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Lecture Notes

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by: Ally Wright

Lecture Notes

Ally Wright

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These are my notes from the lectures. Helped me do very well on the exams.
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"Loved these! I'm a horrible notetaker so I'll be your #1 fan in this class"
Willard Grady

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Date Created: 02/05/16
Thursday, September 10, 2015 Reconstruction 1865-1877 -10% of Southern white male population lost their lives in the Civil War -Economic turmoil and land damage; bank system collapses afterward -South and North feel hostile, nervous and unsure how the union will be put back together
 Would the South be treated as territories? Or would they be brought back in?
 Who will decide how they come back in? President? Senate?
 President acts as though they never left.
 Congress feels they should decide because they usually do. -What will happen to the Confederate leaders? -What will happen with Southern plantations?
 Confiscate? -What was going to happen to the 3.5 million slaves?
 Suffrage (fundamental issue)
 Living arrangement
 Rights in general -Radical Republicans: those who thought African Americans should have right
 All believe vote was imperative
 Believed plantations that had been confiscated should be divided and given to newly freed people. - Northern Conservatives
 Said they should take a backseat to these decisions - Southern Conservatives (Democrats)
 Completely against integration - The Free People
 Largest group in the South that is loyal to the Union.
 Want education because they believe that will be the way for them to advance.
 In favor of confiscation of plantations. 1 Thursday, September 10, 2015 - Southern Unionists
 White Southerners (in the mountains?)
 Didn’t like the civil war.
 But liked the race relations. They liked some of the things Republicans were saying like railroads, etc. Only liked their economic changes and education. But anti-the social changes/civil rights. - Reconstruction technically started before the war ended. - Lincoln wants this process to stay in his hands throughout the process. He wanted Reconstruction to be as quick and painless as possible.
 Felt like he should be in charge and it was in his constitutional right. - His plan is called the 10% plan.
 Gives a full pardon and restoration of rights to all white Southerners if they will pledge to the US in the future and will accept the abolition of slavery. - When 10% of the South who voted in 1860 they could start reconstruction. - Republicans come up with the Wade-Davis Bill
 Half of the voters in the South (who voted in 1860) then they will start reconstruction. 
 And they can start voting for delegates to construct state constitutions but they must sign the Iron Clad Oath. - Iron Clad Oath
 Are swearing they never supported the South succession. - Circular Fredom’s Bureau
 Circular Thirteen extended this. Was splitting up the plantations for free people. - Very easy for white, plantation owners. - Things put in place showed they were trying to make it similar to before. - Johnson disbands Circular Thirteen and pulled out black soldiers in the south. - People feared they were going back to the old system.
 Johnson sends ex-Confederates to the Congress. - Southern states still saw themselves as autonomous units. 
 To fight for that independence they planned to pay their state debts. - Black Codes
 The point was to make a landless labor force again without calling it slavery. They 2 Thursday, September 10, 2015 wanted to bar them from selling their labor freely. They wanted to require free people go back to their old positions.
 Through a labor contract. 
 You could easily lose your wages, no one could offer you more and if you stopped caring or spent it unwisely you could be fined, etc.
 If you wanted to open a business, the fine was so high that it wasn’t worth it.
 Weren’t allowed to carry guns, live in certain areas.
 Prohibited inter-racial marriage.
 Had worse punishment than white people.
 Apprenticeship laws allowed for people to take black people’s kids and put them into a short-term slavery.
 Did not have a distinction between free blacks and newly free blacks. - Northerners were angry, but more so for the complete disregard of the fact that the South lost the war. - Congress takes away black people’s seat. - There are the ones who support Johnson, those against him and those in between. - Made some fixes to the Black Codes.
 Renewed the Freedom’s Bureau and added courts run by the military so they can dispute labor contracts. - Johnson vetoes it. - Civil Rights Bill gives blacks the same rights as other citizens. And it also empowers the federal government to try and fix things in the South if race relations get bad. - Citizens of states are exploited and mistreated by their own state. - Johnson vetoes the Civil Rights Act of 1866 but it gets through thanks to the moderates. - To ensure it going on, they passed the 14th amendment. - 14th Amendment
 1. Born or naturalized here are citizens.
 No state can abridge a citizens rights without due process of law or deny citizens equal protection before the law.
 2. If a state denies suffrage to any male citizen, it’s representation in Congress will be proportionally reduced.
 3 Thursday, September 10, 2015 3. All of Johnson’s pardons are null and void.
 4. Reputes debts. - All states that came in the Union - Ten year office act - When Johnson was up for reelection, a few Republicans voted for him and it cost their careers. - 15th Amendment
 Right issues like with suffrage so Congress wrote the 15th Amendment.
 Cannot deny people the right to vote based on race, color or pre-existing conditions. - There were still ways to make voting harder such as poll tax and literacy tests. - Came up with the grandfather clause.
 If your grandfather had voted in an election then you can get out of the poll tax and/or literacy test. - Near impeachment of Johnson - Reconstruction for Southerners: - For a short period, black males for enfranchised (majority in 5 Southern States) and disenfranchised white males. - The Republicans will be taking a lead (blacks are very loyal to them). - Lots of white Northerners go into the South (and fill the leadership roles in Republican party) to make a change or make money. - White Southerners
 1. The back country farmers who never had any part of this or didn’t like it
 2. Southerners who thought the South will be industrialized and support the Republican Party bc of it. - Free people are the backbone of the Republican party being put in.
 8/10 votes 
 Only were 20% of the office holders. - Republicans will expand state bureaucracy. - Will raise salaries for government officials. 4 Thursday, September 10, 2015 - Going to create a public school system.
 Already been created in the North and Midwest. - In 1867, only 1 in 8 white children went to school and no black kids.
 1875: 50% of white kids and 40% of black kids. - Income Tax is seen as illegal.
 They get money through luxury tax, poll tax, property tax, etc. - Before the Civil War, slaves were the property that is tax.
 After, people who had never paid property tax will be paying on their land. - Taxes rose by 400% during Reconstruction.
 Even after the rise, they were still lower than Northern taxes. - Boss Tweed
 Used the New York Treasury as his own personal bank account. - In 1866, 6 young Confederate veterans created a “social club”, the Ku Klux Klan. - Became a militant, terrorist group that came out of the Democratic party. - The violence tells them that:
 A. Without a strong federal commitment to civil rights in the South then all of the work to reform the South is meaningless.
