NUTR: Week 2 & 3 Notes
NUTR: Week 2 & 3 Notes Nutr 2360
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This 8 page Bundle was uploaded by Aisha Dewees on Saturday February 6, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Nutr 2360 at Texas State University taught by Hannah Thornton in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 57 views. For similar materials see Basic Nutrition in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Texas State University.
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Date Created: 02/06/16
January 26 February 4, 2016 NUTR 2360: Weeks 2 and 3 Tools of a Healthy Diet (Ch2) ● Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) : These consist of the current recommendations to ensure proper intake of nutrition in within the diets of various groups. Within DRIs there are 5 standards: ○ Estimated Average Requirements (EARs), which configure for the estimated intake fohalfof the people within one life stage. EARs are used to maintain adequacy of a group not individual. ○ Recommended Dietary Allowance(RDAs), applies to a population within one life stage, where 9798% have meet their intake need. RDA is based on multiple EARs. RDAs gear to prevent disease over deficiency. ○ Adequate Intakes (AIs), these are daily intake set when there are insufficient data within the EAR. AI are observational and experimental, and determine estimates for maintaining a nutritional statspecificlife stages. ○ Tolerable/Upper Levels(ULs), are thaximum daily intake amount that are not likely to cause adverse health effects. This is applies to chronic use and to protect the health of the general population. ULs are not goals, they are a limit for nutrient intake amounts. ○ Estimated Energy Requirements(EERs), unlike RDA and Al, EERs are set to average energy(kcal) needed for one life stage group. Exceeding amounts of EER amounts are not excreted, but stored as fat. ○ Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges(AMDRs), is used for carb, protein and fat intake. This provides a range of the percent of energy to promote health and prevent disease. ● *Daily Reference Values: Nutrition Facts! ○ these are not required on fruits, vegetables or fish, however raw meat and poultry do. ○ DRVs are based on a 2000 calorie diet, even when nutrition labels are made with varying calories, they will always be: ■ Fat 30% ■ Saturated fat 10% ■ Carbohydrates 60% ■ Protein 10% ■ Fiber 11.5g/ 1000 calories ○ Remember: vitamins and minerals do not influence calorie intake. ○ All ingredients are listed according to weight ○ There are various claims to support good nutrient sources even when they are false or include added nutrients, some include ■ 0 Calories: less than 5 kcal ■ Low Calories: 40 kcal or less ■ Reduced Cal: ~25% less per serving ■ Fat Free: less than .5g of fat ■ Reduced Fat: 3g or less...etc ○ In attempt to making healthier food choices, many companies place nutrition labels on the front of packaging; it’s shown that consumers tend to select the option with fewer calories for themselves and others. ● Nutrient Composition and Energy Density ○ based on weight; foods are compared and used to determine the energy yeild of various products. HIgher Energy Dense will keep you hungry and Low Energy Dense will keep you full due to the water, some examples include: ■ Low Energy lettuce, salsa, strawberries, vegetable soups, oatmeal, yogurt, beans, and fat free milk ■ High Energy bacon, cookies, butter, white bread, pie, ham, mayo, and pretzels ● Dietary Guidelines ○ * USDA and DHHS create guidelines usineta analysis, data analysnd a food patternsThese are broad however useful ○ Maintain a healthy weight through physical activity and portion control ○ Cut back on sodium and cholesterol; as well as added sugars ○ Increase variety in diet, include more fruits and veggies as well as replace mats and poultry with a variety of seafoods ○ The above also tie into creating better food habits at home and account for the food you eat via food journal; be sure to follow food safety and expiration dates ○ some examples include: ■ Cheese burger w/ fries...try Hamburger with baked beans ■ White bread….try Whole wheat bread ■ fried meat...try broiled meat ■ cookies...try popcorn ○ Remember: ■ make small gradual diet changes ■ have smaller portions of foods you love ■ be active ■ try new foods ● Scientific Method(Analyze, Hypothesise, Observe, Conclude, Peer Review) ○ an unbiased and never changing form of nutritional information; lies on peer review for publication; ○ Peer Review: unbiased reviews of studies; examples include “PubMed” ○ Research: ■ Epidemiological