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Chapter 1 – The Logic of American Politic Politics process through which individuals& groups reach agreement on common/collective action Government coordinates among competing for individual interests. Produce outcomes using the authority the people appointed Collective action= government revolves around individuals working together for a common goal. 1. coordination, 2. free riding(bid less, consume tomuch) 3. prisoners dilemma,(cooperate or defect.) Problems Mancur Olson altruism vs. self interest (lacking coercion will lead to unachieved individ goals. Garret Hardin tragedy of the commons, individuals consider their own self interest first costs= transaction cost, conformity cost, voting rules, delegation Government required to produce these outcomes and goods Public goods= nonexcludable & nonrivalrous (water, broadcasting, no cost no limitations Private goods= excludable & rivalrous (tickets, food, limited supplies) *goods also produce externalities (+ or ) Direct democracy people have a vote at every issue directly Republican democracy select the representatives for Congress to decide (reduce # of deciders) republic comes with many transaction cost due to checks and balances parliamentary governments reduce transaction cost by not seperating powers Chapter 2 – The Constitution Elites small group of people who share or control a large unproportional amount of power. Pluralist in control of two or more section to decide decisions diff branches viewpoints Hyperpluralists government is so strong its unable to function Home rule British provided defense, let colonies govern themselves. independent of each other with no collective action or established money, led to levying taxes and spurring the revoloution Articles of Confederation (first constituition after the revoloution) league of friendship where colonies retained independent 9 of 13 colonies were required to approve acts of national government government could not tax, maintain an army, establish courts, or regulate commerce Turmoil= deep debts and ineffective government spawned revolts. shays rebellion government could not facilitate trade or force states to contribute to the common good lack of funds and social chaos demonstrated a need for stronger government > Tensions during Drafting Locke and popular soverignty, checks and balances, Hume competition amongst individual interests *“representation(small vs. Big) and Citizenship(Race&gender)” key Ideas Produced: seperation of powers, federalism, and national supremacy limits on popular sovereignty President selected by the Electoral College senate selected by state legislation only house directly selected republican principle representative rather than direct democracy placed limits on majority rule with the preservation of minority rights veto and veto overrides, closure in the Senate a bill of rights added as an additional compromise Ratification Debate nationalism(federalism) vs. states rights(antifederalist). BILL of RIGHTS helped FED 10 = concerned with tension between liberty and democracy government must balance between majority rule and minority rights the tyranny of the majority large government to preserve the rights. a republic appose to democracy FED 51= Essay espoused the relationship between branches of government. limit gov tryanny Anti fed papers argued why is big good? why senate good. anti fed 3 Chapter 3 – Federalism Role of States states control elections, NE and Maine have district based electoral votes. national fed regulate borders. Created a Republic but all involved wanted to preserve states rights 10th amendment carves out and ensures states rights the senate preserves state influence. states regulate elections and electors 50 Expierments in Democracy Louis Brandeis “state may if its citizens choose serve as a laboratory and try novel social and economic experiments without risk to the rest of the country” gay marriage and weed laws. Forms of Federalism Dual Federalism a system surviving through the 1930s Layer cake federalism national and state government enjoy seperate spheres of influence Cooperative(shared) federalism emerged in response to the GreatDepression Marble cake federalism national and state government share responsibilites in spheres. New Federalism emerged in the 60s with nixon and 80s with reagan emphasized the role of states more an exception than the rule Modern Federalism commerce clause, weed, abortion, gun control Categorical grants.(specific, education) block grants(general idea but not as strict). match grants(matched by government donations) Unfunded mandates r eform act of 1995 limited unfunded mandates required new federal laws pay for programs imposed on states Methods of prescribing state policy Cross cutting=stipulates that elegibility for full funding for a specific program is tied to compliance with an unrelated program (highway funding tied increase in legal drinking age)(les pop on school grounds, more fund) Crossover sanctions threatens to pull funding because of another problem with another issue Direct Orders Partial preemeption= certain laws allow states to administer join programs if they conform to federal guidelines why there is a Rising National Power Events such as the BP oil spill in the gulf of mexico and superstorm sandy are too large for states to deal with individually Pollution, drug trafficking and economic issues(unemployment inflation) do not obey boundaries 14th amendment(incorporates all rights and applies to the state as well) affordable care act,(congress can tax) supremecy clause(overt rule of USA) and the elastic clause Will growth stop? continues to adopt stripping resources of the state. FDRs new deal(RRR), johnsons great society(eliminate poverty, +education), no child left behind. collective action problemse rquire states to ask for natio nalassistance. federal law changes effeicent and maybe easier Disadvantages of Federalism Negative externalities ( pollutions, disadvantages with programs) Introduces coordination problems Policy diversity may lead to poor policy policy diversity leads to inequality leads to a lack of accountablity