Week 1: Chapter 1 + 2 Notes
Week 1: Chapter 1 + 2 Notes Nursing 200
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This 8 page Bundle was uploaded by Becca LeBoeuf on Friday February 5, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Nursing 200 at University of Wisconsin - Oshkosh taught by K. Meine in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 99 views. For similar materials see Growth Development and Health in Nursing and Health Sciences at University of Wisconsin - Oshkosh.
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Date Created: 02/05/16
The Science of Human Development: Defining Development: ● Science of human development: the science that seeks to understand how and why people of all ages and circumstances change or remain the same over time. The Scientific Method: ● Scientific method: a method used to answer questions that require empirical (firsthand) research + data based conclusions. ○ The scientific method includes five basic steps. ■ 1. Begin with curiosity and pose a question. ■ 2. Develop a hypothesis. ■ 3. Test the hypothesis. ■ 4. Draw conclusions. ■ Report the results. ○ There is a sixth crucial step to the scientific method called “replication”. Replication is needed before the scientific community accepts conclusions. ■ Replication of a study, using different participants. ○ The scientific method opens door for many possibilities, especially unexpected ones. The NatureNurture Debate: ● Nature: general term for the traits, capacities, and limitations that each individual inherits genetically from his or her parents at the moment of conception. ● Nurture: general term for all the environmental influences that affect development after an individual is conceived. LifeSpan Perspective: ● Lifespan perspective:Approach to the study of human development that takes into account all phases of life, not just childhood or adulthood. ○ Infancy → 0 to 2 years. ○ Early childhood → 2 to 6 years. ○ Middle childhood → 6 to 11 years. ○ Adolescence → 11 to 18 years. ○ Emerging adulthood → 18 to 25 years. ○ Adulthood → 25 to 65 years. ○ Late adulthood → 65 years and older. ● Development is multidirectional. ○ Over time, human characteristics change in every direction. ○ Theorists: Freud, Erickson, Piaget describe the stages of development as a discontinuous process. ○ Other theorists view development as a continuous process. ○ There are different types of developmental growth: ■ No change. ■ Growth and decline. ■ Linear growth. ■ Unpredictable. ■ Growth in stages. ○ Critical period time when a particular type of developmental growth (in body or behavior) must happen if it is ever going to happen. ○ Sensitive period: time when a certain type of development is most likely to happen or happens most easily, although it may still happen later with more difficulty. ● Development is multicontextual. ○ Ecologicalsystems approach (created by Bronfenbrenner): in the study of human development, the person should be considered in all the contexts and interactions that constitute a life. ○ Each person is affected by many social contexts and interpersonal interactions. ○ Three nested levels surround individuals and affect them. ○ Approach was then later changed to the bioecological theory. ○ HIstorical context: ■ Cohort: a group defined by the shared age of its members, who, because they were born at about the same time, move through life together, experiencing the same historical events and cultural shifts. (ex: attitudes about samesex marriage). ○ Socioeconomic status (SES): a person’s position in society as determined by income, wealth, occupation, education, and place of residence. ○ Culture: patterns of behavior passed from one generation to the next. ○ Social construction: n idea that is based on shared perceptions. not on objective reality. Many agerelated terms, such as childhood, adolescence, yuppie, and senior citizen, are social constructions. ● Development is multicultural. ○ Differenceequalsdeficit erro mistaken belief that a deviation from some norm is necessarily inferior to behavior or characteristics that meet the standard. ○ Lev Vygotsky (18961934):believed that guided participation is a universal process used by mentors to teach cultural knowledge, skills, and habits. ■ Guided participation can occur through school instruction, but more often it happens informally. ■ Entails culturally different goals. ○ Ethnic group: people whose ancestors were born in the same region and who often share a language, culture, and religion. ○ Race: group of people who are regarded by themselves or by others as distinct from other groups on the basis of physical appearance. ● Development is multidisciplinary. ○ All important human characteristics are epigenetic. ○ Epigenetic: referring to the effects of environmental forces on the expression of an individual’s or a species’, genetic inheritance. ● Development is plastic. ○ Plasticity