ANT100 Weeks 1-3 Notes
ANT100 Weeks 1-3 Notes ANT 100
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This 7 page Bundle was uploaded by Alexis Chapman on Friday February 5, 2016. The Bundle belongs to ANT 100 at Missouri State University taught by Megan Scales in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see Intro To Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Missouri State University.
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Better than the professor's notes. I could actually understand what the heck was going on. Will be back for help in this class.
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Date Created: 02/05/16
Anthropology: the study of humans & humanities. FOUR FIELDS: 1. Biological Anthro: humans as organisms that have evolved a. Sub-fields: i. Paleoanthropology: focuses on the biological changes as humans evolve, like humans from the ape-like ancestor, with a biocultural approach (interaction between biology and culture) ii. Primatology: study of living and fossil primates, studying the anatomy and behave of our closest living relatives to understand human uniqueness iii. Forensic Anthro: ID of human remains for legal purposes (est age, sex, birth pop, stature, trauma, & disease) iv. Molecular & Genetic Anthro: uses genetic and biochemical techniques to answer questions about early human migration 2. Linguistic Anthro: a. Human language- looking @ the structure and history of language along with the relationship between social/cultural contexts (language is the most unique aspects of humans) i. Anthroplogists in this field look at preserving, and finding the origins of the language as well as examining the link between language and the culture/social life 3. Archaeology: the study of human cultures through the recovery and analysis of material remains and environmental data a. Historical archaeology: looking into material remains rather than written records 4. Cultural Anthro: study of (culture) a societys shared and learned ideas, behaviors and perceptions. a. Soceity: a group of people who interact, intermarry and share a language/culture b. Culture: system of shared and learned behaviors in society “Culture cannot exist & persist without a society, every society has a culture.” TWO MAIN CONCEPTS OF CA: 1. Ethnography: written description or profile of a particular society’s culture a. Ethnographic methods: interviews, photography, audio and video recording, document analysis, life histories, mapping and participant observation (most important) i. Participant observation: the technique of learning a culture through social participation and observation from a personal standpoint within the studied community, taken place of a long period of time. 2. Ethnology: use of ethnographic data to analyze different cultures and explain similarities/differences between the groups of people, cross-culture comparisons and theories that explain differences or similarities among groups, to arrive @ scientific explanatinos concerning the function and operations of a culture a. Goal of Ethnology: come to a conclusion about humanity based on descriptive data from ethnographies. Culture: knowledge and behaviors that vary among societies, handed down through generations, a dynamic system of learned and shared behavior Characteristics of culture: - Dynamic - Shared - Learned Culture is passed on through enculturation (the process by which culture is transmitted form one generation to the next) THREE CATEGORIES OF CULTURE: 1. Ideas 2. Behaviors 3. Materials Barrel Model: breaks characteristics of culture into three sections, which are all influenced by outside factors such as environment, climate and natural resources. 1. Infrastructure: how a society meets its basic needs (food, shelter, economic resources, physical materials & reproduction)- closely tired to the environment; infrastructure represents the physical or material aspects of the culture a. Infrastructure is subsitence, economy, diet, shelter and matierials 2. Social Structure: social behaviors and systems of social & political organization (kinship, ,marriage, family, households, leadership and politics)- represents the behaviors present in a culture a. Social structure is kinship, marriage and residence patterns, families, social organization or social stratification and political organization 3. Superstructure: involves the ideas, core values and worldviews of a society (arts, music, religion, rituals and ceremonies)- represents the ideas of the culture a. Superstructure is religious beliefs (belief system), religious practitioners, and ceremonies Functions of Culture: (barrel model helps explain the different functions of culture) - Hold strategies for production and distribution of goods & services that are necessary for life (infrastructure) - Ensure the biological continuity of its members (infra & social struct) - Provide a social structure for reproduction and mutual support (social structure) - Maintain order among members, as well as between them and outsiders (social structure) - Pass on knowledge and enculturate new members (super) Ethnocentrism: belief that the the only way of life is one’s own culture Cultural Relativism: practice of understanding a culture within its own context ANT100, NOTES: WEEK 2 Cultural adaptations: in order to better survive and thrive in their natural environment or ecosystem, which consists of complex ideas, activities, and technologies that enable us to survive and (even) thrive Ecosystem: a functioning system that comprised of both the natural environment and the organisms that inhabit it > food foraging is the oldest and most universal type of human adaptation and typically involves geographic mobility. > Horticulture (gardening) & agriculture led to more permanent settlements while pastoralism (animal husbandry) required mobility to seek out pasture and water. SUBSISTENCE: (societies) ways of getting food 3 Main Modes of Subsistence- (ea. Mode involve not only natural