Communication Theory 20223
Communication Theory 20223 20223
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verified elite notetaker
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verified elite notetaker
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This 16 page Bundle was uploaded by Carolyn Notetaker on Monday February 8, 2016. The Bundle belongs to 20223 at Texas Christian University taught by Andrew Ledbetter in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 169 views. For similar materials see Comm Theory in Communication Studies at Texas Christian University.
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Date Created: 02/08/16
Comm Theory Tue/Thurs 8 Am What is theory? And Why do we develop it? Human Construction (gravity: not a reason it just happens) Discover how things work Theory of Gravity: symbolic way to make sense of the world, using words to write out predictions Purpose in developing theories: Humans are the only ones who see the workd and try and develop theories of the world, what function are the theories serving, what are we trying to accomplish I. Chapter 1: A. 4 purposes to developing theory 1. Organizes our experiences 2. Allows us to extend our knowledge 3. Anticipate/ predict future events 4. Stimulate future research Good Theories raise more questions B. What is communication theory? o Theory about symbols, messages and meanings o How humans use symbols and we make meaning behind messages C. Metaphors for Theories o Nets: allows you to catch/control the outcomes, the metaphor of net takes away some free will if we capture too much o Lens: different lenses are useful in different situations. Filters our different perspectives theories lenses can help you interpret them and make sense - CON: can become too focused on seeing something through one type of lens o Map: helps make things clear, broader view D. Disruption of Listening o Only listen 60% of the time and only retain 25% of that o Difficult to listen with background noise o Weve become decentitize o Becoming more and more impatient o Loosing our listening skills o Better listener = better communicator o As technology advances we listen less Comm Theory Chapter 2 Notes Vocab Glen=objective approach Marty=interpretative approach Behavioral Scientists: scholar who applies the scientific method to describe, predict and explain reoccurring forms of human behavior Rhetorician: scholar who studies the ways in which symbolic forms can be used to identify people and persuade them toward a certain point of view Objective Approach( behavioral scientists): assumption that truth is singular and is accessible through unbiased sensory observation, trying to uncover the cause and effect relationships Interpretive Approach (Rhetorician): assigning meaning or value to communicative texts assumes that multiple meanings or truths are possible Humanistic Scholarship: study of what its like to be another person in a specific time and place Epistemology: study of the origin, method and limits of knowledge central question “How do we know what we know if we know it at all?” Determinism: the assumption that behavior is caused by hereditary and the environment Empirical Evidence: data collected through direct observation Truth is socially constructed through communication Language creates social realities that are in flux rather than revelaing or representing fixed principles or relaitonships in a wolrd that remains constant The truth can be largely subjective and a message can have many different meanings Effectiveness V Participation: Which concern has the higher priority? Effectiveness: concerned with the success of communicating information, ideas and meaning to others Participation: concerned with increasing the possibility that all points of views will affect collective decisions and inidividuals will be more open to new ideas Objective theorists focus on effectiveness Interpretative theorists focus on participation Objective V. Interpretative: Why is it important? Metathoery: theory about a theory Interpreative: explores the web meaning that constitutes human existence Objective theorists: has a hunch, creates a hypothesis but can never really prove has to base results on the his experiments results Chapter 3: Weighing the words A. What makes an objective theory good? Theory predicts some future outcome and it explains the reasons for that outcome 4 criteria to having a good theory 1. Relative 2. Simplicity 3. Testability 4. Practical Utility 5. Quantifiable research B. Predictions of future Events: Theory is more spoken about general people rather than specific individuals Probability and tendencies rather than certainty Mutual self-disclosure interpersonal intimacy Theorists are able to make confident predictions about communication behavior C. Explanation of Data: Good objective theory explains an event or human behavior Making sense of a disturbed situation, bring clarity to something confusing Draw order out of chaos Reason behind why something occurs is important D. Scinetific Standard 3 Relative Simplicity: Rule of Parsimony (Occam’s Razor) – given two possible ecplanations for the same event choose the simpler one E. Scientific Standard 4 Hypothesis that can be tested: Falsifiability: theory must be able to be tested in such a way to check if there is an error Some theories are difficult to prove them false If its impossibleto gather evidence that goes against the claimed theory then it is impossible to have eveidence that supports the claimed theory. F. Scientific Standard 5 Practical Utility Make sure theory is practical and useful G. Quanititative Research Comparison of differences Use experiments and surveys to test their predictions Study the cause and effect relationship of one another II. What makes an interpretative theory good? Indetify values Create understanding Inspire aesthetic appreciation Stimulate agreement Reform society Conduct qualitative research A. Clarification of Values Good interpretative theory should bring peoples values into the open Ethical imperative: grant others that occur in construction the same autonomy you practice constructing them B. New Understanding