Studies(large span) ● applying to large populations ● Experiments are either retrospective(using existing information) or prospective (new and planned) ● Correlation of studies do not lead to causation ■ Benchwork Studies (carefully observed and small grouped) ● Physical studies ● Are either Blind; Double Blind(no one knows what's being tested); Control Group(one specific group); and Placebo(sugar pills) ● Placebo Effect people on the trial drug are given sugar pills and thus the mind causes a change in the body ● Sample Sizes vary in cultural groups, age, numbers, etc. ■ Laboratory Studies (on the cell and tissues level) ● the first level of testing ● Can prove causation in cells but not always organisms ■ Interventional Animal Studies ● Second level of testing ● live models such as rats and mice ● can prove causation in models but not people ■ Human Studies ● Third level of testing ● progress over time ● Are case controlled; mixing healthy and ill, young and old ● Use Placebos ● Nutritional Claims ○ Use absolutes in information ○ Are primarily internet users popularity based; and Corporately funded ○ Research: “Is it valid? Who did the study?” ○ Avoid self proclaimed experts (Dr Oz) ○ Information Sources: ■ First: ● most reliable; original and unfiltered content ● include scientific reviews with opinion ■ Second: ● least reliable; use the information of others ● Are usually news and review articles ■ Third: ● Unreliable; for self use ● lacks citation, bias and profit based (blogs and employees) Digestion and Absorption (Ch4) ● Organs (Gastrointestinal Tract) ○ Major organs in order: MouthEsophagusStomachSmall IntestineLarge IntestineAnus ○ Accessory organs: TeethTongueLiverPancreasGall Bladder ■ many nutrients, like fiber, are never fully absorbed ○ Sphincters ■ separate and control the flow of “food stuff”, there are 5 ■ 4 under hormonal control ● Lower Esophageal ● Pyloric ● Oddi or hepatopancreatic (connecting the accessory organs to the intestines) ● Ileocecal ■ 1 under voluntary control ● Anal ○ Organ Tissues 4 layers surrounding a “hole” or lumen ■ Mucosa (innermost layer) made of connective tissue ■ Submucosa: holding a large number of nerves and blood vessels ■ Muscularis (Muscle) with 2 sublayers of Longitudinal and Circular muscle; this moves the GI tract ■ Serosa (outermost layer) ● Digestion This is the sight of breaking down chemicals(foods simplest form) ○ Secretion ■ Using saliva; mucus; acid; bile to break down food ● Saliva containmylase to break down starch ● Bile breaks down fats ○ Enzymes ■ This is where food is broken down using catalysis and hydrolysis** ● Carbs ● Proteins ● Fats ● Absorption ○ this is the uptake of nutrients as food passes through the GI tract, which is very vascular ○ In the Stomach: alcohol and some water is absorbed ○ In the Small Intestine: primary sight of water and electrolyte absorption ○ In the Large Intestine: it’s major job is to absorb some water ○ Types of Absorption ■ Passive: via concentration gradient, it just passes through ■ Facilitated: needs help via specialized membrane ■ Active: the nutrients move against the gradient; MUST have ATP to move ■ Endocytosis: the cells engulf (take into a bubble); this is how B12 is absorbed. ● Peristasis and Segmentation This assists in both Digestion and Absorption; both are under hormonal control, a rhythmic and muscular movement. ○ Peristasis: ■ Begins after swallowing; keeps your food down, it pinches your food down ■ Strongest in the stomach and frequent in the small intestine ■ Very important in excretion ○ Segmentation: ■ This is the twisting and moving of food; this breaks down and mixes “food stuff” to absorb nutrients and break up what you’ve eaten for excretion ● Transporting Nutrients are absorbed in the small intestine and delivered to one of the 2 circulatory systems; this decision is based on water or fat solubility: ○ Cardiovascular Lymph Water Soluble Fat Soluble Houses vessels, veins, capillaries… Contains lymph in lacteals Vitamins B&C, proteins, and carbs Moved by muscle contraction Directly absorbed Vitamins A D E & K Goes to liver via hepatic portal vein Entering the blood @ thoracic duct ○ Both the cardiovascular and Lymphatic systems influence the liver; both are the first the receive nutrients from the GI tract. ● Digestive Regulation ○ Makes stuff move: ■ Gastrin from the stomach; contracting and secreting ■ Cholecystokinin(CCK) in small intestine; senses fats and causes the release of bile ■ Secretin; in the small intestine neutralizing the chyme ○ Slows stuff down: ■ Gastric Inhibitory Peptide; in the small intestine, limiting the release of gastric