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ENG 234, Weeks 2 3 and 4

by: Elizabeth Brake

ENG 234, Weeks 2 3 and 4 ENG 234WI

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Elizabeth Brake
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These notes cover all the material we have gone over from weeks 2, 3, and 4.
Introduction to Literary Analysis
Brevda, William
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This 11 page Bundle was uploaded by Elizabeth Brake on Friday February 5, 2016. The Bundle belongs to ENG 234WI at a university taught by Brevda, William in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views.


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Date Created: 02/05/16
Aristotle Continued 01/19/2016 Aristotle Cont.  Peripeteia or Peripety: Is a reversal of fortune. Its when an action takes a course that wasn’t expected. When things suddenly turn around. The basic reversal in a tragedy is a reversal of fortune.  Hamartia: A fatal mistake (literally) It makes the hero responsible for his reversal (peripeteia).  Anagnorisis: The hero has a discovery. -Hero sees the truth -Seeing the truth can itself bring about the peripeteia.  Pathos: Meaning suffer -Tragedy brings about lots of suffering (murders, suicides)  Good news brings about bad news.  Oedipus’ fote was to kill his father and marry his mother. Oedipus Lecture 2  Determinism vs. freewill -Fate- “moira” -Clotho, Lacheis, Atropis (sisters of fate the moirae)  You cant get away from fate in this play  Sealing his fate by killing his father  Theres nothing he could’ve done to change that fate  Highlighting the idea that he couldn’t do anything to change his fate, while he does everything to try and change his fate.  In this play what would be the effect on the audience if knowing how it turned out? -More tragic when the audience knows what happens -If it’s a tragedy you can already anticipate that it wont end happily -If you know the genre ahead of time you would know  We know his fate.. while he is told his fate but he tries to flee or escape it.  In a tragedy you know that the ending is going to be bad.  Dramatic irony: When the character knows more than the reader  The universe that is presented in this play is an ironic universe  Everything that happens to Oedipus causes us to believe that the universe is ironic.  Issue of the play: If the oracle doesn’t come true it would almost be like saying the gods are dead. If the prophesy’s that come from the gods prove to be false or turns out you can escape them it would turn into a crisis of belief.  Jeon: joseph Goux, Oedipus Philosopher -Sigmund freud, The interpretation of Dreams -Rene Girard, Biolance and the Sacred  Mereit- A LOT of ways  If you cant help to do what you do therefore, you aren’t responsible for it.. then where does morals come in. Fate and Flaw  If you take the big picture of fate and find the flaw to be human limitations. Meaning were all made to fall..  Reason-Consciousness -When we observe ourselves through reason what we find is deterministic laws of necessity. -But when we look at yourselves through consciousness we feel that we have free choice.. That’s how our consciousness operates and it is hard not to feel that way  When we look at ourselves through the more rational objective perspective the idea of necessity becomes more apparent.  No matter how many times our experiences show us that we don’t have a choice, no matter how many times circumstances that we are doing the same things as before and we are led a thousand times to the same circumstances we still think that we are in control.  “if you look at something in your life longer ago than in the moment (looking back) its easier to see the operation.. and the flaws of necessity become more apparent.... When you are thinking in the present it isnt as apparent.. its when you are looking back.. Interpretations that have been made through the play:  Jean-Joseph Goux, Oedipus Philosopher “Wrath of Apollo” -his interpretation of Greek tragedy there’s always some sort of outrage from the gods that causes a problem.. -The fate is going to catch with you which again is what happens. We see in the play that it takes awhile and eventually the fate catches up.. -There’s always something going against the gods.. Apollo is the one who is stirrd.. -in this interpretation Oedipus is very accomplished in reasoning. He is proud of his riddle solving abilities. He symbolizes those human characteristics as being rational, philosophical, enlightened intelligence, fee thinker. - Oedipus is guilty of rivaling Apollo… -Oedipus: symbolizes we have to rely on ourselves, places humans in the center as opposed to the sacred center idea.. -Conclusion of this: The notion that truth is a point of view that we create as opposed to a revelation. In this interpretation: philosophical humanism.. Sigmund Freud, The Interpretation of Dreams: -the greeks believed in fate, modern people don’t believe in fate. -This play is a tragedy of fate that is still popular -How can it be that this play is always being read and presented even though it is addressing this belief in fate yet we don’t follow that -Oedipus- symbolizes and gives the notion that everyone has the original wish to murder the father and have sex with the mother. -Freud believes even infants have sexual desires.. and believes this is true for everyone. -Repression: the idea that we bury in the unconscious part of the mind manifest things that are wrong. That’s why the play affects modern people.. it portrays this psychological phenomenon, bringing out things in the unconscious. In the Repression the person isnt aware of the unconcious and in repression it brings out these things with reaction of horror and discuss.. (like this kind of play) -“many a man has dreamed about marrying his mother” freud takes that as evidence for the existence of the Oedipus it is a real