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RUS 100: Month 1 Bundle

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1 review
by: Sarah Jessica Harris

RUS 100: Month 1 Bundle 637747

Sarah Jessica Harris
Pennsylvania State University Altoona
GPA 3.22

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About this Document

These notes cover all of the lectures from the first month of class. All notes from this point on should be posted weekly. I will be posting a study guide for exam one later this week. I hope these...
Russian 100
Irene Hurd
75 ?




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1 review
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"These are great! I definitely recommend anyone to follow this notetaker"
Carmel Yost Jr.

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This 7 page Bundle was uploaded by Sarah Jessica Harris on Sunday February 7, 2016. The Bundle belongs to 637747 at Pennsylvania State University Altoona taught by Irene Hurd in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 249 views. For similar materials see Russian 100 in Russian at Pennsylvania State University Altoona.

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Reviews for RUS 100: Month 1 Bundle

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These are great! I definitely recommend anyone to follow this notetaker

-Carmel Yost Jr.


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Date Created: 02/07/16
(please keep in mind that these notes are from the first month of class ­ notes will be updated  weekly from now on.) ● 1992 Russia renamed to the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics ● Country divided into 15 republics, divided ethnically (over 100 different ethnic  groups) ● Areas would be named after/for the most prominent ethnic group in that area ● Russia constantly concerned of invasion  ● Made buffer zone around Moscow made up of republics (to protect heavily  populated area from invaders) ● Largest republic is called the Russian Republic. Americans call it Russia (this  area covers ¾ of the land area) ● Moscow is and was the capital city since 1918 ●  Had 6 muslim republics ­ today these numbers are growing ● Jan 1, 1992 ­ end of communist Russia ● Official name of Russia (current day) is the Russian Federation (replaced the  USSR) ● Currently, Russia is made of nine districts  ● Each district is under the control of  governor general (loyal to the president, all  male) ● Every country starts at the first stage of history (clans/tribes) next stages in  order… ­Slavery ­Feudalism ­Capitalism ­Socialism ­Communism ● Stalin decided to skip from feudalism to socialism ● Socialism = government owns everything ● Everyone with an able body must work, there was no unemployment, and  everyone had a job. If you did not work, you would be tried under the parasite laws.  (They view the United States as a parasite ­ due to our debt) Women with children still  had to work ● No distinction among classes ­ however, this was not the case. Men and women  should work for the sheer pleasure of working. The idea was that everyone could just get whatever consumer goods needed (this never ended up happening) ● Flags: The hammer and sickle is a symbol of the union between workers and  peasants under the communist union (peasants = farmers, workers = blue collar). The  star represents communism ● The five points on the star represent the unity of all the people on all the five  continents of the world under communism. They hoped that it would spread all across  the world. ● Why red? The color of blood. Bloodshed would be necessary to overthrow a  government to transition into communism. ● 1989 all the countries of eastern Europe left communism ● June, 1991 ­ the Russian Republic added a blue stripe to the flag to differentiate  from the old flag ● Current Russian flag is (top, middle, bottom) ● Gorbachev ­ comes into power in 1985 ­Didn’t make the first vote because he was too young  ­Made it in the second ballet ● Perestroika: economic reforms  ● Glasnost: openness  ● Gorbachev allowed small businesses to open (example of perestroika) ● Gave people freedom of speech, religion, press, etc.. (example of glasnost)  ● Chernobyl ­ nuclear reactor blew up. Previously, this never would have been  