 B. The only way white Southerners will acknowledge this is by force. - New Economy - Initially the planters favored gang labor. - Planters didn’t like it because they were missing a part of their force. Free people hated it because it was too close to slavery. - Share-cropping
 Plantation owners would split up their plantations and rent out small portions of their land to people. 
 You can farm your land and you take half and give the other half to the owner. - Crop Lien system
 To get the seeds, people try bartering and they give a portion of their crop. Which leaves you with little crop. - Debt is widespread. - Wasn’t the same authority as slavery but still gave them an upper hand. 5 Thursday, September 10, 2015 - Women come back to work because it’s seen as the family farm. - 1873, major depression and again in 1893.
 Affects all including white farmers to the point that more white people were sharecropping than black people. - Because sharecroppers needed to plant something that can be sold for money, cotton becomes even more prevalent than during the slave period. - No one has a state in improving agriculture during sharecropping. - The South becomes an economic backwater.
 Mainly an agricultural region with a little bit of industry speed out. - Only 20% of people live in a place that can be defined as urban in 1860.
 Only 2 cities with half a million people.
 By 1910, 3 cities have a million and 5 have half a million.
 Much of the industrialization and growth will be in the North. - In 1920, the U.S. becomes an urban nation. - Second half of nineteenth century, industry moves to cities.
 Immigrant workforce
 Steam power
 Railroads (minimize costs) - Immigrant workforce has to adjust to new work pattern and start creating ethnic neighborhoods so they can buy things from the Old Country and speak in their language. - Citizens who had been here for a while didn’t like the immigrants. - Nativism
 Discrimination against people based on their nationality. - Often strongest in the people who just came over. - Irish immigrants are able to get Congress to pass the Chinese Exclusion Act.
 Put in place for 10 years, renewed in 1892 and permanent in 1902. Finally was abolished in 1942 because they wanted to be on their good side. - New immigration were seen as inferior to the Old immigrants (Western and North v. Eastern Europe) - Americans struggle with fitting everyone in their cities as more immigrants come in. 6 Thursday, September 10, 2015 - Used to have walking cities so you could walk from one end to another on foot. - They started making plans to built out and up.
 You need transportation for building out so the horse drawn railroad is created. - They want something above the ground so they run a machine on the steam engine, but stop because of dirtiness and fire hazard. Put it underground. - Subways allow poorer people to move out. - 50% of infants died - New York predominantly Jewish, Irish, Italian, etc. - 4 out of 5 New Yorkers were either immigrants or kids of immigrants. 7 Tuesday, December 8, 2015 Gilded Age 1877-1900 - Technological innovation
 New Machinery
 Allows for the factory system
 Small shops replaced by factories - Competition
 Out produce rivals
 pools were created - Rapidly falling prices - Failure of money supply to keep up with production - Railroads were one of the first major industries and helped bring transportation costs down. 
 Pennsylvania Railroad: 50,000 workers
 Has to monitor all employees. - Railroad was at the front of bonds and stocks. - First industry with major competition - Vertical Integration 
 - Horizontal Integration - Andrew Carnegie - Rockefeller 
 used pools
 First to have a Trust - 1890: Sherman Anti-Trust Act
 All combination in restraint of trade is illegal.
 Creates a holding company which allows the trust to come in, vote and let the company have say somewhere else - Average salary for male workers was $500 per year. 1 Tuesday, December 8, 2015 - Due to Jim Crow, African American women had to work out of the home. - Knights of Labor
 Terrence Powderly decides to let people know they’re there and people start to join.
 Saloon keepers couldn’t join and neither could lawyers.
 Vision of America very similar to 1820-1830 America.
 Liked cooperation and small business. - American Confederation of Labor
 Samuel Gompers
 Did not think it was possible to go back to 1820-1830 economic standing
 Believed capitalism wasn’t the problem, but rather how little they were being paid.
 Worked on improving workplaces. - Business owners would actually negotiate with the skilled workers, - 1/3 of skilled workers were in AFL
 Made it hard for women, African Americans, etc to join. - America unionized 10% of labor force and it was extremely divided. - African Americans were last hired and first fired.
 Worked as scabs (working while workers were on strike) - National Railroad strike in 1877 - 1886 - McCormick factory strike - When the depression hits around 1896, Pullman slashes wages but keeps rents the same.
 Strike occurs. - Eugene Debs (who doesn’t actually work at Pullman but is a railroad man) leads the strike.
 Brings in railroad workers from across Illinois. - Railroad execs try to get an injunction.
 It goes through, but the workers refuse to obey. - 700 freight cars burned
 Debs is arrested.
 Seen as violating Sherman Anti-Trust. - There were spies and blacklists for people who were trying to organize workers. 2 Tuesday, December 8, 2015 - Being paid “funny money” and could only shop in company stores. - Despite all of the corruption everywhere, they see free people getting positions of power in the South and say that’s the problem.
 Believe if they end Reconstruction then everything will be fixed. - Problems in the South are focused in Louisiana, South Carolina and Florida. - Hayes become president because the neutral party left his seat right before the vote and he’s replaced by a Republican.
 They appeal to the Southern Democrats by promising to end Reconstruction so an uprising didn’t happen. - Voter participation was very high at this time. - Politics were seen as entertainment. - Prohibition, Language, Taxes to help pay for religious schools were local issues. - The dominant philosophy at the time was Laissez-faire.
 Gov was involved in things that would help business but not the working poor. - Issues that got people riled up:
 1. Tariff
 2. Money Supply
 3. Spoil System - 1. Govs at the fed level got their money from tariffs. 
 Businesses liked tariffs on competing goods. - 3. Goes back to Andrew Jackson.
 When people help you get into office, you pay back all of your supporters.
 Helps people who know nothing about government to get into government. - Garfield becomes president and gets shot on July 2, 1881.
 He was a stalwart. Stalwarts stick with stalwarts and half-breeds stick with hald- breeds. - Pendleton Act says some jobs will have a civil service exam to enter. - Assassin applied for a job and didn’t get it because he was a stalwart. - Both of the next candidates have scandal around them (Repub- railroad, Dem- illegitimate child) - Calls the Democrats the party of Rum, Romanism and Rebellion. 3 Tuesday, December 8, 2015 - Cleveland embraces laissez-faire when he comes into office. - In nineteenth century, look at it as doing things on behalf of cooperation, but nothing to help workers or regulate. - Bill that would give Midwestern farmers seeds to replenish supply and he denies it.
