EBTM 311 Exam Review
EBTM 311 Exam Review EBTM 311
Popular in Principles of e-Business
Popular in Entrepreneurship
verified elite notetaker
Bharath Reddy Alugubelly
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
PSYS 001 - B (14772)
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
This 28 page Bundle was uploaded by Danielle Alessi on Saturday February 6, 2016. The Bundle belongs to EBTM 311 at Towson University taught by M. Mohamed in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 181 views. For similar materials see Principles of e-Business in Entrepreneurship at Towson University.
Reviews for EBTM 311 Exam Review
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/06/16
EBTM 311 Exam #1 Review Chapter 1 & 2, looking at computers Have a well understanding of material with ~ 1. ~What is e-‐Business? E-‐ Business is the conduct of transactions by means of electronic communications networks (internet and private networks) 2. ~What is e-‐Commerce? E-‐ Commerce is the buying and selling of goods/services and the transfer of funds through digital communications. This includes on-‐line display of goods and services, ordering, billing, customer service and al l handling of payments and transactions ~Types of E-‐ Commerce: Business to Consumer-‐ E-‐ commerce between organizations and individual consumers Business to Business-‐ E-‐ commerce between businesses Business-‐ to Government-‐ Gov to Consumer-‐ E-‐commerce activities performed between a government and its citizens Consumer to Business – When an individual sells products and services to a business Consumer to consumer-‐ When an individual sells products and services to another individual E-‐ Commerce VS E-‐ Business: E-‐ business is more generic term; it refers not only to information related to buying and selling but also to servicing customers and collaborating with business partners. 3. ~Characteristics of e-‐Business Combining external company processes with organizat ions internal business processes • Collaborative product development • Collaborative planning • Forecasting and replenishment • Procurement and order management • Operations and logistics. What is a private Network? A network that uses private address space. Used for homes, office, and local area networks. These networks aren’t globally given, and not distributed to any specific organization. 4. ~Customer Relationship Management (CRM) system “Front” office systems that help the enterprise deal directly with their customers. This uses information about the customers to gain insight into their needs, wants, and behaviors in order to serve them better. This includes Multi-‐channel service delivery, multiple ways in which customers can interact with a business. 5. ~Enterprise Resource Planning Systems (ERPs) Management information systems that integrate and automate many of the business practice associated with the operations or production aspects of a company. ERP includes: • Production: manufacturing resource planning and execution process • Buying a product: Procurement process • Sales of products and services : customer order management process • Costing, paying bills and collecting : financial/management accounting and reporting process. **ERP are used to fulfill a customers orderment Function or Order Fulfillment -‐ ERP 6. Strategy-‐ defines the future direction and actions of an organization 7. ~Strategic Planning – external positioning You need to determine specifically what outcome you want to achieve Mostly based on 1) Situtation-‐ where a company is right now and how did it get there 2) Traget-‐ where does a company want to be 3) Path-‐ how can it get there 8. ~Tactical planning-‐ structuring and resources of the firm 9. ~Operational Planning -‐ Maximizing the profitability of current operation 10. ~Supply chain mgmt. strategy Tracks inventory and info among business processes and across companies. The oversight of materials, information, and finances as they move in a process from supplier to manufacturer to wholesaler to retailer to consumer. Supply chain management involves coordinating and integrating these flows both within and among companies. It is said that the ultimate goal of any effective sup ply chain management system is to reduce inventory 11. ~IS strategy Four generic strategies for achieving a profitable business: Differentiation; a strategy that refers to all the ways producers can make their products unique and distingu ish them from those of competitors Cost; This strategy means that a company primarily competes with low costs Scope A strategy to compete in market worldwide, rather than merely in local, regional or national markets Focus; A strategy to compete within a narrow market segment or product segment 12. ~Front Office-‐ Uses CSM and CRP-‐ activities related to supplies, and customers 13. ~Back Office-‐ allows organizations to do production and paying. This is related to production and huma n resources. 14. ~ What is a bit A bit is binary digit. 