New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

ALS 2304, Intro + Endocrine Physiology

by: Mara DePena

ALS 2304, Intro + Endocrine Physiology ALS 2304

Mara DePena
Virginia Tech
GPA 3.62

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These notes cover the introduction to animal physiology as well as the endocrine system. Includes different cascades in the endocrine system and recaps of basic biological functions such as ATP pr...
Animal Physiology and Anatomy
Dr. Cline
animal, anatomy, Physiology, Hormones, cascades, ATP, cortisol, prolactin, steroids, stress, Biology, Endocrine, pituitary
75 ?




Popular in Animal Physiology and Anatomy

Popular in Agricultural & Resource Econ

This 4 page Bundle was uploaded by Mara DePena on Saturday February 6, 2016. The Bundle belongs to ALS 2304 at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University taught by Dr. Cline in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 66 views. For similar materials see Animal Physiology and Anatomy in Agricultural & Resource Econ at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.


Reviews for ALS 2304, Intro + Endocrine Physiology


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 02/06/16
ALS 2304 PHYSIOLOGY Most diagrams will start with the creation of a transcription factor. The study of life.  What do we need to live? o Water  Chemical reactions o Oxygen  ETC o Glucose  To make ATP o Heat  Keep enzymes going at the proper rate o Get rid of CO 2  Lowers blood acidity; denatures enzymes ATP PRODUCTION  If not enough is made, the nervous system collapses. Everything else then collapses after.  Energy locked in phosphate bonds. o 3 major cycles: Glycolysis, Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle), Electron Transport Chain o Glycolysis  More important for production of NADH than ATP.  Glucose from food-> pyruvic acid  Yields 2 ATP in order to do work and 2 NADH used in the ETC  Each red dot on the diagram represents an enzyme  Uses 9 different enzymes  Does not need oxygen, but does not make enough ATP for a large vertebrate o Pyruvic acid -> Acetyl CoA prior to entering the Krebs Cycle  Produces CO 2  Too much, enzymes unfold and animal dies (cannot burn ATP) o Kreb’s Cycle/Citric Acid Cycle/Tricarboxylic Acid (TCA) Cycle  More important for production of NADH than ATP.  Arrangement of carbons in intermediate molecules is modified.  Acetyl CoA-> CoA removed-> Citric acid  Refer to powerpoint  Produces NADH, FADH ATP, and CO 2, 2  Does not produce enough ATP for a large vertebrate o Electron Transport Chain  In the mitochondria  NADH dehydrogenase- Pulls hydrogen off of NADH.  bc - Next stop for the electron. It is carried by coenzyme q. 1  When the electrons go through the complexes on the membrane, the enzymes do work. They are proton pumps energized by the electrons that travel through.  Cytochrome c oxidase- Third stop. Energizes electron, pumps proton across.  This process creates a proton gradient on the outside of the membrane. To escape from the high concentration, they go through ATP synthase. This creates ATP (ADP + a phosphate).  Metabolic water is formed.  If there is no oxygen, the flow of electrons stops. The proton gradient is lost and ATP production stops. Oxygen may not be available… o At high altitude o When displaced by another gas o When blood flow is restricted o Asthma/respiratory problems  3 protons for each NADH that arrives. CENTRAL DOGMA  The origin of the enzymes.  The instructions on how to make all of the enzymes/proteins in the body are stored in DNA.  DNA -> (transcription) mRNA -> (translation by ribosomes, linking of amino acids) protein  Transcription o DNA has to be unwound from histone. o RNA polymerase is attracted to this molecule and attaches to the promoter. As it goes down the strand it synthesizes RNA. o Gene- Instructions for protein we are going to make. o Promoter- Start signal. Head of gene.  CAT and TATA  Where RNA polymerase will be attracted when CAT sits on top of the TATA by folding the DNA. That is done by a transcription factor. o Terminator- Stop signal. Derails RNA polymerase from DNA strand. o Transcription factor- Many things come together. 40 or 50 proteins that all associate. Is treated as one thing. Fold the DNA. Ex: All steroids such as testosterone, estrogen, etc. Estrogen is used to make animals put on more meat by making muscle protein. It induces transcription and translation. o Primary transcript still has introns and is not considered mature mRNA. Splicing enzymes are needed. A poly(A) tail is then added on one end and an gtP cap on the other end. This is done by enzymes. It is then considered a mature mRNA.  Translation o The mature mRNA then goes to the ribosome.  Two subunits: large and small.  mRNA meets up with small ribosomal subunit. This attracts the large subunit, which associates with the small and forms the proper ribosome. The mRNA feeds through a groove in between the large and the small subunits. The ribosome takes in amino acids and links them together as dictated by the mRNA going through. This produces an enzyme.  The enzyme is not folded correctly, and is folded by other enzymes into the proper conformation.  The cell can regulate transcription and translation at any of the steps. It is extremely complex. Different hormones regulate each step.  If all the switches are in the on position to produce the enzyme, it takes about 45 minutes.  Synthesis and translocation of secretory proteins o Proteins that will be secreted outside enter the ER through a translocon o SRP receptor AKA “docking protein” o Translation arrest until SRP-nascent peptide ribosomes complex binds SRP receptor o For secretion, entire peptide/protein travel through translocon o The signal sequence binds with the signal recognition particle o Protein synthesis begins, protein synthesis is inhibited, protein synthesis resumes, signal sequence is cleaved by signal peptidase and destroyed, protein synthesis continues to completion, ribosome dissociates. o This protein is going to be secreted which means it is going to exit this birth cell and go somewhere else.  Membrane proteins (such as metabolism enzymes) o Stop-transfer sequence causes translocon to disassemble o Releases hydrophobic region of protein into membrane o New protein goes down through translocon o Stop-transfer sequence- Amino acid sequence that goes through translocon and gets stuck. Rest of the protein is then synthesized outside of the ER. When the process is complete, part of the protein is inside the ER and part is outside, so the protein is tethered to the ER membrane. After proteins leave the ER, they go to the Golgi apparatus. Vesicles move things from the ER to the Golgi. o Folding enzymes are in the Golgi that fold the newly synthesized proteins.


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

75 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Kyle Maynard Purdue

"When you're taking detailed notes and trying to help everyone else out in the class, it really helps you learn and understand the I made $280 on my first study guide!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.