New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

EBTM 311 Exam Review

by: Danielle Alessi

EBTM 311 Exam Review EBTM 311

Danielle Alessi

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Attached is review for Exam 1,2 and the final exam
Principles of e-Business
M. Mohamed
75 ?




Popular in Principles of e-Business

Popular in Entrepreneurship

This 28 page Bundle was uploaded by Danielle Alessi on Saturday February 6, 2016. The Bundle belongs to EBTM 311 at Towson University taught by M. Mohamed in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 181 views. For similar materials see Principles of e-Business in Entrepreneurship at Towson University.


Reviews for EBTM 311 Exam Review


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 02/06/16
EBTM  311  Exam  #1  Review   Chapter  1  &  2,  looking  at  computers   Have  a  well  understanding  of  material  with  ~   1. ~What  is  e-­‐Business?   E-­‐  Business  is  the  conduct  of  transactions  by  means  of  electronic  communications  networks   (internet  and  private   networks)   2. ~What  is  e-­‐Commerce?   E-­‐  Commerce  is  the  buying  and   selling  of  goods/services  and  the  transfer  of  funds  through  digital  communications.   This  includes  on-­‐line  display  of  goods  and  services,  ordering,  billing,  customer  service  and  al l  handling  of  payments   and  transactions   ~Types  of  E-­‐  Commerce:   Business  to  Consumer-­‐  E-­‐  commerce  between  organizations  and  individual  consumers   Business  to  Business-­‐  E-­‐  commerce  between  businesses   Business-­‐  to  Government-­‐   Gov  to  Consumer-­‐  E-­‐commerce  activities  performed  between  a  government  and  its  citizens   Consumer  to  Business  –  When  an  individual  sells  products  and  services  to  a  business   Consumer  to  consumer-­‐  When  an  individual  sells  products  and  services  to  another  individual       E-­‐  Commerce  VS  E-­‐  Business:   E-­‐  business  is  more  generic  term;  it  refers  not  only  to  information  related  to  buying  and  selling  but  also  to  servicing   customers  and  collaborating  with  business  partners.       3. ~Characteristics  of  e-­‐Business   Combining  external  company  processes  with  organizat ions  internal  business  processes   • Collaborative  product  development   • Collaborative  planning   • Forecasting  and  replenishment   • Procurement  and  order  management   • Operations  and  logistics.     What  is  a  private  Network?    A  network  that  uses  private  address  space.  Used  for  homes,  office,  and  local  area  networks.  These  networks  aren’t   globally  given,  and  not  distributed  to  any  specific  organization.       4. ~Customer  Relationship  Management  (CRM)  system   “Front”  office  systems  that  help  the  enterprise  deal  directly  with  their  customers.  This  uses  information  about  the   customers  to  gain  insight  into  their  needs,  wants,  and  behaviors  in  order  to  serve  them  better.     This  includes  Multi-­‐channel  service  delivery,  multiple  ways  in  which  customers  can  interact  with  a  business.     5.  ~Enterprise  Resource  Planning  Systems  (ERPs)     Management  information  systems  that  integrate  and  automate  many  of  the  business  practice  associated  with  the   operations  or  production  aspects   of  a  company.   ERP  includes:   • Production:  manufacturing  resource  planning  and  execution  process   • Buying  a  product:  Procurement  process   • Sales  of  products  and  services :  customer  order  management  process   • Costing,  paying  bills  and  collecting :  financial/management  accounting  and  reporting  process.     **ERP  are  used  to  fulfill  a  customers  orderment     Function  or  Order  Fulfillment -­‐  ERP     6. Strategy-­‐  defines  the  future  direction  and  actions  of  an  organization       7. ~Strategic  Planning  –  external  positioning   You  need  to  determine  specifically  what  outcome  you  want   to  achieve     Mostly  based  on     1) Situtation-­‐  where  a  company  is  right  now  and  how  did  it  get  there   2) Traget-­‐  where  does  a  company  want  to  be   3) Path-­‐  how  can  it  get  there   8. ~Tactical  planning-­‐  structuring  and  resources  of  the  firm       9. ~Operational  Planning -­‐    Maximizing  the  profitability  of  current  operation       10. ~Supply  chain  mgmt.  strategy   Tracks  inventory  and  info  among  business  processes  and  across   companies.  The  oversight  of  materials,  information,  and   finances  as  they  move  in  a  process  from  supplier  to  manufacturer  to  wholesaler  to  retailer  to  consumer.  Supply  chain   management  involves  coordinating  and  integrating  these  flows  both  within  and  among  companies.  It  is  said  that  the   ultimate  goal  of  any  effective  sup ply  chain  management  system  is  to  reduce  inventory     11. ~IS  strategy   Four  generic  strategies  for  achieving  a  profitable  business:   Differentiation;    a  strategy  that  refers  to  all  the  ways  producers  can  make  their  products  unique  and  distingu ish   them  from  those  of  competitors     Cost;  This  strategy  means  that  a  company  primarily  competes  with  low  costs   Scope  A  strategy  to  compete  in  market   worldwide,  rather  than  merely  in  local,  regional  or  national  markets   Focus;    A  strategy  to  compete  within  a  narrow  market  segment  or  product  segment     12. ~Front  Office-­‐  Uses  CSM  and  CRP-­‐  activities  related  to  supplies,  and  customers   13. ~Back  Office-­‐    allows  organizations  to  do  production  and  paying.  