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Chap1 full notes

by: Upasana Raja

Chap1 full notes PSY 2501 - 002

Upasana Raja

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Biological Psychology: Scope and Outlook
Sheree Logue (P)
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This 4 page Bundle was uploaded by Upasana Raja on Friday February 5, 2016. The Bundle belongs to PSY 2501 - 002 at Temple University taught by Sheree Logue (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 54 views. For similar materials see FOUNDATIONS OF BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE in Psychlogy at Temple University.

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Date Created: 02/05/16
5 viewpoints explore the biology of behavior: 1. Describing behavior Structural: How do social behavior change across environments or situations? Functional: How do certain behavior improve social communications? 2. Studying the evolution of behavior Darwin's theory of evolution through natural selection Which social behavior are common to all species? 3. Observing the development and its biological characteristics over the life span How do social interactions change over life span? 4. Studying the biological mechanisms of behavior What neural circuits and hormones affect social interaction? 5. Studying applications of biological psychology Social therapy including improves quality of life in individuals with autism Biological Psychology a.k.a. Biological Neuroscience: The field that relates behavior to bodily processes, especially the working of the brain Neuroscience: Study of brain Ontogeny: The process by which an individual changes in the course of its lifetime Relating body, brain & behavior: Two types of relationships: 1. Correlational relationship: Two variables change together in consistent patterns 2. Causal relationship: Changing one variable causes a change in second variable. Independent variable: The variable the researcher manipulates Dependent variable: The variable the researcher measures to determine if there is a change Independent variable can be either: 1. Somatic intervention: Manipulate body or brain structure; measure change in behavior (dependent variable) 2. Behavioral intervention: Manipulate behavior; measure change in brain or body function (dependent variable) Neuroplasticity: The ability of the nervous system to change in response to experience or the environment Localization of function: Franz Gall (1758-1828) Phrenology Bumps on skull reflect size of brain region underneath Paul Broca (1824-1880): Speech production P.S. easy way to remember Paul Production Carl Wernicke: Speech comprehension P.S. easy way to remember Carl Comprehension Conserved: A trail that is passed from a common ancestor to two or more descendant species Neuron a.k.a. nerve cell: The basic unit of a nervous system Reductionism: The scientific strategy of breaking a system down into increasingly smaller parts in order to understand it. Level of analysis: The scope of experimental approach 130-201 CE, Galen (Father of Medicine): Reported behavioral changes in gladiators with head injuries 350 BCE, Herophilus (Father of Anatomy): Advanced knowledge of nervous system 350 BCE, Aristotle: Located mental capacities in the heart the brain was a "radiator" 400 BCE, Hippocrates: Noted importance of the brain 1300 BCE, Egyptian's: Heart more important than brain AD 1000-1250, Trepanning: A surgical intervention in which a hole is drilled or scraped into the human skull, treat health problems related to intracranial diseases AD 1452-1519, Leonardo da Vinci: Made detailed drawings of the ventricles AD 1596-1650, Rene Descartes: Promoted mind-body dualism but also proposed concept of spinal reflexes Dualism (by Rene Descartes): Mind is subject only to spiritual interactions, while the body is subject only to material interactions Phrenology: The belief that bumps on the skull reflect enlargements of brain regions responsible for certain behavioral faculties Measuring learning & memory: In humans, Hermann Ebbinghaus (1850-1909) In animals, Edward L. Thorndike (1874-1949) Classical conditioning, Iavn P. Pavlov (1849-1936) Identifying brain regions involved in learning & memory: Search of the engram, the problem of investigating the location and mechanisms of memory functions in the brain Karl S. Lashley (1890-1958) 1904-1985, Donald O. Hebb: Described how complex behavior could be mediated by network of active neurons Assemblies (by Donald O. Hebb): Sensory input & stimulation organize brain cell connections into interconnected groups Hebbian synapse: Hypothesis about how neurons strengthen their connections viva use


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