resources but also the technology to effectively utilize those resources) 1. Food Foraging a. Characteristics: mobility, division of labor by gender, egalitarian social relations (equal rank, access to, and power over basic resources, no one member will accumulate more than others), food sharing (there is a carrying capacity), small group size i. Division of Labor: 1. Men: hunting, butchering, process of hard or tough materials and overall more dangerous activities 2. Women: collecting food, domestic chores 2. Food Producing 3. Industrialized Band Society: a small, mobile, kin-based group of hunter gatherers, 25-60 members per band, leadership is informal (the leader has no official power) Belief Practices: Gangwasi- ancestral ghosts, cause illness & misfortune who want to be reunited with loved ones in death Illness from gangwasi can be healed with num (healing energy) !kia- healing dance Unifies community Emotional outlet Male healers entera trance state called “half death” Using num to protect and heal Gwah- female healer’s medicine ANT100, WEEK 3, NOTES: (cont..)SUBSISTENCE- FOOD PRODUCTION Introduction in Transition to Food Production Neolithic Revolution (transition)- 11,000 to 9,000 years ago (began), culture change involving domestication of plants and animals and settlements became permanent, development of simple hand tools started here as well Types of Food Producing: 3 Main Forms of Food Producing Subsistence Patterns: 1. Pastoralism (animal husbandry): subsistence pattern of raising and maintaining herds of domesticated animals (sheep, cattle & goats) a. (Two) Patterns of Movement- both based on the fact that herds move to where pasture is most available in different areas during different seasons i. Pastoral Nomadism: entire group of men, women and children move with the animals during the whole year ii. Transhumance: part of the group moves with the herd, most stay in permanent village 2. Horticulture: the cultivation of crops using simple hand tools such as digging sticks or hoes a. Slash-and-burn cultivation (swidden farming)*: an extensive form of using simple hand tools such as digging sticks or hoes (horticulture), where the natural vegetation is cut, the slash is subsequently burned and the crops are then planted in the ashes *the most widespread forms of horticulture 3. Agriculture**: the cultivation of food plants in soil prepared and maintained for crop production, uses other technologies (other than hand tools) like irrigation, fertilizers, wooden or metal plow pulled by harnessed draft animals **agriculture uses more labor than horticulture and uses land intensively and continuously, yielding more in the LONG-TERM Agriculture Societies: food producers must be near their food resources (but are not like food foragers in that) they are in semi-permanent or permanent settlements- here society became more elaborately organized because of resources such as land and water Intensive Agriculture: as the agriculture grows, so do the small villages (into large cities) that hold as centers of market exchange (carpenters, blacksmiths, sculptures, basket makers, stonecutters) Industrial Food Production***: technology changed food production leading to large-scale agribusiness; human and animal labor replaced with machinery (tractors, combines, milk machines, etc), less farm hands and rural workers ***family owned farms dramatically decreased because of technology and how hard it is to compete with large-scale agribusiness The Nuer: Geography/Climate: - South Central/South East Sudan: open savannah, swamps, the Nile River, Nile tributaries - Neighboring the Dinka to the West: the Dinka & the Nuer have frequent conflicts (but have common origins) History: - 1821 Ottoman Invasion from Egypt - 1821-85 Egyptian Rule - 1899-1956 Anglo-Egyptian Rule o British ruled Northern Sudan (muslim) & Southern Sudan (Christian) separately - 1956 Independence: had civil wars, Southern Sudan seceded - Second Sudanese Civil War (1985-2005): still in conflict - Death & Displacement: o 2 million deaths o 4 million displaced (forced to leave) o 200,000 taken into slavery (mostly Dinka) o slave raiding by North Sudan into Southern regions o child soldiers “created” & used Population: Either captured, fled to Ethiopia & Kenya or resettled to USA 1983: 800,000 Nuer 2001: ~500,000 Language: + Nilotic Language- Nuer Language & Dinka Language (very similar despite differences/conflict, have a common origin) Settlements: - Wet Season: the Nuer live in villages, keep the cattle out of flooded lands & with better grazing - Dry Season: cattle camps set up for drinking water and grazing (for the cattle) Subsistence: Two Main Methods: 1. Pastoralism**** (favored by the Nuer)- cattle, ****more productive than horticulture 2. Horticulture( the cattle can not always be depended on because of disease, but can not depend wholly on horticulture either because of flat land and flooding)- shifting cultivation (millet, maize, beans, tobacco), forage by fishing and collecting wild foods - Cattle are the most cherished possessions by the Nuer: primarily for dairy, raw materials, cattle meat is only consumed if the animal dies naturally or after ritual sacrifice o The Focus of the Nuer Life: Core of culture Spiritual, Social, Economic, Language Bride-wealth Naming Family Ties o Cattle Connect Nuer to the Spirit World: totem spirits, possessive spirits, ancestral spirits o Cattle are Dedicated to the Spirits: contact spirits by rubbing ashes on the backs of their cattle Division of Labor: Men- graze cattle, never milk, never prepare food Women- farming, food prep, milk cows, care for young and elderly Boys & Girls- milk cows Kinship: - Patrlineal: related to based on relationship through the male (father) - Clans: members related, sharing totems, cannot marry within clan Male Initiation: - Gaar Ceremony: boy becomes a man, receives his first bull, ritual scarification (scars are called gar or gaar)
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