Advantages reduced free riding reduced coordination powers reduces reneging and shirking race to the bottom Food safety& drivers licenses, electricity (dillons rule local gov exist at the mercy of state gov) while states could abolish local government, they depend to great extent upon them. much of the 20th century, local gov raising more money and spending more than state and fed gov combined States are often at the mercy of the federal government due to lack of resourc.es states vary with respect to their responsibilites to citizens governors as state executives are key players in national politics state and local gov is often responsible for implementing and administering policy Chapter 4 – Civil Rights Civil Rights Liberties are Constiutional protections from government power: Freedom of speech Freedom of religion Right to privacy Rights are protectoins by government power Require government acts The rights of individuals in their relationships to others not a list of civil rights in the constituition Inhibiting Rights American minority 2 major obstacles obstructing the rights of african americans Madisonian democ .constitution reserves authority to states, with a seperation of powers .Politics is biased upon selfinterest Missouri Compromise prohibited slavery west Fugitive Slave law must return a runaway slave Supreme court ruling in Dred Scott(remained slave after suing) following dred scott, lincoln and republican party swept into power. 1st all of government against slavery. Prior to Civil War: gradual change 13th amendfreed slaves 14th amend granted citizenship, dual process, and equal protection. incorped states into civil rights 15th amend granted african american males the right to vote PostReconstruction America remained poor in Civil Rights Jim Crow laws and segregation White primaries Poll taxes Literacy test Grandfather clause Plessy vs. Ferguson( ruled seperate but equal ok) Brown vs Board( reversed and said isnt equal) FDR slowly replaced the courts with more sympathetic judges Migration patterns made African Americans a new voting consituency Ultimately Rosa Parks served as a figurehead to rally around Martin LKJ and other leaders organized boycotts and other nonviolent protests Resulted in the passage of the 1964 Civil Rights Act ending segregation and the 1965 voting rights act putting and end to Jim Crow.* concerns of protections of rights remained* Woman and the Vote(different path of suffrage) Movement gained strength following the Civil War and the 14th & 15th amendment for the constitution. Several states independtly granted woman suffrage right to vote. Protests and boycotts were hardly used in the movement Woman activity in WWI was primary reason for granting the suffrage. proved theirself Neither party saw a benefit to the other, and ultimately voted to grant suffrage through t19th amend. Modern Womans Rights Equal pay act of 1963 Sex Discrimination made part of 1964 Civil Rights Act Roe vs. Wade 1973(sports equality) Pregnancy Discrimination Act 1978 Planned Parenthood v Casey of 1992 United Sates vs Virginia of 1996 couldnt restrict woman out of military Obama signs Lily Ledbetter Fair Pay Restoration Act in 2009 Gay Rights (divisive issue in America Boy Scouts of America allowed to exclude homosexuals by virtue of 1st amendment rights Lawrence v Texas outlines rights to privacy Dont ask Dont tell lifted in 2010 Defense of Marriage Act of 1996 Gay marriage outlawed in all but nine states( plus Washington DC) although voters keep trying Other Minority Rights(language and citizenship) Federal Voting Rights Act requires bilingual ballots be made available by virtue of population raises issue if whether we need an offical language in the United States. should undocumented citizens have access to benefits and services.education employment Chapter 5 Civil LIberties Freedom of expression, right to bear arms, freedom of religion, privacy Communications decency Act of 1996ruled unconstiutional. SOPA and PIPA legislation 2012 censorship on internet an ongoing battle civil liberties has become a national issue rather than state or local. Bill of Rights and Majority Rule judiciary is designed to be the guardians of civil liberties “ congress shall make no law restricting..” Ultimately the bill of rights places high transaction costs on majoriites, limiting their ability to place conformity costs on individuals not in that majority. prevent school prayer? bear arms? whats cruel and unsual? Ratification of 14th amendment(due process) incorporation bringing state laws under the guarantees of the bill of rights while possessing dual citizenship, they are not separate affiliations(contradict court ruling) Key clause of 14th amend “no state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the priveleges or immunities of citizenship of the united states.” only the 3(quarter) 7(fair trial) and 8(no cruel punish.) amendment are unincorporated Major rights (debated in court) versus peripheral rights (not fleshed out through court ruling) 1st amendment rights rulings Schenck vs US(1919) establishes the clear and present danger test for restricting speech Dennis vs. US(1951) a more refined clear and probable danger test for restricting speech. Texas vs. Johnson government may not prohibit the expression of an idea simply because its offensive child protection act in 1998 barring sexual material to children Freedom of the Press (press as an essential part of democracy) does press affect citizens right to a fair trial? are slander and libel laws legitimate restrictions on freedom of the press Freedom of Religion establishment and free exercise claue inhibit congrees ability to act. statutes must have secular legislative purpose Statutes primarty effect must neither advance nor inhibit religion Statute must not foster excessive government entanglement with religion 4th amendment protects against unreasonable search and seizure The court allows warrantless searches under the following: during valid arrest, searching to preserve evidence, consent of suspect, in pursuit of suspect, evidence in plain view, when searching places deemed to warrant low protection(cars) 5th amendment protects