This  is  related  to  production  and  huma n  resources.     14.  ~  What  is  a  bit     A  bit  is  binary  digit.  0  or  1   15. ~What  is  a  byte   8  bits,  each  letter,  number,  and  characte r  =  a  string  of  eight  0’s  or  1’   16. ~What  is  the  difference  between  data  and  information   Data  is  a  representation  of  a  fact,  figure,  or  idea.     Information  is  organized,  meaningful  data.     17. ~Functions  of  a  computer   4  Functions:   • Gathers  data  (users  input  data) :  the  input  of  a  programmer  through  the  keyboard,  scanner,  or  other  forms  of   storage  media.  Theses  are  sources  used  to  insert  data  into  the  computer   • Processes  data  into  information :  the  manipulation  of  information  by  the  computer  system.  Processing  uses  the   processor  or  random  access  memory.     • Outputs  data  or  information :  Output  is  when  the  compute r  displays  data  to  be  viewed  by  the  programmer  or  other   individuals.  It  usually  involves  the  monitor,  printer  or  a  form  of  storage  media  that  data  is  copied  to.  Output   typically  involves  some  finished  product  that  is  separate  from  the  computer  system.     • Stores  data  and  information :  Storage  is  the  process  of  permanently  saving  data  on  the  computer.  This  process   involved  a  hard  drive  or  some  kind.  After  data  has  been  processed,  it  must  then  be  stored  on  a  hard  drive  as   opposed  to  simply  reduced  in  RAM,  whic h  RAM  is  not  permanent  storage.       18. ~Data  versus  information   Data  gives  facts.  Figures,  numbers  to  the  computer  and  then  transfers  into  information   Information  something  that  is  meaningful  to  the  users     19. ~Input  devices   Devices  used  to  enter  information  or   instructions  into  the  computer.  Allow  you  to  look  at  data  in  the  computer   • Keyboard   • Mouse/pointing  device   • Stylus   • Scanner   • Digital  camera   • Microphone     20. ~Output  devices   Send  processed  data  out  of  the  computer  such  as  monitors  and  printers.     Output  devices  make  s oft  copies  such  as  sounds  and  videos  and  hard  copies     21. ~System  unit   A  system  unit  is  a  box  that  contains  the  central  electronic  components  of  the  computer .  Holds  all  the  electronic  devices   that  computer  uses  to  hold  all  the  data   • CPU/RAM-­‐  where  random  data  a nd  temporary  storage  goes   • Expansion  cards-­‐  used  for  video,  audio  and  network.  Provides  new  connections  for  other  devices.   • Power  supply-­‐   • Storage  devices-­‐      any  hardware  capable  of  holding  information     22. ~System  software   A  software  tell  the  computer  what  to  do.  Allows  user  to  communicate  with  the  program,  save  it,  etc.  Interact  with   computer.  Organized  information  in  the  form  of  operating  systems,  utilities,  programs,  and  applications  that  enable   computers  to  work.  (ex:  internet,  you  wouldn’t  be  able  to  access  the  internet  without  the    internet  browser  software)  (   email,  word,  itunes)   Two  main  types  of  software   1) System  software-­‐  coordinates  instructions  between  software  and  hardware.  It  includes  operating  systems  and   utility  programs.   2) Application  software-­‐  Programs  used  to  complete  tasks.  It  includes  productivity  software,  specialty  software,   entertainment,  educational  and  reference,  and  personal  software     23. Application  software   Application  software  is  a  program  used  to  complete  tasks  an d  includes  productivity  software,  specialty  software,   entertainment  software,  educational  and  reference  software,  and  personal  software.       26.  ~Power  controls:   Sleep  mode:  data  is  saved  in  random  access  memory     Hibernation:  everything  you  are  working  with   will  be  saved  in  your  hard  drive   Warm  boot:  when  you  restart  your  computer  if  your  computer  freezes       ~Hard  Drive:  permanent  storage       ~Operating  System:  Operating  system  is  the  most  important  software  that  runs  on  a  computer.  It  manages  the   computers  memory,  processes,  and  all  of  its  software  and  hardware.  It  also  can  allow  you  to  communicate  with  the   computer  without  knowing  how  to  speak  the  computers  language.     ~Without  an  operating  system,  a  computer  is  useless .   The  operating  system  controls:   • Hardware   • Processor   • Memory   • Devices   Operating  System  is  responsible  for  management,  scheduling,  and  interaction  of  tasks  a nd  to  work  with  the  CPU,   memory,  and  storage  of  the  computer.     ~Random  Access  Memory  (  RAM) -­‐  Random  access  memory  is  a  storage  location  that  allo ws  information  to  be  stored   and  accessed  quickly  from  random  location.  The  computer  is  able  to  access  the  data  very  quickly   RAM  is  volatile  memory/unstable.   ~Memory  –  is  any  physical  device  capable  of  storing  information  temporarily  or  permanently.     