0 or 1 15. ~What is a byte 8 bits, each letter, number, and characte r = a string of eight 0’s or 1’ 16. ~What is the difference between data and information Data is a representation of a fact, figure, or idea. Information is organized, meaningful data. 17. ~Functions of a computer 4 Functions: • Gathers data (users input data) : the input of a programmer through the keyboard, scanner, or other forms of storage media. Theses are sources used to insert data into the computer • Processes data into information : the manipulation of information by the computer system. Processing uses the processor or random access memory. • Outputs data or information : Output is when the compute r displays data to be viewed by the programmer or other individuals. It usually involves the monitor, printer or a form of storage media that data is copied to. Output typically involves some finished product that is separate from the computer system. • Stores data and information : Storage is the process of permanently saving data on the computer. This process involved a hard drive or some kind. After data has been processed, it must then be stored on a hard drive as opposed to simply reduced in RAM, whic h RAM is not permanent storage. 18. ~Data versus information Data gives facts. Figures, numbers to the computer and then transfers into information Information something that is meaningful to the users 19. ~Input devices Devices used to enter information or instructions into the computer. Allow you to look at data in the computer • Keyboard • Mouse/pointing device • Stylus • Scanner • Digital camera • Microphone 20. ~Output devices Send processed data out of the computer such as monitors and printers. Output devices make s oft copies such as sounds and videos and hard copies 21. ~System unit A system unit is a box that contains the central electronic components of the computer . Holds all the electronic devices that computer uses to hold all the data • CPU/RAM-‐ where random data a nd temporary storage goes • Expansion cards-‐ used for video, audio and network. Provides new connections for other devices. • Power supply-‐ • Storage devices-‐ any hardware capable of holding information 22. ~System software A software tell the computer what to do. Allows user to communicate with the program, save it, etc. Interact with computer. Organized information in the form of operating systems, utilities, programs, and applications that enable computers to work. (ex: internet, you wouldn’t be able to access the internet without the internet browser software) ( email, word, itunes) Two main types of software 1) System software-‐ coordinates instructions between software and hardware. It includes operating systems and utility programs. 2) Application software-‐ Programs used to complete tasks. It includes productivity software, specialty software, entertainment, educational and reference, and personal software 23. Application software Application software is a program used to complete tasks an d includes productivity software, specialty software, entertainment software, educational and reference software, and personal software. 26. ~Power controls: Sleep mode: data is saved in random access memory Hibernation: everything you are working with will be saved in your hard drive Warm boot: when you restart your computer if your computer freezes ~Hard Drive: permanent storage ~Operating System: Operating system is the most important software that runs on a computer. It manages the computers memory, processes, and all of its software and hardware. It also can allow you to communicate with the computer without knowing how to speak the computers language. ~Without an operating system, a computer is useless . The operating system controls: • Hardware • Processor • Memory • Devices Operating System is responsible for management, scheduling, and interaction of tasks a nd to work with the CPU, memory, and storage of the computer. ~Random Access Memory ( RAM) -‐ Random access memory is a storage location that allo ws information to be stored and accessed quickly from random location. The computer is able to access the data very quickly RAM is volatile memory/unstable. ~Memory – is any physical device capable of storing information temporarily or permanently. Memory can be both volatile and non-‐volatile. Volatile memory is memory that loses its contents when the computer or hardware device loses power. Non -‐volatile memory is memory that keeps its contents even it the power is lost. ~Random Access Memory VS Hard Dri ve-‐ • Random Access Memory gets wiped out every time the computer restarts and your work it not saved. It temporarily holds the files so the computer is faster, because it is not accessing the hard drive. • Hard drive is a storage space where your files are stored, such as pictures and music and programs you installed. (non-‐volatile) – holds storage forever ~Virtual Memory-‐ The process of improving RAM storage by borrowing hard drive space. When instructions and data are stored on the hard drive when the RAM is full • Swap file-‐ when more RAM space is need ed, the operating system takes data that has now been recently used and moves it into a temporary storage called swap file to make more room on the RAM • Paging-‐ If those files needed in the swap file later on, the Operating system will put them back into the RAM and replaces them in the hard drive with less active data, known as paging • Thrashing-‐ After paging so many times, the computer will become sluggish. This condit