denotes two complementary aspects of development. ■ Human traits can be molded. ■ People maintain a certain durability of identity. ○ Dynamic systems: human development is viewed as an ongoing, everchanging interaction. ■ Between the physical and emotional being. ■ Between the person and every aspect of his or her environment including the family and society. ○ Dynamic systems approach: builds on the multidirectional, multicontextual, multicultural, and multidisciplinary nature of development. Urges consideration of all the interrelated aspects, every social and cultural factor, over days and years. ○ Plasticity emphasizes that people can and do change, and that predictions are not always accurate. More accurate predictions could improve prevention of developmental problems. ○ Three insights advance benefits of prediction: ■ Nature and nurture. ■ Sensitive periods. ■ Differential sensitivity. ● Using the Scientific Method: ○ Scientific Observationrequires the researcher to record behavior systematically and objectively. ○ May be done in a naturalistic setting. ○ May be done in a laboratory. ○ Statistical measures often used to analyze research results: ■ Effect size. ■ Significance. ■ Costbenefit analysis. ■ Odds ratio. ■ Factor analysis. ■ Metaanalysis. ○ Experiment: Research method in which the researcher tries to determine the causeandeffect relationship between two variables. ○ Independent variable:ariable that is introduced to see what effect it has on the dependent variable. ○ Dependent variable:variable that may change as a result of whatever new condition or situation the experimenter adds. ○ Experimental group: subjected to the particular treatment or condition (the independent variable). ■ Often known as the comparison group (or control group). ■ Does not receive the experimental group treatment. ○ The survey: involves collection of information from a large number of people. ■ produces answers that are influenced by the wording and the sequence of the survey questions. ● Studying Development over the Life Span: ○ Crosssectional researchgroups of people of one age compared with people of another age. ○ Longitudinal research:ollecting data repeatedly on the same individuals as they age. ○ Crosssequential research:study several groups of people of different ages (a crosssectional approach) and follow them over the years (a longitudinal approach). ● Cautions from Science: ○ Correlation:exists between two variable if one variable is more (or less) likely to occur when the other does. ○ Positive: both variable tends to increase or decrease together. ○ Negative: one variable tends to increase while the other decreases. ○ Zero: no connection is evident. ○ Quantitative research: provides data that can be expressed with numbers such as ranks or scales. ○ Qualitative research: considers qualities instead of quantities. Descriptions of particular conditions and participants’ expressed ideas are often part of qualitative studies. Theories of Development: ● What Theories Do: ○ Developmental theory: group of ideas, assumptions, and generalizations that interpret and illuminate the thousands of observations that have been made about human growth. ■ Frameworks for understanding how and why people change as they grow older. ○ Norm: an average, or standard measurement, calculated from the measurements of many individuals within a specific group or population. ● Grand Theories: ○ Psychoanalytic theory:proposes that irrational, unconscious drives and motives, often originating in childhood, underlie human behavior. ○ Sigmund Freud (18561939): proposed fivesychosexual stages during which sensual satisfaction is linked to developmental needs and conflicts. ■ 1. Oral stage (birth to 1 year). ■ 2. Anal stage (1 to 3 years). ■ 3. Phallic stage (3 to 6 years). ■ 4. Latency stage (6 to 11 years). ■ 5. Genital stage (adolescence). ● Adulthood then occurs after but is still considered the genital stage. ■ Personality has three parts: ● Id ● Ego ● Superego. ○ Epigenetic theory stresses that genes and biological impulses are powerfully influenced by the social environment. ○ Erik Erikson (19021994)described eight developmental stages, each characterized by a challenging developmental crisis. Instead of psychosexual it is psychosocial. ■ Proposed five psychosocial stages built on Freud’s theory, but added three adult stages. ● 1. Trust vs. mistrust (0 to 1½). ● 2. Autonomy vs. shame (1½ to 3). ● 3. Initiative vs. guilt (3 to 5). ● 4. Industry vs. inferiority (5 to 12). ● 5. Ego identity vs. role confusion (12 to 18). ● 6. Intimacy vs. isolation (18 to 40). ● 7. Generativity vs. stagnation (40 to 65). ● 8. Ego integrity vs. despair (65+). ○ Behaviorism: a grand theory of human development that studies observable behavior. Behaviorism is also called learning theory because it describes the laws and processes by which behavior is learned. ○ There are three types of