juices ● GI Organs ○ Mouth: ■ Sight of mechanical breakdown or astication;teeth, tongue, and hard palate ■ Start of chemical digestion; saliva ■ Sight for taste and smells; olfactory and the 5 tastes (sweet, salty, sour, umami, bitter) ■ All forming tbolusand assisting in the first stages of swallowing ○ Pharynx or Esophagus ■ separating food and air with the epiglottis ■ start of peristalsis ○ Stomach ■ A three layered(longitudinal, oblique, transverse), very strong muscle ■ Mixes and stores “food stuff”, tubolusnto chyme. ■ Can hold ~46 cups of “stuff”, releasing 2 tsp/hr ■ uses some pepsin ■ Esophageal sphincter prevents backflow and heart burn ■ Gastric Inhibitory Peptide to release chyme slowly ○ Stomach Secretions ■ Gastrin ● hormonally controlled release of HCL and pepsinogen ■ Mucus ● Coats the stomach to prevent selfdigestion (stomach=protein) ● Makes the proglasterines ○ Intestinal Cells ■ Chief Cells ■ Parietal Cells ○ Small intestine ■ very long for better absorption; ~2022 feet long ■ Parts: ● Duodenum: 10 in, where we digest most and meet with the accessory organs ● Jejunum: ~8.5 ft long, helps with digestion and absorption ● Ileum: ~11.5 ft long, primary site of absorption ● think “DJ il” for the order ■ Has many folds and curves to evenly distribute mucus to prevent self digestion; corkscrew like ■ Has vili with microvilli(brush border) ■ *Glycocalyx: lie on the microvilli to sense for carbs and proteins ■ Enterocyte: are the cells of the small intestine ● regulate nutrients ● form tight junctions; like an immune defence for blood ● have a short life span; this makes diet changes easier to make ○ Large Intestine ■ Wide and short ■ where waste is collected for excretion ■ is mostly absorbs remaining water ■ Houses the Gut Microflora ■ Colon: goes from Cecum to Ascending Transverse Descending Sigmoid Rectum and finally Anus ■ Rectum: hold feces ( dead cells, food, and bile) ● Accessory Organs ○ Liver (to live) ■ houses glucose and protein and fat ■ MAKES the bile ○ Gallbladder: HOLDS the bile ○ Pancreas (ie Sweet Breads) ■ makes insulin(beta) and glucagon (alpha) ■ releases digestive enzymes and bicarbonate ● Bacterias ○ Microflora (Gut Bacteria) ■ Gained after birth and influenced by diet, environment, and type of birth ■ Synthesises vitamin K and Biotin ■ Fills body with good bacteria to prevent the stay of bad bacteria ○ Probiotics ■ Active living and beneficial in the large intestine ■ found in fermented foods like yogurt and kimchi ■ these have a hard time getting past the stomach ○ Prebiotics ■ non digestible ingredients which build bacterias ■ Insulin; sugars from carbs and starches ■ excess amounts can cause gas and GI distress ● Diseases ○ Allergies ■ Food allergies and food intolerance are not the same ■ Allergies occur when the protein for that specific food is lost ■ Is cause is unknown; and unsure if it is genetic ■ Can be severe; cause swelling, rash, vomiting, and pain ■ An acute cure would be with aspirin and epinephrine ■ Celiac Disease: ● lack of a grain protein ● can be both genetic and not ● can cause pain and diarrhea ■ Try to avoid trigger foods ○ Food Sensitivity/Intolerance ■ causes are unknown ■ you can loose tolerance/enzyme at any time ■ ie Lactose intolerant can happen at any age ○ Ulcers ■ are damages in the GI tract and cause pain and bleeding ■ can be caused by excessive use of aspirin or infections ■ Heartburn and GERD caused by the backflow of stomach acid into the esophagus ● GERD can be more serious ● mostly from the relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter; caused by foods, pregnancy, smoking, obesity, and overeating ○ these can all lead to ulcers ● Can be eased with antacids and H2 blockers ○ Gallstones ■ can exist and be non threatening when small ■ made of fats and minerals ■ dangerous when stones cause blocking ■ Causes: ● anemia ● liver disease ● obesity ■ Treatment: ● Diet change ● surgery ○ Inflammatory Bowel Syndrom ■ result of Crohn's(small intestine) and Ulcerative Colitis(colon) ■ an Autoimmune disease ■ Can be diet related ○ Irritable Bowel Syndrome ■ altered bowel movements ■ can cause constipation and diarrhea ■ result of stress; predominant in women ● Can be genetic, issue with microflora, or food allergies ○ Diarrhea ■ water stool ■ high risk for dehydration; ● treated with electrolytes(pedialyte) ■ treated with BRAT diet (bread, rice, apples, toast) ○ Constipation ■ hard and dry stool ■ causing pain and bloating ■ result of dehydration, low fiber, decrease in digestion, or medication ■ Best treated with higher water intake or laxatives
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