against selfincrimination (miranda vs. arizona) miranda rights 6th amendment guarantees a speedy and public trial and legal counsel (gideon vs Wainright) charged with felony must get representation. gideon in prison wrote a succesfull appeal Patriot ACT r ight to suspected terrorist, increased latitude on seizing information and deportation. Privacy Not explicity defined in the Bill of right or constitution Griswold v Conneticut(1965) the court ruled right to marital privacy Roe vs Wade a key ruling establishing the right to privacy due to the Due process clause of the 14th and a right to abortion rulings have placed restriction on this right including webster vs reproduction health(abortion) Legislative Branch House and Senate known collectively as the Congress. Branch President, advisors, departments aganecis, laws of land the White house Judicial Branch US Supreme Court, judicial center Chapter 6 – Congress What was the Founders’ reasoning for the bicameral legislature? Why did they stagger the terms of office for the different houses? Balanced the demands of large states want for national representation against the small states but preserving state rights Established House of representatives, seats by population elected by citizen. rep people 2 year terms A Senate comped of two members from each state chose by state legislation.rep states 6 year terms, ⅓ stand for reelection every 2 years, made senate a checker of the HOUSE What are the powers of Congress? How has the ‘necessary and proper clause’ expanded the power of Congress? Powers of Congress there duty in checks and balances is to pass legislation Imposing taxes Coin money interstate/foreign comerce spend money declare war senate approves nominations and treaties negotiated by the executive branch Elastic Clause”make all laws which shall be neccessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers” granted alot of power to congress ● What is the balance of power between the House and Senate? ● How are members of Congress elected? Members of the HOUSE are elected from singlemembers districts by pluralist/citizens The SENATE is chosen by state legislation not directly voted6 year term ● How are Congressional districts drawn? What are the requirements for districts? ● What is gerrymandering? What does it mean for incumbent members of Congress? ● What are the advantages of incumbency in Congress? ● How do members of Congress behave while in office? 1.Districts are allotted by population states are given the ability to draw district line 2.requirements/restrictions for Gerrymandering Wesberry v Sanders districts must have equal populations Thornburg v Gingles districts must not dilute minority representation 3.Gerrymandering redistricting is typically a parisan endeavor(draw out districts to ensure the district benefits them)bias. incumbents dont care cus wont lose thier job regardless ncumbents (holding seat) disuade challenge, but hold expierence, could lead to stagnate ideas. 4.Congressional Behavior electoral incentives affect representation, engage in behavior on part of their party seek benefits for their district through log rolls& pork barrel politics(acts towards benefits) members of congress behave as if they are single independent seekers of reelection ● Who was Joe Cannon? Why is his role in Congressional history important? He was Speaker of the House. There was a revolt against him that stripped the Speakership of many of its powers (appointment powers and limited power recognition) long filibuster included ● How has the role of parties in Congress changed? What is conditional party government? Conditional party government (having majority of control and delgating with the majority)Authority granted to party leaders varies by the consensus among members Leadership less important in the Senate Vice President is the presiding officer of the Senate Party leaders elected at begining of each congress. at first parties didnt exist, likeminded people grouped parties ● How is Congress organized? What is the importance of committee assignments? Organization of Congress Parties were not described by the founders. decided in first congress session Two houses Indirect election of the senate(changed by 17th amend) houses given different terms of office, reguirements for officeholding Committees types serve to facilitate informational and workload issues facing Congress 1.Standing commitees fixed jurisdictions and stable members(defense, ag, education) have jurisdictionsBills are sometimes sent to multiple committees a multiple referral 2.Special committees temporary commmittees dealing with specific problems(after 9/11) 3.Joint committees informational committeees that do not report legislation(mutual concerns) 4.Conference committees resolve differences between house and Senate bills MCs seek to be on beneficial committees (facilitate constituent service) MCs seek to gain power on committeeesleadership increases legilslative influenceschairs selected by senate ● How do bills become laws? What is the difference in the process between House and Senate? Making Laws Intro in house/senate/assigned to commitee/hearings for rules/calender for debate 1.Bills are Introduced in the House or Senate Bills are assigned to committee by the speaker or the presiding officer.