Memory  can  be  both  volatile  and  non-­‐volatile.  Volatile  memory  is  memory  that  loses  its  contents  when  the  computer  or   hardware  device  loses  power.  Non -­‐volatile  memory  is  memory  that  keeps  its  contents  even  it  the  power  is  lost.       ~Random  Access  Memory  VS  Hard  Dri ve-­‐   • Random  Access  Memory  gets  wiped  out  every  time  the  computer  restarts  and  your  work  it  not  saved.  It   temporarily  holds  the  files  so  the  computer  is  faster,  because  it  is  not  accessing  the  hard  drive.   • Hard  drive  is  a  storage  space  where  your  files  are  stored,  such  as  pictures  and  music  and  programs  you  installed.     (non-­‐volatile)  –  holds  storage  forever   ~Virtual  Memory-­‐    The  process  of  improving  RAM  storage  by  borrowing  hard  drive  space.  When  instructions  and   data  are  stored  on  the  hard  drive  when  the  RAM  is  full   • Swap  file-­‐  when  more  RAM  space  is  need ed,  the  operating  system  takes  data  that  has  now  been  recently   used  and  moves  it  into  a  temporary  storage  called  swap  file  to  make  more  room  on  the  RAM   • Paging-­‐  If  those  files  needed  in  the  swap  file  later  on,  the  Operating  system  will  put  them  back  into  the  RAM   and  replaces  them  in  the  hard  drive  with  less  active  data,  known  as  paging   • Thrashing-­‐    After  paging  so  many  times,  the  computer  will  become  sluggish.  This  condit ion  of  unnecessary   paging  is  called  thrashing.       ~**  CRM  &  ERP  &SCM  are  not  software’s,  they  are  systems.     ~**  CRM  is  a  front  office  system  that  helps  customers,  used  to  manage  interaction  with  customers     **Market  &  Customers  Analysis     -­‐ Helping   -­‐ Giving  service     -­‐   ~The  Strategic  Planning  Process   1) Mission  statement -­‐  tells  you  about  organization  and  the  purpose  of  exist  and  what  you  will  provide   2) Analysis  of  external  and  internal  info   3) Planning  strategies  and  objectives   4) Implementations  and  control  of  plans   ~What  is  E-­‐  business  Strategy?   Support  not  only  corporate  strategy  objectives  but  also  various  functional  strategies  like  marketing  and  supply  chain   management   ~E-­‐  Business  2  roles-­‐   1) buyside   2) Sell  side   ~IS  system-­‐     1) Supply  side-­‐  supply  software  and  hardware   2) Demand  side-­‐   Exam  2  Study  Guide   The  Value  Chain  activities :  These  activities  can  only  be  understood  in  the  context  of  business   unit.  Value  Chain  includes  everything  that  contributes  to  a  major  organizational  output.   Value  Chain  is  a  series  of  value -­‐adding  activities  connecting  a  company’s  supply  side  with  its   demand  side.   -­‐ Supply  side  (raw  materials,  inbound  logistics,  production  processes)   -­‐ Demand  side  (outbound  logistics,  marketing  and  sales)   It  also  provides  manager  with  a  tool  to  analyze  and  redesign  their  internal   and  external   processes   -­‐  Improve  efficiency  and  effectiveness   • Design   • Produce   • Market   • Deliver   • Support   Value  chain  analysis  steps:   1. Defining  the  strategic  business  unit   2. Identifying  critical  activities   3. Defining  products   4. Determining  the  value  of  an  activity     What  are  the  primary  activities?   *Inbound  Logistics:  all  the  process  associated  with  receiving,  storing,  and  disseminating  inputs   to  the  production  process.   *Operations:  All  processes  associated  with  transforming  the  inputs  into  outputs   *Outbound  Logistics:    All  activities  concerned  with  distributing  the  products  or  services  to   customers   Marketing  and  Sales :  all  activities,  which  provide  opportunities  for  the  potential  customer  to  buy   the  product  or  services.     Service:  They  are  those  activities  that  enhance  or  maintain  the  value  of  the  product  or  service   once  the  customer  has  bought  it.  These  activities  include  repairs,  maintenance.   What  are  the  support  activities?     Firm  Infrastructure:  this  activity  encompasses  administration  and  general  management  for  over   all  planning  and  control.     Human  Resource  Management :  this  function  refers  to  all  those  activities  associated  with,  the   recruiting,  training,  developing,  appraising,  promoting,  and  re warding  of  personnel.     Product/  Technology  Development :  This  function  includes  all  activities  that  relate  to  product   and  process  development.     Procurement:  This  function  is  responsible  for  purchasing  goods,  services,  and  materials  required   as  inputs  for  the  production  process.     Business  Process  and  Work   Flow.   Business  Process  is  a  process  is  an  ordering  of  activities  with  a  beginning  and  an  end,  it  has   inputs  in  terms  of  resources,  materials,  and  information’s  and  specified  output.         Technological  Infrastructures-­‐    The  infrastructure  for  E-­‐business  comprises  technologies   that  can  be  seen  as  different  layers  that  built  upon  each  other.     