ALS 2304, Intro + Endocrine Physiology
ALS 2304, Intro + Endocrine Physiology ALS 2304
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This 4 page Bundle was uploaded by Mara DePena on Saturday February 6, 2016. The Bundle belongs to ALS 2304 at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University taught by Dr. Cline in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 66 views. For similar materials see Animal Physiology and Anatomy in Agricultural & Resource Econ at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
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Date Created: 02/06/16
ALS 2304 PHYSIOLOGY Most diagrams will start with the creation of a transcription factor. The study of life. What do we need to live? o Water Chemical reactions o Oxygen ETC o Glucose To make ATP o Heat Keep enzymes going at the proper rate o Get rid of CO 2 Lowers blood acidity; denatures enzymes ATP PRODUCTION If not enough is made, the nervous system collapses. Everything else then collapses after. Energy locked in phosphate bonds. o 3 major cycles: Glycolysis, Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle), Electron Transport Chain o Glycolysis More important for production of NADH than ATP. Glucose from food-> pyruvic acid Yields 2 ATP in order to do work and 2 NADH used in the ETC Each red dot on the diagram represents an enzyme Uses 9 different enzymes Does not need oxygen, but does not make enough ATP for a large vertebrate o Pyruvic acid -> Acetyl CoA prior to entering the Krebs Cycle Produces CO 2 Too much, enzymes unfold and animal dies (cannot burn ATP) o Kreb’s Cycle/Citric Acid Cycle/Tricarboxylic Acid (TCA) Cycle More important for production of NADH than ATP. Arrangement of carbons in intermediate molecules is modified. Acetyl CoA-> CoA removed-> Citric acid Refer to powerpoint Produces NADH, FADH ATP, and CO 2, 2 Does not produce enough ATP for a large vertebrate o Electron Transport Chain In the mitochondria NADH dehydrogenase- Pulls hydrogen off of NADH. bc - Next stop for the electron. It is carried by coenzyme q. 1 When the electrons go through the complexes on the membrane, the enzymes do work. They are proton pumps energized by the electrons that travel through. Cytochrome c oxidase- Third stop. Energizes electron, pumps proton across. This process creates a proton gradient on the outside of the membrane. To escape from the high concentration, they go through ATP synthase. This creates ATP (ADP + a phosphate). Metabolic water is formed. If there is no oxygen, the flow of electrons stops. The proton gradient is lost and ATP production stops. Oxygen may not be available… o At high altitude o When displaced by another gas o When blood flow is restricted o Asthma/respiratory problems 3 protons for each NADH that arrives. CENTRAL DOGMA The origin of the enzymes. The instructions on how to make all of the enzymes/proteins in the body are stored in DNA. DNA -> (transcription) mRNA -> (translation by ribosomes, linking of amino acids) protein Transcription o DNA has to be unwound from histone. o RNA polymerase is attracted to this molecule and attaches to the promoter. As it goes down the strand it synthesizes RNA. o Gene- Instructions for protein we are going to make. o Promoter- Start signal. Head of gene. CAT and TATA Where RNA polymerase will be attracted when CAT sits on top of the TATA by folding the DNA. That is done by a transcription factor. o Terminator- Stop signal. Derails RNA polymerase from DNA strand. o Transcription factor- Many things come together. 40 or 50 proteins that all associate. Is treated as one thing. Fold the DNA. Ex: All steroids such as testosterone, estrogen, etc. Estrogen is used to make animals put on more meat by making muscle protein. It induces transcription and translation. o Primary transcript still has introns and is not considered mature mRNA. Splicing enzymes are needed. A poly(A) tail is then added on one end and an gtP cap on the other end. This is done by enzymes. It is then considered a mature mRNA. Translation o The mature mRNA then goes to the ribosome. Two subunits: large and small. mRNA meets up with small ribosomal subunit. This attracts the large subunit, which associates with the small and forms the proper ribosome. The mRNA feeds through a groove in between the large and the small subunits. The ribosome takes in amino acids and links them together as dictated by the mRNA going through. This produces an enzyme. The enzyme is not folded correctly, and is folded by other enzymes into the proper conformation. The cell can regulate transcription and translation at any of the steps. It is extremely complex. Different hormones regulate each step. If all the switches are in the on position to produce the enzyme, it takes about 45 minutes. Synthesis and translocation of secretory proteins o Proteins that will be secreted outside enter the ER through a translocon o SRP receptor AKA “docking protein” o Translation arrest until SRP-nascent peptide ribosomes complex binds SRP receptor o For secretion, entire peptide/protein travel through translocon o The signal sequence binds with the signal recognition particle o Protein synthesis begins, protein synthesis is inhibited, protein synthesis resumes, signal sequence is cleaved by signal peptidase and destroyed, protein synthesis continues to completion, ribosome dissociates. o This protein is going to be secreted which means it is going to exit this birth cell and go somewhere else. Membrane proteins (such as metabolism enzymes) o Stop-transfer sequence causes translocon to disassemble o Releases hydrophobic region of protein into membrane o New protein goes down through translocon o Stop-transfer sequence- Amino acid sequence that goes through translocon and gets stuck. Rest of the protein is then synthesized outside of the ER. When the process is complete, part of the protein is inside the ER and part is outside, so the protein is tethered to the ER membrane. After proteins leave the ER, they go to the Golgi apparatus. Vesicles move things from the ER to the Golgi. o Folding enzymes are in the Golgi that fold the newly synthesized proteins.
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