(usually die) Committees use hearing to become informed about potential legislation 2.Reported bills are put on a calender for debate & rules assigned Rules committee makes special rules for debate: open, restrict, closed Discharge petitions by a floor majority can force a bill out of the rules commitee although a bill may be denied rules altogether Once a rule is granted it must be confirmed by a floor majority 3.he senate has no restrictions on debate party members negotiate unanimous consent agreements to consider legislation without any agreement, or vote senators may filibuster( or at least threaten it) 3/5 of the Senate(60members) are required to invoke cloture(terminate debate) allowing an additonal 30 hours of debate before a vote is taken 4.Floor debate over a bill is deternmined by rules(house) or collegiality(Senate) amendment must be germane to the bill in the House Often debate is conducted as the committee of the whole rather than congress Senate debate is much less limited Amendments need not be germane riders may even kill bills ● What is the delegate model of MC behavior? The trustee model? Delegate model act in accordance with your constituents(party) even if you dont agree fully Trustee model use your best judgment and education to vote what you agree with ● What are the processes of checks and balances in creating law between Congress and the President? The president has 3 options when recieving legislation 1sign into law 2veto legislation 3ignore the bill(law after 10 days) pocket veto= congress adjourns before 10 days are up the president may pocket it congress may override veto with ⅔ of membership in each chamber Chapter 7 – The Presidency ● What does it mean to say that the Presidency was poorly defined by the Founders? Why would that be the case? Founders feared being under a king and limited the powers of the executive. The role of the President was smaller and more administrative. Office of the presidency exists to propose a coordinated response in case of emergencies, president lacks the ability to seize the constitution. ● How has the relationship between the President and their Cabinet changed over time? Historical congress worked through the Cabinet Secretaries. cabinet members were appointed for reciprocit (helped president accomplish his little bit of power and in return he let them work on their own agendas) modern cabinet holds much less power Noncabinet agencies fall into one of the three categories: Independent executive agencies kept separate for political reasons Regulatory agencies insulates officials from unpopular decisions Government corportations postal service, amtrak ● What changes to the role of the President did the postWWII era bring? The US became a global power, requiring attention to foreign relations. Domestic (native) power and responsibilities increased ● What is meant by zerosum politics? How is it a result of divided government? What have been the consequences for Presidential action? Zero Sum Politics 1 side prevails as the other side fails. just have to be hated less to gain power. An increase in idependent presidential resources: executive orders (sign into law that has the force of law unless is unconstitutional), executive agreement/privelage(senate not involved), signing statementsattached to laws as signed in appointments centralized administration (taking power away from congress) adding powers to presidents&advisors. oversee all lower departments ● What is the role of the President in foreign policy? How does Congress hold a check in that power? What limits exist on Congress’ ability to check the President in this domain? Commander in Chief head of nations armed forces. The War Powers Act (end Vietnam) to requires president notify congress within 48 hours of declaring war Chief Diplomat debates and signs treaties. Treaties require ⅔ of senate/congress. Executive Agreements which forgo senate, and are simple understandings not amends. ● How do Congress and the President exert oversight over the bureaucracy? Congressional committees mirror bureaucratic jurisdictions. check on bureocrats law implemention President influences bureaucratic policy through appointments, executive orders, and signing statements.. congress funds ● What are executive orders? Signing statements? Executive orders: Having the force of law until retracted, nullified by congress, or ruled unconstitutional; Typically used to establish an executive agency or order bureaucrat decisionmaking; Power emerges from Congressional delegation or the "take care laws be faithfully executed" clause of the Constitution. Signing statements: Pronouncements including when president signs a bill; three purposes: Constitutionalasserts law is constitutionally defective, offers presidents interpretation of implementing Politil guides executive agencies based upon vagaries of the law; Rhetorical seeks to mobilize constituencies ● Why does the President’s right to propose a budget matter? Presidential budget potentially a strategy forcing congress to make unpleasant decisions A powerful tool over congress. ● How has Presidential power expanded? Congressional delegation has expanded presidential authority Theodore Roosevelt: gag rule (prohibiting communication with congress); Franklin Roosevelt central clearance (all communications must be cleared); Ronald Reagan Office of Management and Budget for costbenefit analyses ● What is the President’s role in the legislative process? What role does the veto play? may call congress into session, must report "from time to time" to congress, and may veto laws. Veto is the most formidable tool for president. Forces congress to account for presidential preferences. ● What does it mean for the President to ‘go public?’ President may go public to rally support. gain cooperation from others "bully pulpit" Chapter 8 – The Bureaucracy ● What is the bureaucracy? Why does it exist? The Bureaucracy A collection of departments designed to implement the laws passed by congress. Expansion and complication of the republic has lead to a growing bureaucracy. existence is driven by a need to delegate, coordinates tasks of great magnitude to the people ● What role does the bureaucracy play in the policymaking process?red tape rules Hierarchial organization commands flow down and information flows up Division of labor take on complex tasks Consistent set of abstract rules what to be done and who is to do it Impersonalitytreating everyone equally Career system with opportunity for advancement Specified goalscollective action goals ● What is a principalagent problem? What is meant by agency loss? Principle Agent principal hires agent in desire of principal benefit maybe at the cost of the agent Agency Loss difference of what the principle wants and how the agent acts.