The  bottom  layer  includes  networking  topologies,  the  Internet  and  protocols  (   Networking  Facilities)   The  layer  above  is  the  basic  infrastructure  layer  that  contains  such  as  client/server  and   tiered  architectures  (Basic  Infrastructure)   The  layer  above  contains  the  technologies  that  are  required  to  develop  web-­‐based   applications(web-­‐based  technologies  and  applications)   Finally,  the  top  layer  contains  collaborative  technologies  such  as  workflow  systems  and   EDI  (  Collaborative  technologies)     Client  Server   -­‐ Network  operating  system  software   Tiered  Infrastructure-­‐    the  IT  system  is  partitioned  into  tiers(  layers)  where  each  tier   performs  a  specific  type  of  functionality.     Two  Tier  Infrastructure-­‐    basic  client/server  relationship.  Processing  is  split  between   client  and  server   Limitations  of  Two  Tier  Infrastructure-­‐    has  several  drawbacks,  which  are  especially   problematic  for  large  and  distributed  applications.     Three  Tier  Infrastructure-­‐    client,  application  server,  data  or  database  server.  A  middle   tier  is  introduced  between  the  user  system  interface  client  environment  and  the   database  management  server  environment.  (  Presentation,  processing,  data)   Multi-­‐Tier  Infrastructure-­‐    balances  the  work  of  the  network  over  several  different   servers.  Starts  with  the  3  tier  model   Value  Chains  in  Financial  Organization   What  is  the  main  function  of  Ethernet  switch?     Procurement   Value  chain  analysis  Value  chain  analysis  starts  by  identifying  the  activities  of  the  firm  and  then   sties  the  activities  of  the  firm  and  then  sties  the  economic  implications  of  those  activities.   It  includes  4  general  steps:   1) Defining  the  strategic  business  unit   2) Identifying  critical  activities   3) Defining  products   4) Determining  the  value  of  an  activity     Ethernet  Switches   -­‐ Keep  track  of  data  packets   -­‐ Amplify  and  retransmit  signals   -­‐ Keep  the  network  running  efficiently   -­‐   What  is  Scalability?    How  well  a  system  can  adapt  to  increase  demands   Interoperability:  systems  to  communicate  with  each  other   Network  Navigation  Devices-­‐    devices  that  help  make  data  flow  possible   1. Routers   -­‐ Transfer  packets  from  one  network  to  another.     -­‐ Responsible  for  flow  of  data  between  networks   -­‐ Home  internet  routers  transfer  data  from  the  internet  to  the  home  network   -­‐ Allows  for  network-­‐ready  devices  such  as  network  printers  or  NAS     2. Switches   -­‐ Receive  data  and  retransmit  it  to  nodes  on  the  same  network  (makes  sure  data   doesn’t  get  lost)     Protocols-­‐    protocols  are  sets  of  rules  that  machines  follow  to  complete  tasks.  The   hypertext  transfer  protocol  http  is  what  we  use  to  view  web  sites  through  a  browser   Characteristics  of  business  process  and  work  flow   What  is  a  network?    Networking  is  two  or  more  computers  that  are  connected  (   hardware,  software)   Benefits  of  a  network-­‐   -­‐ Sharing  resources  and  peripherals   -­‐ Transferring  files   -­‐ Sharing  of  broadband  connection  with  use  of  a  router   Nodes-­‐  devices  connected  to  networks.   Network  Architecture-­‐  network  designs   -­‐ Locally  Administered  (peer-­‐to-­‐peer)   -­‐ Centrally  administered  (client/server)       Peer-­‐  to-­‐  peer  networks     -­‐ Nodes  communicate  with  each  other  (  ex.  Peers).   -­‐ Share  peripheral  devices   -­‐ Used  in  home  and  small  office  networks   Types  of  peer-­‐to-­‐peer  network   -­‐ Wired  Ethernet  Networks   -­‐ Wireless  Ethernet  networks   -­‐ Power-­‐line  networks   Ethernet  Switches   -­‐ Keep  track  of  data  packets   -­‐ Amplify  and  retransmit  signals   -­‐ Keep  the  network  running  efficiently   What  is  client/server  network?       -­‐ Client  computer  are  users  who  make  requests   -­‐ Server  computers  provide  resources  to  clients,  central  network  control.       What  is  centralized  Network?  -­‐    Sharing  information  systems  in  one  central  area  or  on   one  central  mainframe.  Almost  nonexistent  today   What  is  decentralized  Network?  Involves  little  or  no  sharing  of  IT  and  other  resources   such  as  information.  Almost  nonexistent  today   What  is  a  data  transfer  rate?   What  is  WAN,  LAN,  and  MAN?   WAN-­‐    lands  connected  over  long  distances   -­‐ A  few  miles  to  thousands  of  miles   -­‐ Use  telecommunications  lines   LAN-­‐  Nodes  are  within  a  small  geographic  region   -­‐ Homes   -­‐ Schools   -­‐ Small  businesses     MAN-­‐     -­‐ Nodes  are  within  a  specific  geographic  region,  such  as  a  city   -­‐ Sponsored  by  a  government  entity  to  provide  access  to  city  residents  and  or   visitors.     Distributed  computing   The  role  of  IT  in  the  value  chain  &  benefits:   -­‐ To  improve  efficiency  and  effectiveness   -­‐ To  fundamentally  change  the  activity   -­‐ To  alter  the  relationship  between  activities   What  is  Trojan   Horse?   What  is  EDI?-­‐    used  to  transfer  electronic  documents  or  business  data  from  one  computer   system  to  another  computer  system,  a  network  for  transmitting  standard  transactions,  a   paperless  trading  environment,  routine  documents,  purchase  order,  billings,  shipping  manifest,   documents  translated  into  standard  business  language.   