 - Democrat in the case of tariffs. 
 Against tariffs because he thinks it brings too much money to the government. Claims the government starts to use money in corrupt ways.
 Pork barrel project - when politicians send money back home for projects
 Says they’re more likely.
 Claims tariffs protect the trust. - Requirements to get pensions lower as they get more money. 
 Gets a bill on his desk that states that Union soldiers can get a pension for any injury even if it wasn’t from war - denies it. - Cleveland gets the popular vote, but is not put back into office. - Called Harrison’s administration the billion dollar congress.
 Looks like they’re only there for business. - Farmers are struggling greatly
 Don’t know the wage they’ll get
 Weather is horrible - Farmer’s Alliances
 North Farmer’s Alliance
 Stronghold in the South - South is rapidly segregating
 National Colored Farmers Alliance - Alliances started to get involved in politics because they couldn’t change enough
 Decided they would reward those who benefited them
 Litmus Test - Wanted a lower tariff
 Graduated income tax
 Public Ownership of railroads
 Free and unlimited coinage of silver 4 Tuesday, December 8, 2015 - Elected 4 governors, 8 Congress control, 3 Senators and 50 representatives were Alliance backed
 Waited for them to do what they had wanted them to do, but they quickly forget who sent them there. So they start the People’s Party (The Populists Party). - Initiative, Referendum, Recall - Direct election of Senators
 In the beginning, Senators were chosen by state legislators. But this allowed people to buy their own senator. - Sub-Treasury system - William Jenning - Frontier is disappearing - As Americans debated going, they made their decisions based on:
 The Monroe Doctrine - claims the Western Hemisphere was “their” hemisphere and that it was closed
 The idea of the “open door” - John Jay wrote this to keep China as an individual nation so they could continue the current trade - Gold discovered between British Guin… and Venezuela (also there are great ports)
 Cleveland tells them if they want to go in then they will go to war.
 Venezuela is not at the compromise meeting. - People won’t buy Hawaiian sugar because of the tariff. - Butcher Weyler is sent the Spanish (?) to help fix the problem of the Cubans coming. - Yellow Journalism comes out in this time.
 Yellow journalism doesn’t really tell the facts. - Hearse wants a sketch artist to give him a false war story from Cuba. - When the USS Maine explodes, they blame the Spanish (explosives were actually on board) and go into the Spanish-American War because of it. - Teddy R thinks it was a great idea. - Teddy sends Navy ships to the Philippines to also fight there. 
 Filipinos are very happy because they want to be liberated. 5 Tuesday, December 8, 2015 - Americans decide to keep the Philippines to help Christianize them.
 Filipinos are already Christians because they had been a Spanish colony for hundreds of years. - Filipinos fight back to keep there Independence, but they lose. - We also take Guam and Puerto Rico from Spain after the end of the war. - French tried to build the Panama Canal but the whole process was horrible.
 They try to pass it over to the United States (Teddy’s all for it).
 Columbia says no because the treaty still goes on for a few more years and then they will let them pay for it years for me. - Panama becomes an independent nation and the first thing they do is sign a treaty for the canal. - Teddy immediately wants to invade Dominican Republican
 Puts together the Roosevelt Golarty - To fix things at the time they want the gov to be more responsive to the people - Progressivism came out of this - Pragmatism - created b - Social Darwinism with - The idea of controlling the masses seeped into race relations. Southern white citizens start to instate:
 Poll taxes 
 Literacy tests
 Grandfather clause - Slowly African Americans find themselves shut out of the vote. - Segregation is moving forward greatly in the South.
 Set of laws known as Jim Crow.
 Lynch mobs enforced Jim Crow. - In 1875, gov passes civil rights act that public place discrimination was illegal.
 Three years later, Supreme Court says this is unconstitutional because the 14th amendment is only there to protect citizens from the state but not from other citizens. - 188__ brings Plessy v. Ferguson (test case).
 Rules that separate but equal is constitutional. 6 Tuesday, December 8, 2015 - Supreme Court upholds poll tax and literacy tests. - Booker T. Washington
 Studied at the freed man school.
 Opens his own college, Tuskeegee.
 Believed a way to diminish racial prejudice was to make African Americans economically valuable and then they would be welcomed in society.
 Acommodationist Approach - WEB DuBois
 Disagreed greatly with Washington’s approach.
 Dedicated an entire chapter of his book talking down about his idea.
 Helps develop the NAACP. - Washington was popular in the South because his idea was much more realistic for them.
 DuBois was popular in the North because there was racism but violence was not to the same degree. - 1915 - Grandfather clause is gone.
 1917 - Supreme Court says segregation cannot be on the books. - Some states give women the right to vote, all for odd reason.
 Mormons want women to vote so they can keep control.
 Wyoming want women there to civilize the state. - Women argue they should get the vote because they’re different from men and that they could clean up the corruption in politics. - Suffragettes were the radical suffragist groups. 
 Suffragists of Great Britain would do anything to get their point across. - NAWSA were the suffragists who were older and had been in this for a while. - Alice Paul
 A Quaker
 Spent some time with the suffragists in Great Britain and brought back the militancy. - Teddy R goes into New York with a reform policy.
 They get him on the ticket because the state boss finds his plans to be a pain.
 Gets in as vice but becomes president when McKinley is assassinated.
 Strengthened the executive branch. 7 Tuesday, December 8, 2015 - Believed in big government because he believes that someone needs to be able to keep all the other large groups in line.
 Calls in the Square Deal. - Anthracite Coal Strike
 Wanted their union recognized
 Higher Wage
 Less Hours
 Decides this is a job for the government and wants to discuss this with them.
 Only gets the companies to come when he lets it slip that he thinks the government should own the mines. - 1902 was the first time gov intervened on the side of workers.
 Teddy is not a labor president, however. Wants to solve everything as fairly as possible. - Teddy believed trusts were a natural growth of capitalism. 