(full accordanc=0 loss) ● What was the spoils system? How were these issues reformed? Spoils System process of winning party dispensing government jobs Concerns existed over corruption in the civil service The whiskey ring(under president Grand)whiskey distillers fundeling taxes the assassination of president garfield by a job seeker Civil Service ReformThe pendelton Ac t established a merit system for job (expierenced testing) Andrew Jackson advocated a system of rotation in office, effectively democratizing the civil service Why do Congress and the President choose to delegate to the bureaucracy? Expanding Government why delegate? to handle large scale administrative tasks to exploit expertise to avoid blame for unpopular decisions to make credible commitments to stable policy to deal with crises demanding swift, coordinated action agencies must give public notice of rules in the federal register, invite comment, and holdhearings ● How do Congress and the President control the bureaucracy? The judiciary? Congressional control : congress creates and empowers agencies through legislation funds agencies holds hearing where agencies testify mandates reporting legislative vetoes on policy proposals committee reports limits on spending audit agencies President controluses appointment power(limit by senate)& removal power presidential office of managment and budget supervises agency Judicial judicial review of administrative decisions Chapter 9 – The Judiciary ● What role did the case of Marbury v. Madison play in the development of judicial power? Marbury v Madison , the power of judicial review was formalized based upon supremacy clause. split jud&exec ● How has the exercise of judicial power evolved over time? Evolution of Judicial Power 1First Era Nation vs. Statewhat are boundaries between national and state government McCulloch v Maryland ational supremacy is the overt rule 2Second Era Government regulation of the economy Fundamental importance of property rights Lochner v NewYork Court struck down laws limiting workdays of bakers to ten hours per day Following repeated invalidation of New Deal legislation, FDR threatened to expand the Court 3Third EraCivil rights and liberties IN the 1940s, a focus of the relationship between the individual and government 4Fourth Erahe court as referee Modern Courts have limited the federal goverment ability to impose law on states Administers national policy overseeing the bureaucracy interpreting public law ● What is the structure of the judiciary? How do the different jurisdictions affect how law is interpreted? hear federal questions from states and citizens of other states Structure of the Court(Judicial Review) 1.Supreme Court defined in the Constitution 2.Congress granted the authority to create inferior courts Function similarly to the committee system in Congress as agents of the federal courts 3.Supreme court is the court of final appeal 4.Sits at the top of threelevel pyramid first level are the 94 districts courts second level are the 13 courts of appeals or circuit courts Courts has two jurisdictionAppellatelaws application) original(law & fact by jury decision) ● What are the limitations to the power of the Court? Limits of the Court lacks hierarchical control Federal judiciary is decentralized and dispersed nationally Justices have life tenure(may only be removed by congress) Court cannot distribute cases to lower courts court lacks enforcement ● How does the Court exert control over their agenda? Why is this a strategic process? What sources of information do justices use to decide whether to hear cases? The process of selecting cases is somewhat complex: control of agenda Litigants must fia writ of certiori requesting the lower court send record of the trial in questions Justices vote using “rule of four4 justices support hearing the case then certiorari is granted Law clerks recommend cert petitions Court resolves conflicts among lower courts & use other public cues to decide Amicus curiae briefs(friend of the court)essay arguing why a certiorari should be passed or not Sollicitor generaadministration lets the courts know which cases are important, government lawyer Visualize a court cases verdict and accept the cases that move policy in the direction they want ● What criteria do justices use to make rulings in cases? How Justices reach their decisions The law Lawyers presentations their ideologies ● How does the Court make public policy 1.Procedural doctrine governs the specific ways in which lower courts should work Stare decisislet the decision stand. use past cases as law and reasonings Standing personal achievement or outcome required to bring the case to court only cases raising a constitutional question may be appealed to the Supreme court 2.Substantive doctrine: guides judges which party should win, deals more with Policy making not justice Judicialactivismdevelop new legal principles if judge sees fits. vs. Judicialestrainjudge works within confines of the laws set by traditions ● What are the two key components of Supreme Court decisions? How does seniority play a role in the policy outcomes produced by the Court? Court Decisions contain two components 1.The vote 2.The opinion Unanimous decisions are less likely to be reversed and are more compelling majorityissenting(judge who disagress with majority) concurringunique reasons of support) Majority opinion is assigned by the Chief Justice or the most senior justice in the majority Vote be seniority, newest member often is the swing vote ● Why is the Court not allpowerful? The seperation of PowersCourt has the last word for much of public policy Lacks enforcement no police, no army to act other than the law Court may be reigned in by Congress choice of not to fund their decision The judiciary lacks the resources to be a powerful autonomous policymaker ● How are justices nominated and confirmed to the Court? How does this process affect the individuals who are nominated and confirmed to the Court? Federal judges are nominated by the president and confirmed by the Senate District court seats are delegated to Senators of that state.known senatorial courtesy Presidents take greater interest in candidates for the Court of Appeals and Supreme Ct. Chapter 12 – Political Parties the role of parties and parisanship in the electorate ● How do parties affect election outcomes? How do they help voters understand politics? Parties as Organizatioins, how well they can mobilize voters ● What lead to the emergence of parties in American politics? How have parties evolved over time? The founders were antiparties. Parties originated in Congress. The nature of lawmaking defined in the Constitutions implicitly created the need for parties Majority decision lead to the necessity of developing stable alliances, and become important to mobilize voters ● How have the institutional rules of American democracy effectively limited the number of parties that contest and win elections? What are the exceptions to this? Rules of the game limit practical number of parties, big group most beneficial for the system and for your own strategy Exceptions: Nonpartisan elections(local races, judiciary) partisan regional dominance control. down south vs. up north ● What roles do parties play in the political system? 