of people Gives insight to human condition Rheotircal critics Seek to gain new understanding by analyzing the symbolic interaction of humans Social scientist theorists try to identify communication patterns to all people Self referential imperative: include yourself as a constituend of your own construction C. Community of agreement Can identify a good interpretive theory by the amount of support it generates within the community of scholars who are interested or have knowledge about the same type of communication D. Reform of Society: Good interpretative theory generates change Often expose or resist the ideology of the accepted culuture Critical theorists see social, economic, religious and educational institutions as being socially constructed communication practices and view it as an imbalance of powers E. Qualitative Research Scientists use numbers, interpretative scholars use words such as focu groups, open ended interviews Ethnography: method of participant observation designed to help a researcher experience a culuture’s complex web of meaning, interpretive approach in search of meaning Contested Turf and Common ground among theorists Sensing Vs. Intuition Sensing- “way to find out” using your senses to tell what is actually happening, useful for appreciating the realitites of a situation Intuition- “way to find out” looks at bigger picture and tries to grasp the essential patterns 1. Firm foundation creates mutual respect for each other along with recognition that both are bringing the best intellect on wha they study 2. Understanding that the strong point of science is a rigorous comparison of multiple messages or groups while forte of humanism is its imaginative in depth anaylisys of a single message or group 3. Side by side comparison of the two sets of criteria Scientific Theory Interpretative Theory Prediction of Future Clarification of Values Explanation of Data Understanding of People Relative Simplicity Aesthetic Appeal Testable Hypothsis Community of Agreement Practical Utility Reform Society Quantitative Research Qualitative Research Group Project: pick a clip that relates to symbolic interactionism then write a paper about how it applies, critique theory and how it connects, contrast it to another theory Chapter 7 1/21/16 Expectancy Violations Theory Theorist: Judee Burgoon I. The theorist Expectancy Violations Theory Interaction Adaptation Theory A. Theory Question: how do we react to nonverbal behavior that we don’t expect? 1979: Expectancy Violation Theory 1995: developed interaction adaptation theory Elevator example of nonverbal interactions: no one taught us, socialized into us Nonverbal Cues: o Facial expressions o Emoticons o Prexemics (distance) o Eye contact o Dress o Physical appearance o Time (chromics) o Gestures o Smell (olfactics) Expectations: o Family background o Context o Relationship o Culture o Communication characteristics o Previous experiences Responses can be positive or negative B. Violations: 1. Violation Valence o Refers to the action o Can be positive o Can be negative o Or ambiguous (not positive nor negative)Command Reward Valence 2. Communicator Reward Valence o Refers to the person o If we like the person who did it we will see the action as positive o If it is a stranger, or someone we don’t like we will view it as a negative C. Interaction Adaptation Theory Sequal to Violation Valence Growth of the theory over time to increase its accuracy How Two people adjust Interaction position o Requirements o Expectations o Ongoing adjustments o Desires D. Application Be likeable, kindness, gentleness, friendliness do go a long way If youre likeable, breaking the nonverbal rules might work in your favor Quanititaive Data Ledbetter-COMM 20223 p. 1 COMM 20223 – Communication Theory Notes Outline – Talk About Theory (ch. 2) & Weighing the Words (ch. 3) I. Objective and interpretive theories. 2 different perspectives A. Characteristics of objective theories: SCIENTIFIC THEORISTS 1. Names: Scientists : Empiricists Post positivist 2. Methods: (logical) trying to observe using scientific method hypothesis with an explanation as to why, cause and effect relationship Surveys Quantitative: variables, manipulated, having a scale using numbers to be more specific, measuring the world and humans on a set scale Experiments : test the theoretical hypothesis measurement 3. Assumptions: Incomplete because rests on certain assumptions 5 senses are reliable (touch taste sight ) Unbiased Determinism Is (the way the world is not the way the world ought to be) try and avoid the moral side EX: Prof studying divorce leaves out his moral beliefs to study the effects of divorce Truth is discoverable 4. Goals: Test Theory : take theories, theories that don’t fit data get thrown out, scientists know what they don’t know rather than what they do know Explain Predict Effectiveness : interested in able to predict what will happen B. Characteristics of interpretive theories: Much more subjective, differ from person to person People have different opinions Not one general truth but many truths 5. Names: Marty A lot of different names because there are a lot of different meanings to the words Ledbetter-COMM 20223 p. 2 Hermeneuticist Postmodernist Rhetorician Phenomenologist Humanist Poststructuralist Critic Deconstructivist 6. Methods: insight it gives us into the human condition Qualitative methods- more focused on words not numbers Ethnography- go to observe, - EX: studying Baylor they wouldn’t just send out a survey to Baylor Students they would go to the school take classes observe day to day interactions of people at Baylor Texts Textual Analysis 7. Assumptions Subjective- people interpret things differently Ought- how world ought to be take into account moral, what SHOULD WE DO, how can we change the world for the better Free will Truths are social constructed 8. Goals Participiation Cristism Use Theory : trying to adopt that theory as a lens of how to view the world and see if that gives them a different perspective of how to view the world Emancipation II. Criteria for evaluating theories Which do you resogniate with most? DO you Consider yourself Objective or interpretive theorists? 