American colonies as both suppliers of slave-produced raw materials and, in turn, markets for English manufactured goods ID: Navigation Acts o These acts forbade merchants from other nations form trading in the colonies and specified a list of enumerated goods that could be shipped only to England. These included the products of the southern slave colonies: sugar, molasses, rum, tobacco, rice, and indigo. Introductions for the First Paper Must: o Capture the interest of the reader o Clearly present the topic of your paper o Clearly state how you intend to argue that topic o Clearly establish the parameters of that argument! HIST 1301 Notes Key possibilities for introducing your topic o Begin with a quote o Start at the end of the event o Begin with the impact of the event Don’t be afraid to be creative!! Conclusions o Wrap up your paper o Restate your argument o Briefly state your final analysis about your topic Hints o Rewrite your paper until you can’t find any more to say o Have someone you trust to be objective read your final draft o Go over the paper one last time before handing it in. o USE SPELLCHECK!! Primary and Secondary Sources o Primary source First-hand accounts of an event, topic, or historical time period They are typically produced at the time of the event by a person who experienced it, but can also be made later on in the form of memoirs Anything that contains original information on a topic is considered a primary source. Usually primary sources are the object discussed in your paper. Examples Letters, diaries, journals Original photographs First-hand newspaper articles Speeches and autobiographies Government documents o Secondary source Interpret or critique primary sources. They often include an analysis of the event that was discussed or featured in the primary source. They are second-hand accounts that interpret or draw conclusions from one or more primary sources. HIST 1301 Notes Examples Textbooks Essays or reviews Articles that analyze or discuss ideas and events Commentaries or critiques 1 PAPER IS DUE FEB. 19 !! TH
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