ion of unnecessary paging is called thrashing. ~** CRM & ERP &SCM are not software’s, they are systems. ~** CRM is a front office system that helps customers, used to manage interaction with customers **Market & Customers Analysis -‐ Helping -‐ Giving service -‐ ~The Strategic Planning Process 1) Mission statement -‐ tells you about organization and the purpose of exist and what you will provide 2) Analysis of external and internal info 3) Planning strategies and objectives 4) Implementations and control of plans ~What is E-‐ business Strategy? Support not only corporate strategy objectives but also various functional strategies like marketing and supply chain management ~E-‐ Business 2 roles-‐ 1) buyside 2) Sell side ~IS system-‐ 1) Supply side-‐ supply software and hardware 2) Demand side-‐ Exam 2 Study Guide The Value Chain activities : These activities can only be understood in the context of business unit. Value Chain includes everything that contributes to a major organizational output. Value Chain is a series of value -‐adding activities connecting a company’s supply side with its demand side. -‐ Supply side (raw materials, inbound logistics, production processes) -‐ Demand side (outbound logistics, marketing and sales) It also provides manager with a tool to analyze and redesign their internal and external processes -‐ Improve efficiency and effectiveness • Design • Produce • Market • Deliver • Support Value chain analysis steps: 1. Defining the strategic business unit 2. Identifying critical activities 3. Defining products 4. Determining the value of an activity What are the primary activities? *Inbound Logistics: all the process associated with receiving, storing, and disseminating inputs to the production process. *Operations: All processes associated with transforming the inputs into outputs *Outbound Logistics: All activities concerned with distributing the products or services to customers Marketing and Sales : all activities, which provide opportunities for the potential customer to buy the product or services. Service: They are those activities that enhance or maintain the value of the product or service once the customer has bought it. These activities include repairs, maintenance. What are the support activities? Firm Infrastructure: this activity encompasses administration and general management for over all planning and control. Human Resource Management : this function refers to all those activities associated with, the recruiting, training, developing, appraising, promoting, and re warding of personnel. Product/ Technology Development : This function includes all activities that relate to product and process development. Procurement: This function is responsible for purchasing goods, services, and materials required as inputs for the production process. Business Process and Work Flow. Business Process is a process is an ordering of activities with a beginning and an end, it has inputs in terms of resources, materials, and information’s and specified output. Technological Infrastructures-‐ The infrastructure for E-‐business comprises technologies that can be seen as different layers that built upon each other. The bottom layer includes networking topologies, the Internet and protocols ( Networking Facilities) The layer above is the basic infrastructure layer that contains such as client/server and tiered architectures (Basic Infrastructure) The layer above contains the technologies that are required to develop web-‐based applications(web-‐based technologies and applications) Finally, the top layer contains collaborative technologies such as workflow systems and EDI ( Collaborative technologies) Client Server -‐ Network operating system software Tiered Infrastructure-‐ the IT system is partitioned into tiers( layers) where each tier performs a specific type of functionality. Two Tier Infrastructure-‐ basic client/server relationship. Processing is split between client and server Limitations of Two Tier Infrastructure-‐ has several drawbacks, which are especially problematic for large and distributed applications. Three Tier Infrastructure-‐ client, application server, data or database server. A middle tier is introduced between the user system interface client environment and the database management server environment. ( Presentation, processing, data) Multi-‐Tier Infrastructure-‐ balances the work of the network over several different servers. Starts with the 3 tier model Value Chains in Financial Organization What is the main function of Ethernet switch? Procurement Value chain analysis Value chain analysis starts by identifying the activities of the firm and then sties the activities of the firm and then sties the economic implications of those activities. It includes 4 general steps: 1) Defining the strategic business unit 2) Identifying critical activities 3) Defining products 4) Determining the value of an activity Ethernet Switches -‐ Keep track of data packets -‐ Amplify and retransmit signals -‐ Keep the network running efficiently -‐ What is Scalability? How well a system can adapt to increase demands Interoperability: systems to communicate with each other Network Navigation Devices-‐ devices that help make data flow possible 1. Routers -‐ Transfer