dream that is common amongst people. -It illustrates and dramatizes things we’ve repressed “like killing of his father and marrying of the mother” Rene Girard, Violence and the Sacred: -What the play illustrates is not repression of sex.. instead it is repression of violence. -for him the play illustrates a sacrificial crisis -Sacrificial crisis: when a society is torn by violence. For Girard violence is mimetic(imitation) -Violence is imitated.. it has an imitative affect on people.. (if you do something to me I might do something back to you and your friends might do something to me and my friends might do something to you)] -Violence destroys distinctions… -In this cycle of reciprocal violence it turns into murderous doubles.. -This will destroy a society because meaning and order will be destroyed with distinction.. as murderous doubles -violence is a threat to any society or culture… distinctions will turn people into murderous doubles of each other. -In his view the only way to stop this crisis of violence that is turning everyone into monstrous doubles is to identify escape code. And say that there is one guilty party and punish the guilty party. And that one person who is punished through violence they saves the community from violently destroying itself through the escape goat.. -Oedipus: symbolizes and represents the scape goat..  ▯ Attendence: 4 ▯ ▯ Sub Genres of Poems: 1. Narrative 2. Dramatic 3. Lyric Narrative (Richard Cory Poem)  A Narrative poem tells a story  Has a plot  Different types: Ballad, epics, etc.  Richard Corey Poem: Rich dude shoots himself in the head. -They envied his happiness -Object of envy: the perception of him as an upper class gentlemen from sole to crown. -Sole to crown is speaking of the way he is dressed. -His way of speech -“he was quietly arrayed” his clothes aren’t flashy and vulgar, not loud and ostentatious.. they’re tasteful -How does he “Glitter”: Not speaking of his jewelry.. Its speaking of his regal mannerisms.. the way he asks and holds himself up -That might reinforce the idea of the perception of what people have what he has.. as in the social status he holds. -The ending of the poem forces the reader to look back and explore Richard Corey in a different way. -Why is the narrator “we” not “I” what does that imply? Reveals that this is a common thing… Assuming these observations are those of many. Concludes that Richard Cory has everything a person strives for and should have as a human being. -Written in 1897… the historical context was a time in American society people define success.. people were interested in success… Success wasn’t salvation.. Lectures that were very popular were based on success during this time… “money was the romance to poetry of our age.. Prosperity.. Our critique of our view on it, showing us that its limited on a sense and you only see half of it. -Is the narrator any different from the towns people? Is there anything in the poem to suggest the difference between the narrator the spokesman and the rest of the town? -Happiness should not only be measured by money.. -In the poem there is no mention of family friends or companionship which suggests that Richard Cory was hiding the fact that he was in need of companionship.  Mnay of his poems depict that people in these towns are failures.. these can be interpreted as critiques of 1890s  Depicting failures.. People like Richard Cory.. we can only infer that there was some kind of loneliness and isolation…. No mention of friends, family, or any sort of companionship Dramatic (Thomas Hardies: The Ruined Maid)  “Ruined” she has a reputation that is shot, she’s sinful,  The results of her ruin is suggesting that she is doing well for herself. She has nice clothes.. She used to walk around without shoes or socks and now she has jewelry and feathers.  Her way of talking is contrasted back when she was living in the country she spoke in this country dialect. Now she speaks more proper English   She used to have migraine headaches and get depressed and now she is lively. So one might expect that a country girl might move to the city and perhaps end up getting ruined.  The poem is ironic  O’melia is being ironic but then you might look at it through Hardies point of view..  What is Hardies point of view? He doesn’t necessarily view the characters the same way the characters view themselves. Lyric (Pg. 854)  It’s a kind of expression of thoughts and feelings and impressions  It’s the inward experience of a speaker who is expressing these inner feelings.  Lyric comes from the Ancient Greeks..  We use Lyric to refer to songs as well.. which do express feelings usually.  Poems emphasize a subjective experience of the speaker..  The eye of the poem is expressing feelings and experience  Frank O’ Hara: you can interpret it as celebrity culture.. -exclamation mark is an artificial way of implying something.. The use of the exclamation mark reinforces the interpretation -the typography is like someone is rambling on and it is dramatic.. -“Lana turner has collapsed the second time” is in caps which is dramatic sing the scene as something -Hyperbole is a poetic device as intentional exaggeration.. which is expressed greatly in this poem. -Lana turner.. in comparison to this time of someone like one of the cardashians  Dramatic dialogue:  Dramatic Monologue: there’s a speaker who the reader can infer the speaker is speaking to someone who is not exactly depicted in the poem. Someone who is silent. Poetry Prose: Similie- describes something -A is like B -Love is like a Rose -Love is the simile because that is what is being described. -My love is like a red red rose that is newly sprung in june: is to say that love is passionate and fairly reasoned Metaphor: Personification: To give characteristic to something that isn’t human Metonymy: To write about something by referring to something associated with it. -“Were talking about the executive branch as it is a house.” Synecdoche: When a part symbolizes the whole Apostrophe: When you speak to a personified abstraction. -“oh wild west wind the breath of au toms being” Litotes: an intentional understatement Rhetorical Devices Irony: Ambiguity: Paradox: a seeming contradiction that can be explained Pun: Oxymoron: Poetry Continued What is the relationship between the speaker and the poet?  