reported. It took weeks for Gorbachev to report it on TV. Scientists detected radioactivity  in the air. Many died, many developed cancer ­ it was a tragedy. ● “Good old days” ­ life before perestroika ● 1991 ­ breakup of Soviet Union ● Jan, 1991 ­ Baltic countries, the first republics to break away from USSR ­ Estonia ­Latvia ­Lithuania  ● Once these three republics leave, the other begin to leave/break away from  Moscow ● June, 1991 ­ Russian Republic, Yeltsin announces election. Anyone can run/form any party. During the election, Yeltsin won over the communist party. He used the new  flag (with the blue stripe) to differentiate from the USSR (this lasts less than a year) ● Dec, 1991 ­ Yeltsin approaches the president of Ukraine and the president of  Belarus ● Yeltsin proposes to form a “new USSR”. The Commonwealth of Independent  States (CIS). This would replace the USSR ● The other presidents agree and sign to form the CIS. Yeltsin brings this back to  parliament ­ they pass it and ask the other republics to join ● First members of CIS... ­Russia  ­Ukraine ­Belarus ● These three did not join... ­Lithuania ­Latvia ­Estonia  ● Later, Georgia and Ukraine leave. Currently, there are 10 republics still in the CIS ● Dec 25, 1991 ­ Gorbachev resigns as president of the USSR ● In the eyes of the world, this new country was called Russia, not CIS ● No other country had anything to do with this ● The point of the CIS was to maintain trade routes and common grounds ● Russians call the former republics (14) the near abroad. The other countries of  the world are far abroad. ● August was the month that most people went on vacation (or free) however,  August seems to be a month when lots of bad things happen for Russia/Russians. ● Yeltsin sent tanks into the streets of Moscow to prevent an uprising. He gave his  finest speech and asked for the support of his people to not go back to communism ● The US wanted to support Yeltsin (hope for democracy in Russia) Gorbachev  returned to Russia and left office ● 1992­1993, Yeltsin ruled by decree. He passed whatever laws he wanted. After a year of this, parliament (tried to) force the president to resign ● Yeltsin, in response, brought in tanks, and shelled the white house ( in Russia).  Several hundred were killed ­ the US said nothing  ● 1994, Yeltsin sends troops to Chechnya (home of some of Russia’s terrorists) ● Draftees were sent to Chechnya. The young draftees had no clue where they  were going, some didn’t even know how to shoot a gun ­ it was a bloodbath ● US called them rebels, not terrorists. They called Yeltsin the “Russian Abraham  Lincoln” ● 1996, Yeltsin had to run for office again. He had an approval rating of 2­3% but  the US supported him because he did everything he was told ● The election was rigged, and Yeltsin won 60% of the votes ● 1998 ­ economic crash ● Aug, 1999 ­ Bombs go off in Moscow and other cities.  ● Putin becomes prime minister and bombs Chechnya before sending in troops ­  becomes a hero to the people ● Black Widows ­ women who lots husbands/brothers/boyfriends ­ would become  suicide bombers ● 2000 ­ Yeltsin resigns and Putin takes over. In May, Putin takes oath and signs  papers that give Yeltsin immunity ● Putin promises order, a better life, and military power ● Breakup of Soviet Union negatives… ­lost ½ population ­lost 40% of GDP ­lost world influence ­lost communist influence in the world ­lost buffer zone ­lost global power ­lost respect and prestige to the world ● USSR was the 3rd largest economy, now it is the 10th ● Russia currently has more natural resources than anyone else ­ #1 export being  oil ● Standard of living after the fall of communism was very low. Women spent 30%  of their lives waiting in line for basic necessities. Russia was on par with third world  countries ● What undermined the economy? ­high military budget and spending ­arms race with the US ­Afghanistan ­Police state, terror ­Poverty ● ⅓ of the work force worked for the military ● 15­27% GNP output for military ● Military Superpower: a country which can launch a nuclear attack and have  enough missiles left for a second attack (US and Soviet Union 1972­1992) ● Rise to military superpower status of the soviet union  ● (step 1) 1943 ­ Stalingrad ­ soviets drive nazis out of the city ­ victory at  