 Good Trusts v. Bad Trusts
 Makes a gentlemen’s agreement that he won’t go after the trusts that follow the rules, but breaks up bad trusts. - William Howard Taft
 Very different from Teddy
 Busts all trusts (good or bad) which angers Teddy
 Very adamant getting the 16th Amendment (income tax) out to be ratified - 1912 Election
 Teddy decides to run again
 Six primaries that year, Teddy wins all of them
 At the convention, Taft controls the party and gets the nomination
 Progressive Party is starting and finally found a candidate (Teddy)
 Teddy agrees to be their candidate and runs as the third party
 Democratic Party play it smart and nominate Woodrow Wilson
 Teddy called his platform, the New Nationalism
 Wilson called his platform, the New Freedom - Teddy had been coming up with his plan for a while
 Kept going with the regulation plan for business - Wilson say big business as a problem
 Claimed they lessened competition and said they needed to be break up monopolies 
 8 Tuesday, December 8, 2015 Didn’t want the government interfering in the everyday things like child labor, workday etc - Eugene V Debs also ran for president in 1912 as the head of the Socialist Party (gets 1 million votes) - Wilson
 Democratics control both houses
 Brings Jim Crow to Washington DC
 Reduces the tariff 
 Centralizes the banking system (Federal Reserve)
 Got legislation called the Clayton Anti-Trust Act passed that said the Sherman Anti- trust Act did not apply to labor unions
 Regulates more than breaks up big business
 Starts to do more social reform between 1914-1916
 Creates the Workers Compensation Legislation
 Uses Interstate Commerce Powers - brings about the 8 hour day for railroad workers
 First attempt - Any products shipped across state laws could not be produced with child labor 
 Second attempt - tried to create a tax 
 (Child labor is not illegal until 1938) - The progressive area changed the way the people saw the government
 People started to believe they should be apart of social change
 People also start to like big government
 Comfort with a strong executive branch - Amendments
 Income Tax
 Direct election of Senators
 Women’s right to vote - Wilson asks citizens to be neutral “thought and deed” in the war - Propaganda war between Britain and Germany to get the US to choose a side - The US economic trade to Britain was much stronger than Germany
 Their trade amount triples - Trade with Germany started very high and was reduced to almost nothing by the end of the war 9 Tuesday, December 8, 2015 - In the beginning of the war, Wilson won’t lend money
 Two years later they agree - William Jennings
 Secretary of State
 not happy with lending money, feels they’re going towards war - Germans have U-Boats and submarines 
 With blockades, new rules are established
 Certain sections of sea are seen as war zones and if one comes in that area then they will be subject to fire - May 7, 1915
 British ship Lusitania
 1200 people lost their lives after it was attacked by a submarine that had been following them for a while - Wilson says they will join the war on the side of Britain if Germany keeps using underwater warfare
 Germany agrees but in early 1917 they decide to go back - April 2, 1917
 Wilson asks for a declaration of war against Germany
 Claims it will help better the worlD
 Wants to have a seat at the peace treaty table
 Wants to create a League of Nations through this war - Randolph Borne and John Dewey (Progressives) get into a debate over the way 
 Dewey says war is a time for people to bring about change and socially involved people can bring change 
 Borne disagrees; if you weren’t strong enough to stop it from coming, how can you control it once it’s here? (People were very reactionary after) - Dewey was more correct because government grew through this
 War Industries Board - gov agency largely responsible for overseeing orders and what factories were given what task
 Bureau of standards to make better products for business
 Food Administration (run by Herbert Hoover; he believed in voluntarism that in times of trouble people will do the right thing and help) 
 National War labor board, representatives from unions, business and government and figure out what are the best policies; unions agree not to strike, business gives 8 hour 10 Tuesday, December 8, 2015 day
 Railroad Administration because they’re not doing their job; nationalize the railroad and they run much better (given back after the war) - Attempts to regulate the homefront
 Ideological conformity
 Leaders were very worried about dissent back home so they pushed patriotic
 The government did so much mobilization that they overdid it (during WWII, the gov looked at it as what not to do) - Creel Committee
 Creel worked to get the propaganda out to the people (WWII they tried to get facts rather than this) - Conformity
 German pacifist minister who was against the war ended up being lynched
 Court dismissed it 
 Burning German books, refused to play German music, renamed food to go with the thoughts
 100% Americanism - Espionage Act passed
 Punished spying and criticism that was hindering the military (such as encouraging men not to enlist in the draft - Alien Act came through
 Aliens who had dangerous ideas - Sedition Act
 punished publication of dissent - “I am for the people and the government is for the profiteers” got ___ Rose 10 years in prison - Eugene Debs gets a few years in prison because he explains the economic origin of the war - Schenck v US
 Young man that was passing out literature that said resist the draft
 Supreme Court heard the case and held up the Espionage Act
 Gov can repress the First Act if those rights present a danger to the nation 11 Tuesday, December 8, 2015 - African Americans
 Great Migration - moving from the Southern states to the North
 Little to no immigration 
 White Americans are going overseas to fight
 Great time to get a job up North
 Lots of racial tension (race riots) - Women start to get jobs that they wouldn’t have gotten before
 Are pressured after to leave these jobs - Wilson gets the opportunity to be at the Peace table
 Called for self-determination 
 Wants to see autonomy for people in the Austro-Hungarian empire - wants colonial people to have a say in how they will be governed
 End to secret treaties
 Lower tariffs and better trade
 Association of countries (LOFN) - Wilson was great at speeches, bad negotiator, bad with 1x1 - Wilson made a huge error by bringing one Republican with him - Jan 1919 in Versailles
 France and Britain want Germany to take full responsibility for this war
 Want them to pay for it all - After Wilson’s stroke, the treaty finally gets to the floor
 Dems won’t take the Republican edited version
 Republicans won’t take the Wilson version
 US is not apart of the WWI peace treaty
 ______________________________________________________________ - 1920s
 Booming economy
 One worker can produce far more with machines
 Booming auto industry - 1920 - 10 mil cars on the road
 1929 - 26 mil cars on the road - Used so many products that they pushed other industries forward 12 Tuesday, December 8, 2015 - Henry Ford
 Believed cars were an important tool
 Transportation was needed especially in rural areas
 Did not have education past 8th grade