3 Role of Parties in Politics 1.Party in the Electoratebest prediction of votes normal vote split ticket voting candidate centered elections 2.Party as Organizations partisan hierarchy Democratic National Committeestate representatives, party chairs, ranking state party officers, constituents Republican National Committee2 representitives per state plus the state party chair 3.Party in Government Parties and the nomination process McGovernFraser reforms and delegate selection consistency, participation rules, majority vote decided. Open versus closed primaries Party differences in delegate selection(president as head, national chairs, state levels.) Voters really choose the nominations mainly ● What is partisanship? How have scholars conceived of partisan identification? Partisan IdentificationA psychological attachment to a group? A running tally(evaluation of performance). genetic predispostion? ● Is partisanship in decline? Why or why not? still the way to understand politics however : The influence of parties on voters has declined due to changes in media and money in politics New communicating media has made campaigns accessible without parties Candidatecentered elections have increased election cost while reducing the role of parties. ● What is meant by the Normal Vote? Normal Vote amount of votes a party would win if partisian identification was the only factor. but its not ● What role do party organizations play in American politics? ‐national commitee& head member>, 2 members of each stateconduct the partys affairs conventions and hiring staff. below is the states committees chairs which oversee legislative districts and counties. then citys, towns etc. ● How do parties control the nomination process? usually controlled by elected politicians not officials. national committees primary task is to retain the president. although house and senate underego a seperate national campaign. convention sets up a party platform(plan) the delegate that attend vote for who the state choosed. idealy with partisan ● Why, when the parties are not very distant ideologically, are there such prominent divisions between them? ● Demographically, who tends to support which party? Why is this the case? Are these coalitions stable? Partisanship as a ‘name brand’ Candidates strategy affected by elected officials 2006 Democratic takeover of Congress(against the republican Iraq war) 2010 Republican takeover of the House Republicans: smaller government, lower taxes, less regulation, lower spending, free market, higher defense spending, moral issues, school prayer Supporters: higher income, now white southerners, churchgoers(except Catholics), Rural suburban’s Democrats: Regulate business, welfare spending, lower defense spending, fairness and equality, moral issues, gun control, environment, no school prayer. Supporters: Lower Income, African Americans, Woman, Hispanics(low than African),cath/jews/protest. Unions Chapter 13 – Interest Groups the role of interest groups in the electorate ● What are interest groups? What purpose do they serve in democratic politics? Interest Groups collective group with common goals that form to work together to get that goal Represent interest offer opportunities to participate set the agenda monitor government lobby ● Why do interest groups form? Why do citizens join interest groups? What drives groups to form and people to join them: Material benefits purposive benefits social benefits Selective versus collective benefits, and freeriding ● Why have we seen such a dramatic increase in the number and variety of interest groups in politics? Why so many groups Changes in society(or demand for change) has served as rallying points Demographic changes have fostered belonging to groups Technology has facilitated forming groups Complexity of politics necessitate many groups Fragmentation and specialization & Formation of coalitions ● What roles do interest groups play in campaigns? How is this a source of information for voters? What do they do Candidate recruitment and training Candidate contributions Advertising Volunteers Endorsements Voter mobilization ● Why do some consider interest groups to be bad for democracy? Are they really bad for democracy provide electoral influence counterbalance elites in government seen as buying officials Lack accountability Hierarchical Increase polarization Increase campaign spending Chapter 14 – The Media the role of the media influencing citizens ● What changes have emerged as the media has evolved from print to broadcast to Internet news? How have these changes affected the content of political information? The quantity? The quality? ‐mass communicatoin easier and cheaper reducing the uniit cost, allowed for more in depth of specific info, in the field reports. ‐local focuses on local issues cus broadcasting is nation wide , carrying capacity limits what stations can say what. ● Where do people predominantly get their news? How has this changed over time? started out with news papers, now today its mainly CNN tv, and is making a move towards Internet by younger users adapting ● Should the mediaalways be considered to be delivering the news with integrity and honesty? Why or why not? Media as Business Gather, Package, and transmit news Exist as private enterprises uncontrolled by government: Media organizations face profit motives, and focus on the median voter so they bias there reports. Theoretically supply vital information with integritydo thHearst and Yellow journalism He got pictures and just made up quotes about the war ● What regulations have been placed on the media? How has this affected the way in which events generally, and politics more specifically are covered? Media Under Regulation Growth of radio and television necessitated governmental involvement: tragedy of the commons created a need for licensing Communications Act of 1934: Equal time, Fairness doctrine, ownership rules ● Are citizens better informed due to the changes in the media? Respond to media: Selective exposure, selective perception, compartmentalization, and Rationalization as the public mood consensus moves, ideologically they are being educated about the issues ideas ● What are the three components of media coverage? How does this affect how people come to understand politics? Messages and Media Effects3 components Message(facts, statements, element of bias etc.) Messenger Receiver(political engagement, information, partisanship etc.) Top down model: Elites>Opinion leaders>Public ● In the scholarly debate over media effects, how have perspectives on the media’s influence varied? What is the current perspective? Messages and Media effects Magic bullet( needed to carefully regulate cuss would influence everyo& Minimal effects Current research suggest 4 domains: 1Learning, 2Agenda setting, 3priming, 4framing ● How does the media cover politics and political campaigns? Never ending ”invisible party”uses government oversight, and media and campaigns gender effects in coverage, and omnipresent media polls Aspect make ups and Biases: Novelty, Personality, conflict, skepticism ● What does it mean to refer to the media as the fourth branch of government? What does this role entail? Political oversight/control: edits the Media and Ad watchers Election Night coverage, Exit polling and projections *Prior restraint and liberal slander laws have insulated the media from censorship Chapter 10 – Public Opinion, components, who has, and how they matter ● What do we mean by public opinion? Who are the `public?’ What are opinions? ● What are the bases for public opinion? What areas does it cover? Does every citizen have opinions about all issues? Why or why not? Opinion= expressed attitude he public= those who care and pay attention Dimensions: Social forces—history, institution, media Environment—upbringing, class, income Demographic—race, gender, age Care believe—values, ideology Systems—attitude consistency stability Cognition—attributions, perceptual bias ● Is opinion important for democratic politics? Why or why not? Purpose of Opinion collective expression the key Geer suggest informed politicians about public opioniion operate differently Jacobs suggest lead rather than respond to opinion public opinion is important because only way candidates and the governement can understand what we think ● What are the goals of survey research and opinion polls? What do these polls require of citizens? ● How is the reliability and `believability’ of an opinion poll affected by who conducts it? How the poll is conducted? Who responds? Survey Research Purpose: measure opinion, measure attitude, describe the measured samples/populations ideal Respondents : interpret the question, search memory for info, integrate the info into a judgment, respond. ● What are the reasons that nonresponse or nonrandom selection to participate in surveys that introduce error into polling results? Samples and survey report a Margin Error a sample is the estimation of the population, as sample gets larger it also gets better Issues: Nonacademic, nonresponsive, measurement of sample Digest polls error in the FDR election, the sample was too republican ● What are attitudes? How do they relate to opinions? Who possesses attitudes? About what? Ideal Psychological attitudes attitude organized consistent manner of thinking reacting to issues groups and people or any environment encounter 1expierences,2 beliefs, and 3feelings should be expressed Attitude facilitates social interaction as a function of strength ● What is the relationship between political knowledge and ideology? Ideologies promote consistency among political attitudes by connecting them to a greater principle.. ideologies often combine attitudes to coalitions. liberalsfavor reducing economic unequalities. coservatives distrust the gov and value private free markets. ● Why is ignorance rational? Public Knowledge shallow information, and learning occurs in short term individuals vary in 1cognitive ability, 2engagement,3processing mind Structure influences responses Information levels and democratic politics lack information and have a “Rational ignorance” cost of educating oneself exceeds the benefit the knowledge would provide. ● What are issue publics? Why or how might they alleviate shortcomings in individual political information? undesirable to translate opinion into policythere is often no majority view on an issue reliance on polls ignores the sources of opinionspolling may weaken the influence of opinion in democracy ● How do citizens translate information into opinions? What are the two schools of thought? John Zaller memory based processing(people use 1 st thought that comes to mind like hunting goldfish) Milton Lodge online processing (thumbs up or thumbs down to information and remember tally up) ● How does public opinion matter for how democratic politics are conducted? Do some individuals’ opinions matter more? Indirect democracy, opinion plays a great roles(towns, local) Inrepublic American democracy opinion changes to models: 1.rational activism model(public pressure) 2.interest group model 3.Shared model as the public mood consensus moves, ideologically they are being educated about the issues ideas the informed have greater chance at influence: ie. The rich, white with more access have louder voice. Chapter 11 – Voting and Elections who votes, who do they vote for, how campaign/elections operate? ● Turnout is low – does this matter? If so, why?