stalingrad ● (step 2) 1949 ­ Soviets explode their first atom bomb ● 1972 ­ SALT I ­ Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty ­ signed ● The US recognizes the military equality between the US and Russia ● Detente ­ name of the period of better relations between Russia and the US ● 1927 ­ Helsinki Accords ­ treaty ­Basket I ­ The US officially accepts the countries of Eastern Europe as part of the  communist world ­Basket II ­ Soviet promises respect for human rights of its citizens inside their own  country ● Soviet army frees Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, Romania, and  East Germany from Nazis. Forced them to be communist ­ picked their leaders ­  completely run by Moscow (1989 ­ Gorbachev lets them go)   ● Dissidents ­ people who speak out against the government ● Dissidents would be arrested, sent to work camps, killed, etc. Their families  would be black listed.  ● Global Power ­ a country that can intervene unilaterally in any part of the world ● Bipolar world ­ two superpowers (US, USSR) ● Unipolar world ­ one superpower (US) ● Multipolar world ­ many dominant nations ● BRICS ­Brazil ­Russia ­India ­China ­South Africa ● Nuclear Club ­ now called the Declared Nuclear States ­countries that have built and tested the atom bomb and the hydrogen bomb ● First 5 members of the Nuclear Club in order… ­US ­USSR ­Great Britain ­France ­China ● Current/new ­North Korea ­India ­Pakistan  ● Israel ­ Undeclared nuclear state “bomb in the basement” ● M.A.D ­ Mutually Assured Destruction ­ if there is a nuclear confrontation  between the US and USSR, both sides would destroy each other and thus, the planet ● Limited Nuclear War could occur in Germany, between the US and USSR ● Flexible Responses  ­Nato would go nuclear on the battlefield if the soviets ever invaded a European country  (nuclear weapons were a deterrent)  ● Preemptive strike ­ US would strike a terrorist organization if they began  developing nuclear warheads ● Inadvertent Escalation ­ War begins with conventional forces, and escalates to  nuclear war  ● 1993 ­ Russia declared that as a very last resort, they will be the first to use  nuclear warheads on another country. All measures would be taken to prevent this ● Ideology of the Soviet Union = Marxism/Leninism ● 1919 ­ International communism ­ Lenin wanted to spread communism all over  the world ● Iron Curtain ­ separating the free world in the west, from the communist world in  the east ● Peaceful Coexistence ­ (thaw) between US and Russia ● Reasons for Peaceful Coexistence… ­to prevent nuclear war ­make the soviet union economically stronger ● Ronald Reagan 1950’s Red Scare (fear of the spread of communism) ● Cold Peace ­ Reagan  ● Warm Peace ­ George H. Bush ● George and Gorbachev meet in Malta and sign treaty ­ Meeting of Malta  considered the beginning of the end of the cold war ● Post Cold War era ­ Clinton and Yeltsin  ● 9/11, Putin was the first to call George W. Bush and offer his condolences and  support to fight terrorism ­ Bush said that this was the day the cold war ended) ● Dec 1991 ­when Gorbachev resigned and the Soviet Union ended/ end of  communism (this was the actual end of the Cold War)  ● Reunification of Germany (1990) ● Disillusioned Reds ­ American communists who left America to go to Russia,  hoping to find Paradise ­ most ended up in Siberian working camps ● Reset ­ between US and Russia (due to shared interests and supply route  through Russia) ● 2012 ­ reset collapsed (rising nationalism in Russia rose tension with US) ● Putin offered Ukrainian president 15 billion dollars to keep Ukraine in Russia’s  sphere of influence. US gives the same offer, forcing Ukraine to choose.  ● Issues within Ukraine ­ people want to overthrow the government and Crimean  people who wanted to go with Russia ● War starts in Eastern Ukraine between those who want to stay in Ukraine and  those who want to go to Russia ● Great Misunderstanding of Detente ­ Soviets practiced Detente to avoid war and  to gain economic stability. They wanted equality with the US, arms negotiations, and  trade. The Russians tried to stop the US from developing the Strategic Defence Initiative (SDI) ● US burned by Detente ­ the USSR would not stop spreading communism


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