Problems  with  EDI   -­‐ Fixed  transaction  sets-­‐    Transactions  that  do  not  fit  into  the  strict  model  of  EDI   transactions  can  be  negotiates  as  a  new  transaction  type.    As  a  result,  industries  have   found  transaction  sets  not  to  be  practical  for  daily  business  use.   -­‐ Resilience  to  change-­‐    EDI  standards  are  defined  by  standards  bodies  that  are   structurally  ill  equipped  to  keep  up  with  the  rapid  pace  of  change  in  the  various  business   sectors  they  impact.     -­‐ Reliance  on  proprietary  communications  networks -­‐    EDI  messages  are  mainly  carried  on   proprietary  communications  networks  that  are  relatively  expensive  and  that  have   compatibility  problems  when  communicating  across  networks.     What  Hackers  Do   -­‐  Steal  information  from  co mputers  (  credit  card,  bank  accounts)   -­‐ Internet  packet  sniffing-­‐>  checks  all  the  data,  looks  or  reads  the  info -­‐  packet  sniffing  can   only  read  the  packet.   -­‐ Commit  Identity  theft-­‐   What  do  viruses  do -­‐  Slow  down  the  network   Types  of  viruses  (Networking  Chapter)   -­‐ Boot-­‐sector  Viruses-­‐    Replicate  themselves  in  the  boot  sector  of  the  hard  drive   -­‐ Logic  Bombs-­‐  activate  when  certain  conditions  are  met   -­‐ Time  Bombs-­‐    Triggered  by  the  passage  of  time  or  on  a  certain  date   -­‐ *Worms-­‐    Travel  between  systems  through  networks.     -­‐ Script  Viruses-­‐    Hidden  on  web  pages  as  mini  programs   -­‐ Macro  Viruses-­‐    attached  to  documents  and  series  of  commands   -­‐ E-­‐mail  viruses-­‐    Use  e-­‐mail  address  books  to  distribute  the  virus   -­‐ *Encryption  Viruses-­‐    compress  files  using  a  complex  encryption  key  and  user  mu st  pay   to  get  the  files  unlocked   Virus  Classifications -­‐     -­‐ Polymorphic  Viruses:  periodically  rewrite  themselves  to  avoid  detection   -­‐ Multipartite  Viruses:   infect  multiple  file  types   -­‐ Stealth  Viruses:    Erase  their  code  from  the  hard  drive  and  reside  in  the  active  memory   How  computers  are  attacked:   -­‐ Trojan  Horse-­‐>    virus,  hacker  softwareà  software  that  looks  useful  to  you,  but  really  is   a  virus  to  your  computer   -­‐ Denial  of  Service  attacks à   -­‐ Distributed  denial  of  service  attacks à   Firewalls:    A  software  program  or  hardware  designed   to  close  logical  ports  to  invaders.  Firewall   is  a  combination  of  hardware  and  software,  get  this  If  you  want  more  protection   -­‐ A  firewall  is  built  into  windows  vista   -­‐ More  robust  firewalls  are  available  from  other  vendors   -­‐ Firewalls  are  critical  if  you  have  an  always  on  broadband  connection   Business  process  management -­‐    the  focus  on  the  final  customer  as  opposed  to  the  focus  on   vertical  functional  activities  has  lead  in  the  90’s  to  a n  increased  interest  for  processes  and  their   management.  A  business  process  view  implies  an  horizontal  view  on  a  business  organization  and   look  at  processes  as  sets  of  interdependent  activities  designed  and  structures  to  produce  a   specific  output  for  a  customer  or  a  market.     What  is  the  role  of  enterprise  information  systems?   Static  Documents:  read  from  an  existing  files-­‐  same  info  unless  you  change  it   Dynamic  Documents:  have  an  interactive  and  usually  time -­‐sensitive  nature.  These  require  the   server  to  generate  the  document  on  the  fly   Network  Adaptors:       -­‐ Enable  communication  between  nodes.   -­‐ Devices  connected  to  or  installed  in  nodes   1.  Network  interface  cards   2.  External  or  internal  network  adapters   Transmission  media-­‐    provide  communications  channel  betw een  nodes.     Forms  of  Media   -­‐ Twisted  pair   -­‐ Coaxial  Cable   -­‐ Fiber-­‐Optic  Cable-­‐  fastest     -­‐ Radio  Waves   Bandwidth   -­‐ Data  Transfer  rateà  fastest  speed  it  can  go  to  transfer  the  info   -­‐ Throughput  à  less-­‐  normal  speed   Packet  sniffing  programs.   Hyper  Text  Transfer  Protocol -­‐    what  we  use  to  view  web  sites  through  a  browser.  (  https).   Security  protocols  when  using  banks  or  other  confidential  websites.     What  is  business  process?     TCP:  transmission  control  protocol   -­‐ The  service  of  exchanging  data  directly  between  two  network  hosts   IP:  Internet  protocol   -­‐ Addressing  and  routing  message  across  one  or  more  networks   Ebtm  311  Final  Exam  Review     Chapter  9     Classes  of  Products:     • Industrial  purchasing  activities  focus  on  several  categories  of  good:     – Basic  raw  materials   • Including  ferrous  and  non  ferrous  metals  and  plastic,  but  also  energy,   water,  etc.;   – Components   • That  is  elements  used  directly  for  assembling   – Semi  Manufactured  Articles   • Which  require  one  or  more  extra  processing  steps     What  is  the  purchasing   process?     The  purchasing  is  the  external  acquisition  at  optimum  conditions  of  goods,  services,  and   materials  that  are   needed  for  production,  sales  and  maintenance.  The  purchasing  function   contributes  to  the  company’s  profit  potential.     • Purchasing  is  classic  source  of  inefficiency   – Policies  and  forms  to  standardize  and  control  the  purchasing  process   – Large  number  of  rules,  and  resulting  procedure  are  complex   – Class  C  products,  the  cost  of  the  buying  process  are  often  higher  than  those  of   the  goods  and  services  purchased   – Slow  and  Inefficient  (C-­‐type  products)   – Communication  Intensive   – Before  the  internet,  little  IT  support   – Only  the  information  stage     – electronic  Catalogs     – Automation  of  the  of  the  operational  activities  during  the  settlement  stage     Class  A,  B,  and  C  articles   –  first  %  is  material,  second  %  is  amount  spent   Class  A:  small  number  of  articles  20%  of  the  products  a ccount  for  80%  of  purchasing  amount   Class  B:  next  50%  account  for  15%   Class  C:  A  large  number  of  articles  30%  accounts  for  5%   Modeling  the  Purchasing  Process   Buygrid  Model  :  Internal  Perspective-­‐  the  buy  grid  model  concluded  that  a  division  into  eight   stages  best  describes  the  organizational  buying  process.     The  eight  steps  of  organization  buying  can  be  reduced  to  just  information,  negotiation  and   settlement.   1) Information:  Prospective  buyer  identifies  their  needs  and  evaluates  potential  sources  to   fulfill  them.   2) Negotiation:  the  business  partners  start  to  interact,  determining  the  prices  and  the   availability  of  the  goods  and  services,  as  well  as  delivery  condition,  successful   negotiations  are  finalized  with  a  contract   3) Settlement:  the  terms  for  money  or  other  forms  of  compensation   Kralijic  purchasing  model :  External  Perspective   • The  purchasing  portfolio  is  another  model  (Kraljic  1983)  introduces  two  variables:     – The  company’s  strategic  vulnerability  with  respect  to  the  purchase   • Percentage  of  the  company’s  products’  cost  price  (good  purchased)   – The  complexity  of  the  supplying  market   • The  difficulty  with  which  the  purchase  is  made  (scarcity  and  entry   barriers)   Kraljic’s  Framework  4  items   that  companies  can  buy   Strategic  items:    Characterized  by  high  buying  risks  and  major  profit  impact   Bottleneck  items:  Characterized  by  high  buying  risks,  but  a  small  profit  impact   Leverage  items:  Characterized  by  low  buying  risks,  but  a  major  profit  impact   Routine  Items:  Characterized  by  low  buying  risks  and  a  small  profit  impact   IT  and  purchasing:    IT  is  to  support  the  purchasing  process   – CD-­‐ROM  for  product  and  supplier  info.   – EDI  for  contracting  and  ordering     – Electronic  Catalogue  in  centralized  database   – Internet  Technology   What  is  E-­‐  Procurement:    Procurement  is  an  important  element  in  any  business.   • It  is  the  use  of  Internet  technologies  over  intranets,  extranets,  or  the  web  to  streamline   the  procurement  process.     • It  is  the  electronic  purchase  and  sale  of  supplies  and  services  over  the  Internet   • E-­‐  Procurement  covers  the  entire  purchasing  process,  from  gathering  information  to   delivery-­‐  it  includes  inbound  logistics  such  as  transportation,  goods -­‐in,  and  warehousing.     Procurement  can  be  classified  in  two  way s:   Direct  Procurement:   Deals  with  items  that  are  required  for  direct  production   of  organizations   products   Indirect  Procurement:  Deals  with  items  that  support  the  production   **Advantages  of  E-­‐  Procurements   – Reduced  costs:  e-­‐Procurement  empowers  aggregated,   cross  enterprise   spending,  resulting  in  lower  prices  through  higher -­‐volume  purchasing   – Improved  process  efficiency:  e-­‐Procurement  makes  it  easier  for  companies  to   increase  purchasing  control  and  work  with  preferred  suppliers   – Increased  control:  e-­‐Procurement  provides  a  consistent  method  for  handling  all   purchasing  needs.   – Global  reach:  e-­‐Procurement  provides  access  to  a  global  supplier  base,  allowing   companies  to  work  with  supplier  who  better  fit  their  needs.  and  reduce  material   costs  by  strengthening  existing  supplier  relationships   **  Component  of  E-­‐Procurement:   • Requisition  management   • Transaction  management   • Connectivity  management   • Content  management   – Up-­‐to-­‐date  data   – Technical  functionality     **Requisition  Management:     • End  user  processes  order   • Selection  in  e-­‐catalogue   • Workflow  support   **  Transaction  Management   • Processing  order  to  supplier  through  EDI,  e -­‐mail,  etc.   • Standards:  XML/EDI,  open  buying  on  the  internet   **Connectivity  Management   intergration  with  supplier  and  internal  systems -­‐  internal  (erp)   • Budget  control   • Order  Registration   • Accounting   • Payment   **  Content  Management:   • Heart  of  E-­‐  Procurement  System   • Data  Administration   • Allows  information  sharing,  reduction  number  of  suppliers,  use  of  buying  power.   Supply  Chain  :     A  network  of  connected  and  interdependant  organizations  mutally  and  co -­‐opratively  working   together  to  control,  manage  and  improve  the  flow  of  materials  from  suppliers  to  end -­‐users.             