 Wants to make an affordable car for the masses
 Ford comes up with the assembly line from the meat packing industry
 Before Ford, cars were like jets; only wealthy people would have them - General Motors
 Saw cars as stylized, luxury goods
 Ford wanted practicality and simplicity like tools, GM came in many colors and styles - Ford was apart of the doctrine of high wages
 The idea that if we’re going to have a high consumption economy then we need consumers
 In his hands it had a targeted impact
 Announced he was going to pay his workers $5 a day
 Had to go through a check of their personal lives
 reduces to a 40 hour week
 Reduce turnover (300% in 1915)
 Speeds up the assembly line
 Will not tolerate unions (not unionized until the 1930s) - In 1920, US becomes an urban nation
 A conflict starts to emerge: some people like the old way (Traditionalist) and some people liked the way things were going and what the city stood for (Modernist)
 Traditionalists wanted to go back to the 19th century ways the way they envisioned it
 Modernists wanted to keep going forward how they envisioned it - Immediately following WWI, race riots break out
 White southerners are not happy that black veterans had spent time in integrated society and had gotten used to those conditions
 1919 - one of the worst lynch cases where many black veterans were lynched in their uniforms 
 Conflict in cities because African Americans
 Outside Chicago - young child swims into the white side and people start throwing rocks
 Terrible race riots - 15 days of terror, 1000s of African Americans are left homeless - Everything is based on perceptions currently 13 Tuesday, December 8, 2015 - After WWI, there was a reaction against radicalism, labor unions and people on the left - Socco and Vanzetti
 Avoided being drafted
 Arrested for robbery
 The trial had very little to do with the crime committed and more about who they were
 Much of the questions were political 
 Sentenced to death
 Liberals rise up
 Gang member in Rhode Island pleads guilty but the judge won’t open the case and they are executed - After WWI, immigration skyrockets - Gov comes up with the quota
 Based on how many people were living in the country at a time and decided the percentage of the population that could keep coming in
 Look at 1890 and decide that 2% can come
 Less of the new immigrants were coming through so they will have more of the old immigrants - Morals
 Prohibition is passed because of the destructiveness of alcohol in communities
 Prohibited selling, distribution and trading (not drinking)
 Many stopped enforcing it 
 Al Capone is building up his crime network and does very well during Prohibition
 Before Prohibition, Americans drank beer and wine but hard liquor was more profitable so the drinks changed
 Working class drinking dropped significantly at the same time that radio and movies were on the rise - Reemergence of the KKK
 Founded in 1915 in Georgia
 Quickly became a national organization and the main center became Indiana
 New clan started to focus on ethnicity
 Came from the rural areas but went to cities and were in shock of what they saw 
 Pushing for chastity, parental authority, white supremacy, prohibition and law and 14 Tuesday, December 8, 2015 order
 very successful
 Moves into politics and several legislatures dominated
 Cannot be passed to be stopped in national gov
 David Stevenson
 Abducts a woman, gets her drunk, etc
 Gets charged for manslaughter but instead of going down alone, he unveils the corruption of the KKK and brings it down in the process - Divide religiously
 Darwin has great influence on thought
 Evolution starts to be integrated into religion
 Liberal Protestant Churches
 The Fundamentals
 Divine inspiration of every word in the Bible (the word of God)
 Emphasis the genesis version of creation
 Denounce the modern churches - States start passing evolution laws, making it illegal to teach evolution in school - John Scopes
 Test case in Tennessee
 First trial to be broadcasted by radio 
 On the prosecution: William Jennings Bryan (has a heart attack two days after the end of the case)
 Defense: Clarence Darrow - very controversial, a bohemian; took a case because he’s anti-death penalty and uses Freud to his advantage and guilts them out of convicting them
 John Scopes found guilty - 1920 Election: Warren G. Harding Republican candidate (wins)
 Runs on returning to normalcy - no more tests, reforms, wars which citizens like
 Third Party candidate - Eugene Debs, ran from prison on the Socialist ticket; Harding pardons Debs - Republican Ascendency
 Dominate Congress and White House throughout the 20s - Harding was very nice, but bad judge of character
 One of his appointments actually convicted
 Herbert Hoover was one of his good ones - his plans won’t work as well this time 15 Tuesday, December 8, 2015 around
 Hoover becomes Secretary of Commerce - Andrew Mellon
 Secretary of the Treasury
 Strong push of trickle-down economics - Harding does not finish first term and is replaced by Calvin Coolidge - Coolidge keeps Hoover and Mellon in their positions
 Hoover tries to find the middle ground between big and laissez-faire
 Hoover uses the government to help business
 Helped businesses navigate discussions between without violating anti-trust laws
 Goes with trickle-down economics - Welfare capitalism
 Capitalists look out for the welfare of their workers
 Pay workers decent wages, retirement benefits, decent hours, workplace that is safe, comfortable and healthy
 Idea is that worker will be more loyal
 Unions start to have a hard time - when it’s gone, workers realize the need
 Closed shops where everyone has to belong to a union and Open shops where you have a choice - Farmers during WWI bought more land and machinery and produced bc Europe was not producing
 Economic depression
 1/3 of people make money from farming
 16% in teens; 9% in 1929
 Legislation for farmers was never successful
 Coolidge saw that farmers were a special interest and felt they didn’t need to be helped though they helped business - 1928 election
 Democrat: Al Smith
 Had run in 1924 election
 Other candidate was native born, pro-prohibition (Al would enforce but didn’t like it)
 Nominated on first ballot in 1928
 Republican: Herbert Hoover
 16 Tuesday, December 8, 2015 South cracks and multiple states vote Republican (vote as you pray - Protestant v Catholic(Smith))
 Democratic party starts to become the urban party - Herbert Hoover
 Stock market crash in 1929 - Stock market
 Emphasis on dividends
 1920s: Stocks were seen as a quick way to make money
 RCA - stocks started at $85 and rose to $425
 Often would put down 10 and loan the last 75 - buying stock on margin
 Helps make a stay economy - Investment trusts
 Business that holds stock - Interest rates start to rise (close to 20%)
 People don’t care how high it is - Mellon had cut cooperate taxes
 Businesses had a lot of money and started to loan it out to people to play the stock market
 Money that was supposed to be there for trickle-down was going straight to the stock market - Fed tell banks to stop loaning money and they do but businesses are still loaning
 When people stop getting loans and stop investing and start taking money out, stock market crashes - 10 billion dollars out in a matter of months