learning: ■ Classical conditioninlearning occurs through association. ■ Operant conditioninglearning occurs through reinforcement and punishment. ■ Social learnin learnings occurs through modeling what others do. ○ Conditioning: proposes that learning takes place through processes by which responses become linked to particular stimuli. ○ Learning theory:focuses on observable behavior. Described the laws and processes by which behavior is learned. ○ John Watson (18781958):an american psychologist that did not propose specific stages. He argued that scientists should examine only what they could observe and measure. He also proposed anything can be learned with focus on behavior. ○ Ivan Pavlov (18491936)introduced classical conditioning. Demonstrates that behaviors can be learned by making an association between an environmental stimulus and a naturally occurring stimulus. He also called it respondent conditioning. ■ Received the Nobel Prize in 1904 for his digestive processes research. ○ B.F. Skinner (19041990)introduced operant conditioning. Proposes that reinforcement or punishment may be used to either increase or decrease the probability that a behavior will occur again in the future. He also called it instrumental conditioning. ■ Agreed with Watson that psychology should focus on the scientific study of behavior. ■ Best known for experiments with rats, pigeons, and his own daughter. ○ Jean Piaget (18961980)introduced the cognitive theory. ■ Cognitive theoryfocuses on changes in how people think over time. Our thoughts shape our actions, attitudes, beliefs, and assumptions. ■ Cognitive development occurs in four major agerelated periods/stages. ■ Assimilation experiences are interpreted to fit into, or assimilate with, old ideas. ■ Accommodation: old ideas are reconstructed to include, or accommodate, new experiences. ■ Cognitive equilibriu state of mental balance, no confusion. ● New ideas through past ideas interpreted. ● Needed for intellectual advancement. ● If not easily understood, cognitive disequilibrium can occur. ● Piaget’s Periods of Cognitive Development: ○ Birth to 2 years: Sensorimoto Infants uses senses and motor abilities to understand the world. ○ 2 to 6 years: PreoperatioChildren think symbolically, with language, yet children are egocentric, perceiving from their own perspective. ○ 6 to 11 years: Concrete operatioahildren understand and apply logic. Thinking is limited by direct experience. ○ 12 years through adulthoodormal operational. Adolescents and adults use abstract and hypothetical concepts. They can use analysis, not only emotion. ○ Information processing theora perspective that compares human thinking processes, by analogy, to computer analysis of data, including sensory input, connections, stored memories, and output. ● Newer Theories: ○ Lev Vygotsky (18961934)roposed the sociocultural theory. ■ Sociocultural theorya newer theory that holds that development results from the dynamic interaction of each person with the surrounding social and cultural forces. ● Focuses on culture as integral to a person’s development. ■ Describes interaction between culture and education. ■ He also developed the concepts apprenticeship in thinking and guided participation. ● Apprenticeship in thinkiterm for how cognition is stimulated and developed in people by more skilled members of society. ● Guided participatiohe process by which people learn from others who guide their experiences and explorations. ■ Zone of proximal developmentskills, knowledge, and concepts that learner is close to acquiring but cannot master without help. ■ Process of joint constructinew knowledge obtained through mentoring. ○ Abraham Maslow (19081970): introduced the term called humanism. ■ Humanism: a theory that stresses the potential of all humans for good and the belief that all people have the same basic needs, regardless of culture, gender, or background. ● Contended that everyone must satisfy each lower level before moving higheMaslow’s Hierarchy of Needs). ○ 5. Selfactualization; becoming you unique and wonderful self. ○ 4. Esteem; being respected, successful, and admired. ○ 3. Love and belonging; being loved and appreciated as a partner, family member, and part of a group. ○ 2. Safe and secure; being protected and defended. ○ 1. Physiological; basic survival: need for food, drink, and shelter. ■ Evolutionary theory:suggests that humans have two longstanding biologically based drives: survival and adaption. Suggests genetic variations are particularly beneficial when the environment changes and benefits humanity as a whole. ● Selective adaptationhe process by which living creatures adjust to their environment. ○ Eclectic perspective: the approach taken by most developmentalists, in which they apply aspects of each of the various theories of development rather than adhering exclusively to one theory.
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