‐Why is turnout low if Americans are better connected to the parties/their partisanship?‐What events have lead to the overtime decline in turnout? Why turnout is low voting not compulsory, no election holiday, is a 2 step process, irrational Decline overtime because of: th ratified 26 amendment: 18 age limit VAPturnout is measure as age voting population appose to voter eligibility turnout.(noncitizens, felons)(VEP better at it) ● What explains aggregate patterns of voter turnout (including factors leading to its decline)? What are the institutional and state factors? Aggregate Voter Turnout higher in presidential election…Ballot rollo(we only care about the higher positions of government) voter fatigue available info competiveness of races media coverage, party mobilization institutional factors party competition, voting rules, district size ● What factors explain individual‐level turnout? Individual Voter Turnout: sociological factors: income, age, political socialization, gender, race, marital status, NOT EDUCATION Psychological factors: partisianship, campaign interest, political efficiency Social: personality, genetics ● Why don’t people vote? too busy, bad weather, rain 1% decrease per inch ● Is low turnout a problem? Are voters trustworthy? Normative Concerns free riding by not voting Rights to abstain uninformed voters Trustworthy? voters have little info, preference differs from experts. parties have incentives to be ambiguous people make rational decisions without storing information.. Zeller and Lodge opionion schools ● What drives vote choice? partisanship, race, gender, income, education, religious, unions, suburban rural ● What are the scholarly perspectives on vote choice? Columbia model(social determinism) social identity matters crosspressures from identities Michigan Model(socialpsychological) funnel of causality partisanship and evaluations of current political objections Modern Position party ID as longterm force issues and policy preference as shortterm force candidate evaluations ● What are the other forms of civic engagement? Are these the only ways to participate? Civic Engagement attending meetings, persuade others, posting signs, writing letters, donate & volunteer ● What is the relationship between online participation and `actual’ participation vast amount of ways to respond online, blogs, webpages etc. online users have better chance at actual participation Too though. ● Why do people choose to participate? Resources/free time(beyond socioeconomic according to Brady Verba) Engagement(care) mobilization solidary beliefs purposive benefits ● What is the median voter therorem? The voting system will select the outcome based off how many of the median votes one candidate can capture. Both expect who they have already captured and need to aim at gaining the gray area of the median/undecided voters ● How do candidate rasie money? How does spending affect candidate performance? How to Campaignfunding strategies Decide to either get government funds, match funds or not. paradox of spending: can you afford, and spending the most usually most successfull. go for median ignore lockedup votes Raised how: money sent in direct mail, or new media way of donations Spent how: Clinton model(independent voters) Bush model(mobilize the core base) ● What effects did the Federal Election Act and the Bipartisain Reform Act have on the influence of money in politics? Efforts at Regulating Spending FECFederal Election Campaign Act(1971): supplied Public/Matching funds, Limited expenditures, and required reports. this made it accessible for everyone to become a candidate, equality. although consequences: soft money, issue ads, 527 organization untaxed Reforms failureBCRABipartisan Campaign Reform Act(2002): banned soft money, regulated advertising, changed candidate funding. McCornel V. Fed Election Commision(2003): ruled BCRA unconstitutional Citizens United v. FEC(2010) : corporoations may spend unlimited funds for candidates 2012) Supreme Ct. upholds Citizens United:”Political speech doesnt lose 1st amend rights just because its source is a corporation” Money House races: for every 1 dollar raised by incumbents the opposing raises 28c Senate Races: recieves more money from PAC than house. all money goes to, issue positions, persuasion, polls, ads. ● Whare the different types of elections? What do each of them mean for how politics is conducted? Wave Elections sway back and forth Deviating Electionst he majority party suffers major losses. the setback of the majority party is only temporary. unlike realingings Realinging elctions the balance of power between the two parties changes radically, and there are major shifts in policy/constituents Maintaing elections preserve the status quo, with the majority party retaining control of Congress and the White House. Results: change in regional support new issues effectchanges voters mindset of parties change in social support new groups enter the electorate ● What are the voters voting for in elections? Policy Affirm their partisain identity strategy for resources/issues ● What explains election results? The economy War outcomes LIkeablity/attractive Presidental approval Incumbency Coaattail effect The preference for a Divide Government think it will balance policies/issues shows issue ownership think in moderate and parties will be weaker ● How does the Electoral College work? Why do we have the College rather than a direct election of president? what biases exist? what is the faithless elector problem? Electoral College states influence is based off their population, represents senate and house members. besides maine and Nebraska founder worried about voters making good decision(i.e. white property owners could only vote) allows for elections to control legitmacy, and the “popular vote” winner can still lose made because of past reforms: direct primaries, direct democracy, and direct senators Biases: Incumbents power wont allow for term limits, change in electoral, campaign funding Faithless elector: PLEDGED to vote for a candidate then doesnt vote at all or votes the other way in the electoral college.
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