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Bio 127 Bundle

by: Sarah Jessica Harris

Bio 127 Bundle 630247

Sarah Jessica Harris
Pennsylvania State University Altoona
GPA 3.22

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About this Document

Please keep in mind that these are notes from this past month's lectures. These are to be used as an addition to the professor's slides and not the only source of study material. More material will...
Introduction to Plant Biology
Dr. James Winsor
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This 4 page Bundle was uploaded by Sarah Jessica Harris on Sunday February 7, 2016. The Bundle belongs to 630247 at Pennsylvania State University Altoona taught by Dr. James Winsor in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Plant Biology in Biology at Pennsylvania State University Altoona.

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Date Created: 02/07/16
(Keep in mind that these notes are in addition to the professor’s slides and should not be your  only source of study material for the course)  Eukaryotes                                                                Prokaryote ­plants, animals, fungi, algae ­bacteria ­large ­small ­complex nucleus ­nucleoid ­DNA ­1 chromosome ­loop of DNA ­organelles ­no organelles Parts of the Plant Cell Middle Lamella: made mostly of pectin Plasmodesma: the opening between cells (ER runs through it) Cell Membrane: just inside the cell wall. Phospholipid bilayer positioned tail to tail. Protein  controls what can pass through the cell membrane. (Cell wall keeps cell from bursting in a  hypotonic solution, where an animal cell will burst) Nucleus: has a double membrane Nucleolus: makes ribosomes Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER): a network of membranous sacs that carry material through the  cell while keeping it separate from other materials Golgi Apparatus: packages proteins for export. Pinches them off into vesicles Chloroplast: unique to plants, double membrane bound, contains of stroma and grana Mitochondrion: energy processing structure, double membrane bound Vacuole: Very large, contains water and often contains waste products. Cytoskeleton: a skeleton made up of microtubules 2 Types of ER Rough ER: has ribosomes, responsible for the synthesis of proteins with information from the  nucleus Smooth ER: lacks ribosomes Other Types of Plastids Chromoplasts: strong pigment content, common in tomatoes and peppers Leucoplasts: clear under most conditions, contains starch, white Cell Division (Mitosis) ­Interphase ­Prophase ­Metaphase ­Anaphase ­Telophase Plant Tissues Meristematic: rapidly dividing cells, apically ­ gives length/height, laterally ­ gives  thickness/girth, vascular cambium, cork cambium Dermal: epidermis (one kind) ­ purpose is to retain water and keep out pathogens ­ cutin  covering ­Stomate­ opening that allows water to escape and allows for gas exchange (release of water  has a cooling effect on the plant) ­Bark­ periderm produced by cork compound ­Lenticels­ eruptions in the outer covering that allows for gas exchange  Ground: 3 kinds Parenchyma­ thin walls, start out spherical but form flat faces when pushed together ­isodiametric ­used for storage  ­photosynthesis ­living ­primary cell walls Collenchyma ­somewhat elongated ­primary cell walls  ­provides flexible support ­living Sclerenchyma ­long, thin fibers ­thick secondary walls ­dead at functional maturity ­provides rigid support ­multiple types (Sclereid, not long and thin) Xylem: conducts water and minerals ­ hollow, dead at functional maturity Tracheids: conduction and support (ex: ferns and conifers) Phloem: (also vascular tissue) moving the products of photosynthesis, thinner walls than xylem, alive at functional maturity, but uninucleate (sieve tube member) Stems: Axillary Buds: will produce branches and flowers Terminal Buds: apical meristem, dormant with bud scales Leaf Scar: where leaf attached Bundle Scar: from vascular tissue Monocots vs Dicots Monocots (ex: corn) Dicots (Eudicots and other groups, ex: clover)  Ray: row of parenchyma cells Cork­>Cork Cambium­>Primary Phloem­>Secondary Phloem­>Vascular Cambium­>Secondary  Xylem­>Primary Xylem­>Pith Distinctions Springwood vs Summerwood (growth rate) Sapwood (dead but functional) vs Heartwood (dead and not functional) Roots ­fibrous ­taproots Root Cap: mucilaginous tissue produced by apical  ­protection ­lubrication Dicot Root: longitudinal… ­zone of cell division ­zone of elongation ­maturation zone Pericycle: origin of branches Endodermis: control of what enters the xylem Branch production in roots is internal. Branch production in stems are external. Mycorrhizal Fungi: extend the surface area for absorption, provide chemicals, vitamins, and  minerals. In return, the fungi receives carbohydrates. ­ectomycorrhizal do not penetrate cells ­endomycorrhizal do penetrate cells Rhizobium (Genus): nitrogen fixation (takes N from the air and turns it into organic N for plant  use) Soil *NEVER CALL IT THE D WORD (DIRT)* Texture: the relative proportion of the various particle sizes  ­sand ­silt ­clay *loam is best for plant growth


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