Whose voice do we hear? Characteristics of a dramatic monologue: -Dramatic Monologue: The voice you hear in the poem is the voice of the speaker who isn’t the poet but a fictional character who as the reader can infer is caught up in a situation that is highly dramatic or critical (some sort of dramatic situation) -The speaker who was speaking to an auditor about this important critical information reveals a lot about himself. Some is intentional and some is unintentional. The reader sees things about the character that the character doesn’t see or if he does he doesn’t express about himself.  Setting being described by the speaker.  The story the speaker tells is a story of a murderer  It’s a monologue because we only hear the speakers voice.  Why did he murder porphyryia?  In a dramatic monologue the speaker could be lying or trying to get the audience to believe something other than what really is.  Everything that he says might not add up rationally. We might conclude that what he is doing is not rational at all.  In a dramatic monologue the speaker is character  Is there any significance to her name porphyryia? -Porphyry is used to make stones  “First she shut the cold out”  “Second thing she does is start a fire”  Its freezing in there because the windows are all open  He’s a little like porphyry too he was just sitting there..  He’s totally passive so “she puts her arm around his waist” suggesting that he is passive.  She lets her hair down..  We have to try to figure out the nature of their relationship..  “The last I knew porphyryia worshiped me”  ▯ Carpe Diem (Seize the day): enjoy the moment, life is short, time is swift, things pass, everything passes very quickly. ▯ - Basically saying you want to “seize the day” or the moment because it wont be there very long. (the focus is the now) it advises to do in the now. ▯ - These are typically love poetry ▯ - Many Carpe Diem are written in the form of the speaker that wants to make love to an auditor.. (the person who is silent but is being addressed) ▯ - Many emphasize sexual indulgence ▯ - Often found in Carpe Diem poem is the “rose” as a symbol representing the beauty of life. “Representing that the beauty is fragile and fleeting” sometimes a rose is also correlated with virginity. ▯ - To the virgins to make much of their time. (time in Carpe Diem poems is seen as here today gone tomorrow so you better take care of it and enjoy it before its gone). ▯ -Time is always flying by in Carpe Diem poetry ▯ -To write a poem in which a speaker wants to make love with the auditor. ▯ ▯ Example of Carpe Diem Poems: Pg. 918 The Flea (Analysis)  The speaker in the poem is male and the auditor is a female. The speaker is trying to seduce her.  Symbol of a flea  A women’s virginity was important in the 17 century.. religious ideas of chastity and sin.  The speaker has to somehow persuade the women that her reluctance to engage in sex before marriage is okay.. since she has been taught that its not okay. The way you try to persuade is using a carpe diem philosophy.  “She denies him sex”  He’s trying to minimize her rejection.  The flea bit him and then bit her.. so their two bloods are mingled and have come together in the flea. So what he is saying is that now that the blood is mingled “would you call this sin as religion would or shame as society would?  The strategy he’s trying to use is “the smooth talker kind of guy”  He’s creating this elaborate symbol of metaphor (argument) of why they should do it by using the flea.  He’s saying why shouldn’t we have sex because we’ve already basically had sex since our blood as mingled through the flea.  “This flea is you and I”  He’s pointing to the flea and made his point about mingling in the flea so now she….. is about to crush the flea… she doesn’t want to crush the flea because in the flea there is three lives, the fleas, hers, and his.  “Though parents grudge”: there might be objections from her parents about having sex before marriage.  So now if she were to kill the flea (adding to the sins) self murder.. if you kill the flea it would be murder and also suicide because her blood is in the flea. Third Stanza:  She squashed the flea..  The way he speaks and attempts to seduce her.  If you are going to like the speaker it would be because he’s witty, funny, and clever.. ▯ Pagan: The focus is the end.. The purpose of this is to live forever in the kingdom of heaven. ▯ ▯ Example 2 (To His Coy Mistress)  “Coy”: Reluctant, not willing to have sex with the speaker  The word coy today has added meaning.. Someone who is more teasing or leading them on. “Saying no because more of a tease”  Her reluctance and refusal to have sex with the speaker in the poem is referred to as “a crime”  Three part structure to the poem 1. a kind of if “had we… if we…” had world enough and time.. “what if we had enough time there could be this lengthy portrait which is both broken down with space and time.” She could be in India, he could be in England… This isn’t a love poem, it’s a more “make love” kind of poem. -He’s evoking 2.  Deductive reasoning: (Syllogism) if you agree to the major premise and minor premise then you must agree to the third. If the first one is true then all three must be true also. 1. Major premise: Something that is subject to be true 2. Minor premise: “Socrates is the man” 3. Conclusion: “Socrates is mortal” -The declaration of independence is a deductive argument.


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