 1929-1933: stocks went from 87 billion to 18 billion
 The economy was not sound and allowed the Depression to go on for a decade
 Construction and auto were cutting back
 Glass, Steel, Rubber later - 1920 economy was based on mass consumption
 Lower prices or higher wages to keep the consumption but instead is taken as profit
 Cannot keep economy going 17 Tuesday, December 8, 2015 - Consumer Credit emerges
 Once loans start to be paid off, they won’t have the money or loan power to buy goods - Sick industry
 Railroad, textile, mining, farming
 Only working 2/3 time, lay-offs - Herbert Hoover gets cooperation to not cut prices, cut wages or cut workers
 Made a tax-cut to indirectly stimulate the economy
 Puts in place a tariff - blames foreign trade for the Depression but this actually hurts - Citizens believe the gov budget works like a family budget
 Largest tax increase in American history because he realize they were extremely in the red - Employers had to start cutting because if they hadn’t they would have gone under - Eventually Hoover strays away from volunteerism and sees that the gov has to be involved
 Pushes through Reconstruction Finance Cooperation -makes loans to railroads, banks and insurance companies
 Insurance was used as a form of savings
 Hoover was ok using the gov to give money to cooperation, but not directly to the people (direct relief)
 Hoover approves a bill to feed livestock but vetoes a bill to feed people
 Eventually pushes through Emergency Relief and Construction Act
 Puts out public works such as bridges, post offices, etc and a portion of this is direct relief on condition that states provide matching funds - Veterans bonuses
 Was pushed through in the 20s as a thank you
 Early in the Depression a Congressman wanted to honor the bonus now
 The Bonus Army (50000 people) develops
 It doesn’t go through
 About 10,000 don’t know where to go so they stay in DC and build encampments or sleep in government buildings 
 Army destroys the veterans shacks and all
 Tried to claim they were radicals but Vets Association did a survey and 9/10 were veterans, 7/10 served overseas and 2/10 were disabled 18 Tuesday, December 8, 2015 - Democrats blame the Depression on the Republicans, cut spending, put more money into public works Also prohibition would be repealed
 Roosevelt easily wins - FDR
 Came from privilege
 Marries Eleanor Roosevelt and have multiple kids until 1918 when she discovers he’s having an affair
 Eleanor’s conditions were they would be political partners and the affair would end 
 Many scholars claim that the polio transformed him because before he has everything and could have anything and after he was able to understand the American people
 Eleanor transformed being a First Lady
 Became his eyes, ears and legs, talking to American people and was the conscious of the administration (pushes for an anti-lynch law federally)
 in 1939, Eleanor’s approval rating was higher then Franklin
 Roosevelt calls Congress into session and talks them into buying into his plans
 Approaches government as a quarterback
 Very pragmatic approach instead a big master plan
 First 100 days - Relief, Recovery and Reform - Reform
 Banks were closing 
 States were afraid if they were open then there would be a run on banks
 Declares a national banking holiday and passes a Emergency Banking Act
 Sends inspectors to all banks to see if they were sound and if they were, they would open; if not, they would be given the funds they need
 Goes on a fireside chat 
 Two days later Stock market has its largest increase to date and banks were failing at lower rates
 Glass Steagall - separate commercial banking from investment banking
 Security Exchange Commission - meant to watch over Wall Street to make sure they played by the rules - Relief 
 First half of 1933, 1000 homes were being foreclosed everyday
 Gov helped to refinance their mortgages so they could keep paying
 CCC (____ Conservation Core): (22-27 year old) boys would go to these camps to build camps, forestry projects, irrigation projects, etc
 19 Tuesday, December 8, 2015 Recovery
 • Agriculture ___ Association
 Allotment Program - money the gov would pay them not to plant
 Causes some problem in the South with the sharecropping system
 Sharecroppers are pushed off their plots 
 National Recovery Administration - bill is very vague
 General Hugh Johnson - background in agriculture
 Took what he knew it put it to industry, but they weren’t feeling the same pressure of competition
 Saw it all as a cutthroat competition still
 Set up Codes of fair competition - said prices could not be lowered below a certain level
 Limit production
 Decide what industries can make what
 Section 7a - gives labor minimum wages, maximum hours, right to bargain collectively and end of child labor
 The Blue Eagle - if a business had signed a code of competition they could put this in their window
 The idea was that citizens would keep walking and it would force businesses to sign
 Sscheder v US (the sick chicken case), 1935 - Supreme Court declares NRA is unconstitutional Dr. Francis Townsend
 • Thought one of the big problems was the poverty in the elderly community
 Comes up with Townsend Plan - have the government pay people 60+ $200 a month
 Townsend clubs start springing up
 9 out of 10 people support this plan
 US was one of the last industrial countries to think about elderly compensation • Huey Long
 Gov of Louisiana
 Private police force, dictates Congress
 Did a lot for the poor, both black and white
 Share Our Wealth
 Saw the maldistribution as a problem
 1mil and 100,000 income as cap to wealth
 Minimum salary was 2500
 20 Tuesday, December 8, 2015 Guaranteed scholarships to college
 By 1934-5, 8 million people are apart of SOW clubs
 In 1935, Huey’s assassinated while home by the son of someone who was wronged by Huey’s plans The Second New Deal
 • Works Progress Administration - Focus on getting people jobs; come up with the lending library, the theater project where professional actors put on shows and are paid by the government; historians get jobs making state guides
 Social Security Act in 1935 - includes old age pension, unemployment insurance, aid for dependent mothers and children; paid for a bit by workers and taxes from employers
 Revenue Act of 1935 - raises taxes on the wealthy and cooperations
 Wagner Act - Takes the labor legislation into one bill • 1936 ushers in the New Deal order
 replaces regional interests with class interests far more • Labor
 unskilled/semi-skilled jobs doubled
 Favor of an Industrial Leaders
 John Lewis - pushes for creation of the Committee for Industrial Organization
 Becomes Congress of Industrial Organization (CIO)
 Changes in gov attitudes changed cooperations feelings on negotiations with workers
 Very loyal to Roosevelt and the Democratic party • African Americans
 2/3 of Northern blacks vote Republican
 After 1932, a black editor in the North tells people to start voting Democrats
 By 1938, 85% are voting Democrat
 Eleanor is a force for racial justice - pushes for African Americans to be appointed to the New Deal posts • Women
 Eleanor pushes for women to be appointed in government positions. • Roosevelt has a large amount of legislation going through and the Supreme Court keeps turning things down. 