Chapter  10:  E-­‐  business  networks   What  is  Network  Organizations:   • Networks  consist  of  nodes  and  relationships   • An  organizational  form  to  manage  interdependence  between  companies  ,based  on   purposeful  collaboration  and  specific  communication  patterns.   • They  vary  with  respect  to  goals,  boundaries,  and  structures.     Reasons  for  joining  a  network:   There  may  be  several  reason s  to  set  up  or  join  a  network  organization   • Combining  competences   • Benefiting  for  economies  of  scale   • Achieving  overall  supply  chain  benefits   • Sharing  know  how   • Combining  power   Strategic  Networks:   • Companies  in  different  parts  of  the  value  chain  agree  on  coopera tion  in  research  and   development,  production  and  marketing   • Objective  to  gain  competitive  advantages   Operative  Networks:   • Set  of  contractual  relations  covering  common  agreements  on  electronic  exchanges   • Main  objective  is  the  rationalization  of  information  exchange  with  respect  to  routine   operations.     Operational  Networks:   • Focus  on  short  term  collaboration  between  various  companies   • On  operational  and  tactical  level   • Objectives:  aiming  at  efficiency  and  effe ctiveness  improvement  by:   1. Lowering  inventory  levels   2. Reducing  cycle  times   3. Improving  products  and  service  quality  levels   Collaborative  Networks:   • Involve  long  term  collaboration  on  a  strategic  level  in  order  to  win  business  and   strengthen  market  positions  by  focusing  on  core  competences   Innovative  Networks   • Aim  to  reduce  their  participants  risks  and  costs  by  joining  their  research  and   development  activities  and  sharing  knowledge  and  know  how   Interest  group  networks:   • Try  to  defend  their  participants  interests  an d  help  them  gain  a  stronger  position,  they   may  be  considered  power  groups,  in  which  even  competitors  may  join  forces  to  gain  a   stronger  position  with  respect  to,  for  example  the  government.   Network  Characteristics:   • *Stable  Networks   – Long  term  stable  relationship  between  suppliers,  producers  and  distributors   – Serve  predictable  markets   – Based  on  partial  outsourcing   – It  introduces  flexibility  into  the  overall  value  chain   • *Dynamic  Networks:   – Temporary  alliances  between  organizations  in  order  to  respond  to  actual   market   forces   – Companies  along  the  value  chain  of  a  specific  product,  or  belonging  to  two   different  industry  value  chain   – May  use  brokers  in  order  to  locate  functions  needed   • *Internal  Networks:   – Set  up  within  companies  to  make  them  more  flexile   – From  hierarchical  structures  to  direction  of  market  structure,  but  within  the   boundaries  of  single  organization   – To  locate  functions  that  are  needed,  but  cannot  be  sources  from  within  the   company,  broker  companies  may  be  used     • *Thick  Network:    Involves  intensive  relationships  and  communication  patterns,  and   close  collaboration     • *Think  Network:  Composed  of  companies  that  communicate  extensively,  but  they   involve  less  integration  over  multiple  types  of  socially  important  relationships       • Tightly  Coupled:    Stable  networks  of  trading  partners  with  shared  planning  and  control   cycles   – entails  organizing  business  activities  along  a  virtual  value  chain  to  attain  a   shared  goal   – May  involve  predefined  interaction  patterns,  such  as  trading  pr  ols.   • Loosely  Coupled  Networks:  Trading  partner  preserve  their  independence   – They  can  decide  to  change  their  internal  business  processes  and  information   systems,  without  influencing  one  another  to  the  extent  that  the  collaboration  is   disabled.     What  is  spot  marketing?    Satisfying  immediate  needs.  Making  a  payment  and  no  relationship   afterwards.     System  Integration  and  Business  Benefits     *Localized  Exploitation:  Refers  to  information  systems  used  within  departmental  or  group   boundaries;  these  systems  are  specifically   designed  to  meet  the  needs  of  that  department  or   group   Internal  Integration:  Involves  the  interdepartmental  integration  of  information  systems  and  the   use  of  these  for  the  company’s  entire  internal  business  process.     *Business  Process  Redesign:    Combining  the  integration  between  departments  with  the   reorganization  and  optimization  of  their  processes,  using  the  possibilities  information   technology  offers.     Business  Network  Design:  includes  the  internal  business  processes  of  other  companies  as  wel l,   in  order  to  establish  interorganizational  business  processes.     Business  Scope  Redefinition:  which  is  identifying  organizations  that  are  evaluating  the  used  of   existing  situations  in  order  to  benefit  from  new  situations  in  which  parallel  value  chains  mig ht  be   integrated.       Interoperability:  the  ability  of  the  Is  to  communicate  and  work  with  other  IS  and  interact  with   people.   – Can  be  met  if  communication  standards  are  applied   – Standard  based  technology  allow  partners  to  execute  a  traditional  business   function  in  a  digitally  enhanced  way.   Interoperability  requires  standardization  in  four  dimensions:     • 1.  