packets from one network to another. -‐ Responsible for flow of data between networks -‐ Home internet routers transfer data from the internet to the home network -‐ Allows for network-‐ready devices such as network printers or NAS 2. Switches -‐ Receive data and retransmit it to nodes on the same network (makes sure data doesn’t get lost) Protocols-‐ protocols are sets of rules that machines follow to complete tasks. The hypertext transfer protocol http is what we use to view web sites through a browser Characteristics of business process and work flow What is a network? Networking is two or more computers that are connected ( hardware, software) Benefits of a network-‐ -‐ Sharing resources and peripherals -‐ Transferring files -‐ Sharing of broadband connection with use of a router Nodes-‐ devices connected to networks. Network Architecture-‐ network designs -‐ Locally Administered (peer-‐to-‐peer) -‐ Centrally administered (client/server) Peer-‐ to-‐ peer networks -‐ Nodes communicate with each other ( ex. Peers). -‐ Share peripheral devices -‐ Used in home and small office networks Types of peer-‐to-‐peer network -‐ Wired Ethernet Networks -‐ Wireless Ethernet networks -‐ Power-‐line networks Ethernet Switches -‐ Keep track of data packets -‐ Amplify and retransmit signals -‐ Keep the network running efficiently What is client/server network? -‐ Client computer are users who make requests -‐ Server computers provide resources to clients, central network control. What is centralized Network? -‐ Sharing information systems in one central area or on one central mainframe. Almost nonexistent today What is decentralized Network? Involves little or no sharing of IT and other resources such as information. Almost nonexistent today What is a data transfer rate? What is WAN, LAN, and MAN? WAN-‐ lands connected over long distances -‐ A few miles to thousands of miles -‐ Use telecommunications lines LAN-‐ Nodes are within a small geographic region -‐ Homes -‐ Schools -‐ Small businesses MAN-‐ -‐ Nodes are within a specific geographic region, such as a city -‐ Sponsored by a government entity to provide access to city residents and or visitors. Distributed computing The role of IT in the value chain & benefits: -‐ To improve efficiency and effectiveness -‐ To fundamentally change the activity -‐ To alter the relationship between activities What is Trojan Horse? What is EDI?-‐ used to transfer electronic documents or business data from one computer system to another computer system, a network for transmitting standard transactions, a paperless trading environment, routine documents, purchase order, billings, shipping manifest, documents translated into standard business language. Problems with EDI -‐ Fixed transaction sets-‐ Transactions that do not fit into the strict model of EDI transactions can be negotiates as a new transaction type. As a result, industries have found transaction sets not to be practical for daily business use. -‐ Resilience to change-‐ EDI standards are defined by standards bodies that are structurally ill equipped to keep up with the rapid pace of change in the various business sectors they impact. -‐ Reliance on proprietary communications networks -‐ EDI messages are mainly carried on proprietary communications networks that are relatively expensive and that have compatibility problems when communicating across networks. What Hackers Do -‐ Steal information from co mputers ( credit card, bank accounts) -‐ Internet packet sniffing-‐> checks all the data, looks or reads the info -‐ packet sniffing can only read the packet. -‐ Commit Identity theft-‐ What do viruses do -‐ Slow down the network Types of viruses (Networking Chapter) -‐ Boot-‐sector Viruses-‐ Replicate themselves in the boot sector of the hard drive -‐ Logic Bombs-‐ activate when certain conditions are met -‐ Time Bombs-‐ Triggered by the passage of time or on a certain date -‐ *Worms-‐ Travel between systems through networks. -‐ Script Viruses-‐ Hidden on web pages as mini programs -‐ Macro Viruses-‐ attached to documents and series of commands -‐ E-‐mail viruses-‐ Use e-‐mail address books to distribute the virus -‐ *Encryption Viruses-‐ compress files using a complex encryption key and user mu st pay to get the files unlocked Virus Classifications -‐ -‐ Polymorphic Viruses: periodically rewrite themselves to avoid detection -‐ Multipartite Viruses: infect multiple file types -‐ Stealth Viruses: Erase their code from the hard drive and reside in the active memory How computers are attacked: -‐ Trojan Horse-‐> virus, hacker softwareà software that looks useful to you, but really is a virus to your computer -‐ Denial of Service attacks à -‐ Distributed denial of service attacks à Firewalls: A software program or hardware designed to close logical ports to invaders. Firewall is a combination of hardware and software, get this If you want more protection -‐ A firewall is built into windows vista -‐ More robust firewalls are available from other vendors -‐ Firewalls are critical if you have an always on broadband connection Business process management -‐ the focus on the final customer as opposed to the focus on vertical functional activities has lead in the 90’s to a n increased interest for processes