 He hasn’t been able to appoint a justice yet, but decides to appoint one for every 21 Tuesday, December 8, 2015 justice on the court who are 70+ and haven’t retired. By doing this, he’s packing the court and loses him supporters. • Court packing slows the momentum of the New Deal
 The Conservative Coalition is created after
 Republicans and Conservative Democrats
 By 37-38, New Deal has wound down • John Maynard Keynes
 Economist from Great Britain
 Neither were impressed with one another
 Keynes claimed that governments could play more of a role to stop the depression/ major growth economic cycle
 Wants them to pull more (through tax, tightening credit, money circulation) money out in highs and pump money in during lows • Roosevelt decides to cut on spending in 1936
 Happens at the same time that the first Social Security is being taking out
 1937 - Roosevelt Recession
 Convinced a lot of New Dealers that Keynes ideas are better • New Deal is slowing down and things in Europe/Asia are heating up
 December 7, 1941 - Pearl Harbor
 Japan/US tension goes back centuries to the Marshall Plan (check later)
 Embraced the Western ideas including Imperialism
 First seize Korea in 1905
 Defeat Russia in 1904
 Teddy offers to negotiate the peace
 He’d like to see a balance of power rather than putting one in for the other
 Roosevelt gives Russia things Japan believes should be theirs
 San Francisco school board decides to segregate the white children from Japanese children
 Teddy does a gentlemen’s agreement (no written document)
 Cali agrees to stop segregating and Teddy agrees to stop taking passports 
 1908 - sign a treaty to keep China open
 WWI - Japanese try to expand in China but the US won’t let them
 Militarists come to power in Japan and start to expand into China
 Hoover tries to stop them but doesn’t put up much fight because we’re in a Depression
 Japan takes over much of China
 22 Tuesday, December 8, 2015 Fachist governments start to come into power - Italy and Germany
 Attempts to demolish all Democratic political powers
 Starts his reign of terror on Jewish People
 Hitler takes over Austria first and then goes for the Sudetenland 
 Was taken after WWI
 Britain starts to get involved - meets with Hitler in Munich
 Neville Chamberlain is the current Prime Minister
 Chamberlain appeases Hitler, pressures Czech Slovakia
 Chamberlain comes back to London and exclaims “We have achieve peace in our time”
 Hitler annexes all of Czech Slovakia
 Britain signs a treaty with Poland that if Hitler attacks they will get involved • US is extremely isolationist
 Neutrality Acts are put into place to keep the peace and they try to plan ahead before they be dragged in
 Requires the president in the event of war to embargo arms shipments to people of war
 Forbids citizens to sail on belligerent vessels
 Requires the president to deny bankers the right to extend credit to foreign powers 1937
 • Poll taken of Americans about intervention in Europe
 94% says they should not intervene • Roosevelt did not agree and saw that if they do not win, the US will be stuck between militaristic Japan and Faschist Germany/Italy
 55% of citizens want to see Neutrality Acts edited so they can help the Allies and not the Axis powers
 September 1, 1939 - Hitler invades Poland and Britain comes to their aid but Hitler takes it over pretty quickly 
 Roosevelt calls Congress back in session to revise Neutrality Acts
 Cash & Carry - British can buy goods, but they have to pay cash and carry them on their own ships
 April - they go in Norway and Sweden and a month later they are in Belgium, Luxembourg, Denmark, Holland etc
 June 10 - Paris surrenders
 Also Britain is nearly destroyed Roosevelt is given money for rebuilding and Congress issues a draft • 23 Tuesday, December 8, 2015 • Battle of Britain is happening currently - summer of bombing • November 1940 - Rooselvelt’s third term happens • Winston Churchill
 New Prime Ministers
 Writes a letter to Roosevelt 
 Says the British are willing to do the fighting but they are running out of supplies and money
 Roosevelt agrees it is in the US best interest to keep the British going
 Says they have to become the Arsenal for Democracy
 Submits a piece of legislation to Congress called Lend Lease (authorizes the president to lend military equipment whose defense he deems vital to protect the US)
 Was not going into this world unless they had to and the citizens supported it
 Dec 7 - Pearl Harbor • 300 billion dollar war
 16 million men and women fighting
 300,00 dead; 700,000 injured • Relocation of Japanese and Japanese-Americans
 forced to give up everything and move inward to camps
 Japanese people in Hawaii did not relocate 
 Japanese people are selling at rock bottom prices because there was so much on the market • Germans have to register in the country, but they do fine in this country
 Same with Italians • Radicals do well as well
 Soviet Union is one of our allies so citizens do not worry about it as much Units are still segregated
 • Forces will not be integrated until Korea/Harry Truman • As the war progresses, married men and fathers with children are being drafted into the army
 1940-45: families headed by women rises from 3/4 of a million to 3 million
 Lots of push to get women into the workplace 
 Women were looking at it as patriotism, but mainly as a way to finally make money again 24 Tuesday, December 8, 2015 • England set up a support system to help women who they had needed to mobilize and get to work
 The US was very informal but the gov wouldn’t get involved in fear women would want to work after
 Mothers would park their teens at the movies, infants in the car, their mother or sister in the area • 1943: juvenile delinquency rises 20%; all other crimes drops • Housing and automobiles were not being made and changed to war plants or something else
 Meat, butter and sugar were all rationed
 Consumption was cut down
 The US was nothing compared to the British and that was nothing to the Soviet Union where people were starving and eating anything they can find • Economy starts to gear up again and unemployment drops (2% by 1943)
 US cannot balance its budgets
 Lots of money coming in but consumer goods aren’t being produced
 Major inflation
 Try to lower it with higher taxes and war bonds and that generation were able to pay for the war • OPA
 Sets rates
 Wages can’t go above a level
 Retail prices can’t go above
 Rent can’t go above a level • Germany issues an unconditional surrender
 Allies predicted this when they met in Yalta
 Plan to create the United Nations
 Decided the government on the ground running Poland would stay in power; same as Yugoslavia
 Secret provisions - getting Russia into the war in Southeast Asia • No nation lost more people than the Soviet Union • Summer 1945 - Scientists in Mexico successfully develop an atomic device
 Roosevelt was elected to his 4th term and he had an anneurism and passed away
 Truman became president and decided to use