Technology:  middleware,  protocols,  security  etc.   • 2.  Syntax:  structure  or  language  of  messages  exchanged   • 3.  Semantics:  Meaning  of  terms   • 4.  Pragmatics:  agreement s  on  practices  triggered  by  specific  messages     Supply  Chains:  The  network  that  encompasses  all  the  organizations  and  activities  associated   with  the  flow  and  transformation  of  goods  from  the  raw  materials  stage  through  to  the  end   user,  as  well  as  the  associ ated  information  flows   Integrated  Supply  Chain:  The  process  by  which  multiple  enterprises  within  a  shared  market   segment  collaboratively  plan,  implement  and  monitor  the  flow  of  goods  and  services   • A  company  rarely  interacts  only  within  a  single  supply  chain   • It  must  connect  with  several  supply  chains  as  product  offerings  and  business  dictate   • Businesses  increasingly  integrate  their  value  chains  by  redesigning  their  structures  to   move  from  hierarchical  with  a  focus  on  management  control  to  horizontal  organizati ons   built  around  business  process.     Chapter  13   Quality  Requirement:     1. Availability:  is  the  absence  of  service  downtime.  It  represents  the  probability  that  a   service  is  available   2. Accessibility:  Represents  the  degree  to  which  a  client  request  is  served.  A   high  degree  of   accessibility  means  that  a  service  is  available  for  a  large  number  of  clients  and  that   clients  can  use  the  service  relatively  easily   3. Conformance  to  Standards :  Describes  the  compliance  of  an  e -­‐Business  applications  with   standards.  Service  providers  must  stick  to  standards  outlined  in  the  service  level   agreement   4. Integrity:  Describes  the  degree  to  which  an  e -­‐Business  application  perform  its  tasks   according  to  its  description  as  well  as  conformance  with  its  service  level  agreement.    A   higher  degree  of  integrity  means  that  the  functionality  of  a  service  is  closer  to  its   description  or  SLA   5. Performance:  Performance  is  measured  in  terms  of  two  factors:   – Throughput:  represents  the  number  of  application  requests  served  in  a  given  time   period   – Latency:  represents  the  length  of  time  between  sending  a  request  and  receiving  the   response   Higher  throughput  and  lower  latency  values  represents  good  performance  of  an  e -­‐ Business  application   6. Reliability:  represents  the  ability  of  a  service  to  function  correctly  and  c onsistently  and   provide  the  same  service  quality  despite  system  or  network  failures.  It  is  usually   expressed  in  terms  of  number  of  transactional  failures  per  month  or  year   7. Scalability:  It’s  the  ability  to  consistently  serve  the  requests  despite  variations   the   volume  of  requests.  High  accessibility  of  an  e -­‐Business  application  can  be  achieved  by   building  highly  scalable  systems     8. Security:  involves  aspects  such  as  authentication,  authorization,  message  integrity  and   confidentiality.  Security  has  added  importa nce  because  e-­‐Business  application   invocation  occur  over  the  internet   9. Transactionality:  There  are  several  cases  where  an  e -­‐Business  application  requires   transactional  behavior  and  context  propagation.  A  classical  example  is  an  application   where  goods  can  only  be  delivered  if  payment  has  been  made.     What  is  Risk:     • No  trade  without  risk   • Risk  is  the  probability  that  a  vulnerability  will  be  known  and  used   • 100%  certainty  in  preventing  technical  and  human  failures  and  their  consequences  is   impossible  and  unaffordable   Classification  of  E-­‐Risks:   • Interception  of  data  and  possible  manipulation  of  data  (  man  in  the  middle  attack)   • Intentional  use  of  false  identity  to  commit  a  fraud   (  spoofing)   • Unauthorized  Access  (  hacking)   • Attacking  corporate  websites  ( denial  of  service  attack)     Which  risks  are  acceptable?      Risk  Analysis**     Information  Security  Requirements:   Security  is  Safeguarding  of:   • *Authentication:  “That  you  are  who  you  claim  you  are”   • *Integrity:  “That  what  you  get  is  that  what  I  sent”   • *Confidentiality:  “Accessible  only  to  those  authorized”   • *Non-­‐repudiation:  “That  we  cannot  deny  we  talked”     • Availability:  “That  we  count  on  that  it  works   • Auditability:  “That  operations  are  transparant  and  can  be  proven”   • Certification:  “  That  we  are  authorized  to  act”   Keys  and  Cryptography   • Cryptography  is  the  process  of  scrambling  plaintext  into  cipher  text   –  maintaining  the   secrecy  of  the  key  is  crucial.   • Key  management  is  a  critical  process  in  a  reliable  crypto  system   • Key  management:  Key  generation,  Key  distribution,  and  Key  in stallation.


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

75 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Allison Fischer University of Alabama

"I signed up to be an Elite Notetaker with 2 of my sorority sisters this semester. We just posted our notes weekly and were each making over $600 per month. I LOVE StudySoup!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.