and their management. A business process view implies an horizontal view on a business organization and look at processes as sets of interdependent activities designed and structures to produce a specific output for a customer or a market. What is the role of enterprise information systems? Static Documents: read from an existing files-‐ same info unless you change it Dynamic Documents: have an interactive and usually time -‐sensitive nature. These require the server to generate the document on the fly Network Adaptors: -‐ Enable communication between nodes. -‐ Devices connected to or installed in nodes 1. Network interface cards 2. External or internal network adapters Transmission media-‐ provide communications channel betw een nodes. Forms of Media -‐ Twisted pair -‐ Coaxial Cable -‐ Fiber-‐Optic Cable-‐ fastest -‐ Radio Waves Bandwidth -‐ Data Transfer rateà fastest speed it can go to transfer the info -‐ Throughput à less-‐ normal speed Packet sniffing programs. Hyper Text Transfer Protocol -‐ what we use to view web sites through a browser. ( https). Security protocols when using banks or other confidential websites. What is business process? TCP: transmission control protocol -‐ The service of exchanging data directly between two network hosts IP: Internet protocol -‐ Addressing and routing message across one or more networks Ebtm 311 Final Exam Review Chapter 9 Classes of Products: • Industrial purchasing activities focus on several categories of good: – Basic raw materials • Including ferrous and non ferrous metals and plastic, but also energy, water, etc.; – Components • That is elements used directly for assembling – Semi Manufactured Articles • Which require one or more extra processing steps What is the purchasing process? The purchasing is the external acquisition at optimum conditions of goods, services, and materials that are needed for production, sales and maintenance. The purchasing function contributes to the company’s profit potential. • Purchasing is classic source of inefficiency – Policies and forms to standardize and control the purchasing process – Large number of rules, and resulting procedure are complex – Class C products, the cost of the buying process are often higher than those of the goods and services purchased – Slow and Inefficient (C-‐type products) – Communication Intensive – Before the internet, little IT support – Only the information stage – electronic Catalogs – Automation of the of the operational activities during the settlement stage Class A, B, and C articles – first % is material, second % is amount spent Class A: small number of articles 20% of the products a ccount for 80% of purchasing amount Class B: next 50% account for 15% Class C: A large number of articles 30% accounts for 5% Modeling the Purchasing Process Buygrid Model : Internal Perspective-‐ the buy grid model concluded that a division into eight stages best describes the organizational buying process. The eight steps of organization buying can be reduced to just information, negotiation and settlement. 1) Information: Prospective buyer identifies their needs and evaluates potential sources to fulfill them. 2) Negotiation: the business partners start to interact, determining the prices and the availability of the goods and services, as well as delivery condition, successful negotiations are finalized with a contract 3) Settlement: the terms for money or other forms of compensation Kralijic purchasing model : External Perspective • The purchasing portfolio is another model (Kraljic 1983) introduces two variables: – The company’s strategic vulnerability with respect to the purchase • Percentage of the company’s products’ cost price (good purchased) – The complexity of the supplying market • The difficulty with which the purchase is made (scarcity and entry barriers) Kraljic’s Framework 4 items that companies can buy Strategic items: Characterized by high buying risks and major profit impact Bottleneck items: Characterized by high buying risks, but a small profit impact Leverage items: Characterized by low buying risks, but a major profit impact Routine Items: Characterized by low buying risks and a small profit impact IT and purchasing: IT is to support the purchasing process – CD-‐ROM for product and supplier info. – EDI for contracting and ordering – Electronic Catalogue in centralized database – Internet Technology What is E-‐ Procurement: Procurement is an important element in any business. • It is the use of Internet technologies over intranets, extranets, or the web to streamline the procurement process. • It is the electronic purchase and sale of supplies and services over the Internet • E-‐ Procurement covers the entire purchasing process, from gathering information to delivery-‐ it includes inbound logistics such as transportation, goods -‐in, and warehousing. Procurement can be classified in two way s: Direct Procurement: Deals with items that are required for direct production of organizations products Indirect Procurement: Deals with items that support the production **Advantages of E-‐ Procurements – Reduced costs: e-‐Procurement empowers aggregated, cross enterprise spending, resulting in lower prices through higher -‐volume purchasing – Improved process