 25 Tuesday, December 8, 2015 August 6, 1945 - bomb was dropped on Osaka and 60,000 people died within the first 2 minutes
 Two days later second was dropped Nagasaki • Depression doesn’t occur because Americans went on a buying spree 
 Government keeps on spending
 1947 - 9 billion military spending
 1952 - 16 billion
 GI Bill - plans to pay for college for veterans (so 50% of male college students at the time)
 Instrumental to take the US from a blue collar country to a white collar country
 Becomes a more suburban nation and prosperous nation
 Women were not eligible for the GI Bill though they served • Labor 
 Decline in hours after the war
 Want a 30% wage raise
 Truman isn’t having it with their strike • Truman looking to expand the New Deal
 All the projects he wants to are of no interest to citizens or Congress • Robert Taft
 Not a fan of New Deal and hoped it would be dismantled • 1946 - Republican landslide in the Congress • Truman saw Stalin and Hitler as sides of the same coin
 Does not want to follow a policy of appeasement Soviets are nervous because the US has a stake in Middle Eastern oil, Latin • America, troops in Europe, infrastructure wasn’t touched and more countries in the UN are friendly with them • Soviets decide to ramp up production, half the world is controlled by Capitalism and the other is Communism • George Kennan
 Says Soviet leaders are paranoid and you can’t reason them; you must contain them
 Policy of Containment 26 Tuesday, December 8, 2015 • Truman Doctrine
 Idea that the US will help any country fighting totalitarianism/communism • Marshall Plan
 Idea to pump money into Europe to help relieve homelessness and hunger
 Also the US needed Europe to rebuild so they can do well in the economy • Thomas Dewey
 Liberal Republican
 Governor of New York • Truman is Democrat candidate
 Hubert Humphrey pushed for a plank in the platform is based on civil rights • Southerners are angry and create their own party called the Dixiecrats • Progressive Party also runs
 Henry Wallace
 Big in agriculture in 1930s
 Wallace was on the ticket in 1940 as vice president • Truman wins by over 2 million votes
 Took the House and the Senate • Truman’s foreign policy was not as successful this term
 Aug 1949 - Scientists found nuclear waste in the Pacific Ocean meaning Soviets had tested a bomb
 Dec 1949 - communist government takes over in China • Senator from Wisconsin (Joseph McCarthy) told people cross the country that there were red card carrying Communists in the Senate
 Finds dubious connections and causes people to lose job, get blacklisted etc
 Start to air the hearings of potential Communists but people start to lose interest and press stops covering him
 Claims a lot of communists are in the army • Korean War
 divides at 38th parallel
 June 1950 - 95,000 troops from the North invade South Korea
 Truman didn’t go to Congress but instead to the UN
 Asked for a police action - General McArthur would lead
 50% of troops were US
 27 Tuesday, December 8, 2015 43% South Korean
 7% other places • McArthur chases North Korean forces over the border
 Chinese gov notices their getting close so they push them over the 38th parallel • 55,000 Americans died
 100,000 injured 
 54 million in cost
 Accelerated executive power • Truman decides not to run
 Dwight Eisenhower 
 Decides he’s a Republican 
 Famous general • Richard Nixon
 Vice president on the ticket 
 Had the credentials the party wanted 
 Runs a business-like government
 Decides he’s a conservative • Trucks and automobiles made it very easy to live in the suburbs • Country goes into a recession • Religious no matter what religion because communism was atheist • Suburban impact on family
 Nuclear family
 Women being wives
 Women worked in the 50s but women were with kids do not usual • Brown vs Board • Emmett Till 
 Killed bc he was whistling at white women
 Open casket, showed America what was happening in the south • Gov is taking a change for civil rights • Beat Movement 
 Poets and writers
 People who go with Beats are with drugs and 
 28 Tuesday, December 8, 2015 Closing public schools to avid segregation
 Boycott for a year • 1960 election
 John F Kennedy
 the young candidate
 The first televised debate
 Kennedy was better with the media and talking to people
 100,000 votes separate them • Eye on the Prize
 Majority of students who had been arrested chose to stay in jail rather than pay the fine
 It was said that they had buying power of 50 million a year, 10 million of that at Downtown stores
 Decide to stop buying downtown
 When King was put into jail, Kennedy called Mrs. King and said he wanted to help
 Called the judge and King was released the next day • Kennedy
 Sets up the Peace Corp
 The Alliance for progress - program in which the US will invest 20 million dollars to Latin America to fix the income gap
 Both have containment traits
 Meant to make communism have less of an appeal to Africa and Latin American areas
 (Eisenhower administration) Brinkmanship - idea that you focus on nuclear warheads
 Shows the world that your willing to take the world near a nuclear war to keep people in check
 Works for big problems but not small hotspots
 Kennedy brings in flexible response - builds up the army but also builds up special forces and also nuclear forces
 Defense budget grew by 25%
 Bay of pigs - idea was that forces would rally the people and rise up to bring down Castro; Kennedy gives them the go ahead
 Doesn’t work; the refugees were either captured or killed}
 1962 - Soviet Unions were putting nuclear missile sites into Cuba
 29 Tuesday, December 8, 2015 Castro wanted to have the missiles there because he believed the US wanted to take down his regime
 Kennedy decides to create a blockade against Cuba
 Soviet Union and Kennedy are in talks and they agree to stop the delivery so behind the scenes Kennedy also takes down missile sites in Turkey
 After WWII, Indochina was split up in Laos, Vietnam and Thailand
 Vietnam was not happy about this
 Ho Chi Minh
 Studied in French and read Marx
 Follows Marxist ideas while creating an effort to drive the French out
 1954 - French are defeated by Ho Chi Minh and his forces
 At the peace table they agree to split Vietnam
 Ho Chi Minh was in control of North; Ngo Dinh Diem was in control of the South 
 Diem was a Catholic in control of a Buddhist country and was not sympathetic to Buddhism
 Gave family and friends jobs in his government
 In 2 years Vietnam was going to reunite and it would be through elections they would choose the leader but Diem refuses because he knew he wouldn’t win which dragged them back into war
 Kennedy goes back to the Eisenhower ideas
 Domino theory where if one falls to communism then all the other countries would too
 Sends advisors to Vietnam 
 16,000 Americans there; over 600 died while not at war
 Late 1963 - Diem is assassinated but it continues because the generals after him are not much better
 A month later, Kennedy is assassinated • LBJ
 Johnson was very different from Kennedy


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