efficiency: e-‐Procurement makes it easier for companies to increase purchasing control and work with preferred suppliers – Increased control: e-‐Procurement provides a consistent method for handling all purchasing needs. – Global reach: e-‐Procurement provides access to a global supplier base, allowing companies to work with supplier who better fit their needs. and reduce material costs by strengthening existing supplier relationships ** Component of E-‐Procurement: • Requisition management • Transaction management • Connectivity management • Content management – Up-‐to-‐date data – Technical functionality **Requisition Management: • End user processes order • Selection in e-‐catalogue • Workflow support ** Transaction Management • Processing order to supplier through EDI, e -‐mail, etc. • Standards: XML/EDI, open buying on the internet **Connectivity Management intergration with supplier and internal systems -‐ internal (erp) • Budget control • Order Registration • Accounting • Payment ** Content Management: • Heart of E-‐ Procurement System • Data Administration • Allows information sharing, reduction number of suppliers, use of buying power. Supply Chain : A network of connected and interdependant organizations mutally and co -‐opratively working together to control, manage and improve the flow of materials from suppliers to end -‐users. Chapter 10: E-‐ business networks What is Network Organizations: • Networks consist of nodes and relationships • An organizational form to manage interdependence between companies ,based on purposeful collaboration and specific communication patterns. • They vary with respect to goals, boundaries, and structures. Reasons for joining a network: There may be several reason s to set up or join a network organization • Combining competences • Benefiting for economies of scale • Achieving overall supply chain benefits • Sharing know how • Combining power Strategic Networks: • Companies in different parts of the value chain agree on coopera tion in research and development, production and marketing • Objective to gain competitive advantages Operative Networks: • Set of contractual relations covering common agreements on electronic exchanges • Main objective is the rationalization of information exchange with respect to routine operations. Operational Networks: • Focus on short term collaboration between various companies • On operational and tactical level • Objectives: aiming at efficiency and effe ctiveness improvement by: 1. Lowering inventory levels 2. Reducing cycle times 3. Improving products and service quality levels Collaborative Networks: • Involve long term collaboration on a strategic level in order to win business and strengthen market positions by focusing on core competences Innovative Networks • Aim to reduce their participants risks and costs by joining their research and development activities and sharing knowledge and know how Interest group networks: • Try to defend their participants interests an d help them gain a stronger position, they may be considered power groups, in which even competitors may join forces to gain a stronger position with respect to, for example the government. Network Characteristics: • *Stable Networks – Long term stable relationship between suppliers, producers and distributors – Serve predictable markets – Based on partial outsourcing – It introduces flexibility into the overall value chain • *Dynamic Networks: – Temporary alliances between organizations in order to respond to actual market forces – Companies along the value chain of a specific product, or belonging to two different industry value chain – May use brokers in order to locate functions needed • *Internal Networks: – Set up within companies to make them more flexile – From hierarchical structures to direction of market structure, but within the boundaries of single organization – To locate functions that are needed, but cannot be sources from within the company, broker companies may be used • *Thick Network: Involves intensive relationships and communication patterns, and close collaboration • *Think Network: Composed of companies that communicate extensively, but they involve less integration over multiple types of socially important relationships • Tightly Coupled: Stable networks of trading partners with shared planning and control cycles – entails organizing business activities along a virtual value chain to attain a shared goal – May involve predefined interaction patterns, such as trading pr ols. • Loosely Coupled Networks: Trading partner preserve their independence – They can decide to change their internal business processes and information systems, without influencing one another to the extent that the collaboration is disabled. What is spot marketing? Satisfying immediate needs. Making a payment and no relationship afterwards. System Integration and Business Benefits *Localized Exploitation: Refers to information systems used within departmental or group boundaries; these systems are specifically designed to meet the needs of that department or group Internal Integration: Involves the interdepartmental integration of information systems and the use of these for the company’s entire internal business process. *Business Process Redesign: Combining the integration between departments with the reorganization and optimization of their processes, using the possibilities information technology offers. Business Network Design: includes the internal business processes of other companies as wel l, in order to establish interorganizational business processes. Business Scope Redefinition: which is identifying organizations that are evaluating the used of existing situations in order to benefit from new situations in which parallel value chains mig ht be integrated. Interoperability: the ability of the Is to communicate and work with other IS and interact with people. – Can be met if communication standards are applied – Standard based technology allow partners to execute a traditional business function in a digitally enhanced way. Interoperability requires standardization in four dimensions: • 1. Technology: middleware, protocols, security etc. • 2. Syntax: structure or language of messages exchanged • 3. Semantics: Meaning of terms • 4. Pragmatics: agreement s on practices triggered by specific messages Supply Chains: The network that encompasses all the organizations and activities associated with the flow and transformation of goods from the raw materials stage through to the end user, as well as the associ ated information flows Integrated Supply Chain: The process by which multiple enterprises within a shared market segment collaboratively plan, implement and monitor the flow of goods and services • A company rarely interacts only within a single supply chain • It must connect with several supply chains as product offerings and business dictate • Businesses increasingly integrate their value chains by redesigning their structures to move from hierarchical with a focus on management control to horizontal organizati ons built around business process. Chapter 13 Quality Requirement: 1. Availability: is the absence of service downtime. It represents the probability that a service is available 2. Accessibility: Represents the degree to which a client request is served. A high degree of accessibility means that a service is available for a large number of clients and that clients can use the service relatively easily 3. Conformance to Standards : Describes the compliance of an e -‐Business applications with standards. Service providers must stick to standards outlined in the service level agreement 4. Integrity: Describes the degree to which an e -‐Business application perform its tasks according to its description as well as conformance with its service level agreement. A higher degree of integrity means that the functionality of a service is closer to its description or SLA 5. Performance: Performance is measured in terms of two factors: – Throughput: represents the number of application requests served in a given time period – Latency: represents the length of time between sending a request and receiving the response Higher throughput and lower latency values represents good performance of an e -‐ Business application 6. Reliability: represents the ability of a service to function correctly and c onsistently and provide the same service quality despite system or network failures. It is usually expressed in terms of number of transactional failures per month or year 7. Scalability: It’s the ability to consistently serve the requests despite variations the volume of requests. High accessibility of an e -‐Business application can be achieved by building highly scalable systems 8. Security: involves aspects such as authentication, authorization, message integrity and confidentiality. Security has added importa nce because e-‐Business application invocation occur over the internet 9. Transactionality: There are several cases where an e -‐Business application requires transactional behavior and context propagation. A classical example is an application where goods can only be delivered if payment has been made. What is Risk: • No trade without risk • Risk is the probability that a vulnerability will be known and used • 100% certainty in preventing technical and human failures and their consequences is impossible and unaffordable Classification of E-‐Risks: • Interception of data and possible manipulation of data ( man in the middle attack) • Intentional use of false identity to commit a fraud ( spoofing) • Unauthorized Access ( hacking) • Attacking corporate websites ( denial of service attack) Which risks are acceptable? Risk Analysis** Information Security Requirements: Security is Safeguarding of: • *Authentication: “That you are who you claim you are” • *Integrity: “That what you get is that what I sent” • *Confidentiality: “Accessible only to those authorized” • *Non-‐repudiation: “That we cannot deny we talked” • Availability: “That we count on that it works • Auditability: “That operations are transparant and can be proven” • Certification: “ That we are authorized to act” Keys and Cryptography • Cryptography is the process of scrambling plaintext into cipher text – maintaining the secrecy of the key is crucial. • Key management is a critical process in a reliable crypto system • Key management: Key generation, Key distribution, and Key in stallation.
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'