0,0,1,1,0,0,1 0 1 General Specific Unbiased Emotional Prediction Criticism Math Writing Clarity Emancipation Ledbetter-COMM 20223 p. 3 Effectiveness Participation IS Ought TCU’s Department: More objective communication Betty White Advertisement: Objective Perspective- why is this add effective? - It gets across the message that eating a snickers can bring you back to yourself - Studying if there was an increase in sales in snickers after watching that AD - The snickers brought clarity to the guy in the AD - The effectiveness in his improvement in the football game - Clear cause and effect (if you use our product you will improve in some way) - Beneficial outcome - Using celebrated actresses, using someone everyone knows makes the product more appealing, product endorsements Interpretative Perspective: Need a morally neutral place, dangers to being extremes of objective and interpretive theory Ledbetter-COMM 20223 p. 1 COMM 20223 – Communication Theory Notes Outline – Mapping the Territory (ch. 4) OBJECTIVE Example: Verizon Wireless Socio-psychological: One of the two most important traditions “is” “not” “ought” Prediction Cause and effect Cybernetic: Group communication come from this perspective Multimedia come from this perspective Noise reduction Information processing Shannon & Weaver Model How does information get from point Apoint B How is the information flowing and where would it need to flow Rhetorical: Power & beauty of language Argumentation Public Means of persuasion Love political debates, arugments involving persuasion Semiotics: Signs & Symbols Pictorial Imagery Shifts in meaning Symbols change their meaning over time, words change their meaning over time Socio-cultural: One of the other most important ones Power Ledbetter-COMM 20223 p. 2 Social action Sapir- Whorf Hypothesis : the language in your culuture shapes the way we view the world Processual (re)production of culture The way they talk about their business, and represents their business as an employee EX: target refers to their customers are “guest” not customers, chickfila is always really friendly that is their socio-cultural that’s specific to them How we reproduce cultutre How communication shapes the world we live in Critical: Empathetic Concern Emanicipation Power Social action Marxist critique Phenomenological: Individual stories Authencity Empathetic concern Sunnjective experience Emaniciaption Marxist crititque o Developed from counseling psychology o People’s own perceptions INTERPRETIVE Ethical Morality Character Values Justice How do we decide whats ethical and what is not Focus on the 20 theories Ledbetter-COMM 20223 p. 1 COMM 20223 – Communication Theory Notes Outline – Social Penetration Theory (Altman & Taylor, ch. 8) The Theorists: Irwin Altman Theory Question: How do we communicate to draw close to other people Research began in the 1960’s continued through 70s80s OBJECTIVE THEORY I. The theory’s dominant metaphors: A. For self: the onion People are like onions because we have layers B. For disclosure: knife When you choose to self disclose you are the knofe cutting into the onion II. A map of the theory. A. Personality structure. B. Self disclosure Breadth: aquaintences, someone you talk about a lot of topics but havnt gottrn very deep Depth: interaction with doctor, professors, counselors C. Social Exchange theory Why and how we self disclose III. Social exchange. A. Costs: EX: Big Bang theory leonard who doesn’t like hugs gave penny a hug to show how greatful he was B. Rewards: the things/profits we get out of our relationship C. Outcomes: D. CL: Comparisson Level (satisfaction) Satisfaction in the relationship “”high Maintence” takes a lot to please them If someone’s CL = 5 If CL = 3 they are happy (expectations met :) Ledbetter-COMM 20223 p. 2 If CL= 7 not happy (expectations not met E. CLalt: comparison level of alternatives (stability) Will you stay in this relationship? Having options If Ben doesn’t think he has any other optioins he might stay in a relationship that he is not satisfied because of lack of ALTERNATIVES If ben forecasts higher CLAT with someone else he might leave o We compare our outcomes to determine stability o We compare our outcomes to determine satisfaction Application: 1. to get closer to someone, try sharing a little more deeply and broadly than you have before 2. reciprocate others disclosures with disclosures of our own at a smiliar level 3. consider costs and reqards of relaitoships ethically Ledbetter-COMM 20223 p. 1 COMM 20223 – Communication Theory Notes Outline – Relational Dialectics (Baxter & Montgomery, ch. 11) Interpretative communication theory Theory question: how does communication create tension between people in relationships? Desire for autonomy and connection Feel connected with others but also have our own freedom I. Dialectics in words. One of the most popular theories Messy Created by communication Ongoing flux Opposing forces Struggle change Contradictory Push-pull II. Dialectics in pictures. Riding a bike: managing opposing forces, you balance forces the bike can move ahead Balancing walking on a tiperope Rubber band: tension, when breaking a rubber band in half it is both hands that created tension to snap the rubber band metaphor for people: we want to be connected to people but also want our freedom so we pull away creating tension III. Naming dialectical tensions. A. Internal tensions. Internal dialectal tensions (within the relationship) 1. Connectedness* Separateness 2. Certainty* Uncertainty 3. Openness* Closeness: how much you are willing to share Spiraling Inversion-separating tensions by time Segmentation- separating tensions by space/logic Ledbetter-COMM 20223 p. 2 A. External tensions: between couple and the community 1. Inclusion * Seclusion :spending too much time together takes away them from the community 2. Conventionality * Uniqueness: to what extent are we like other couples 3. Revelation * Concealment: to what extent do you share information about your relationship to other people B. Managing the tensions. It’s good to have differences Understand the tensions will help the conflict in the relationships Spiraling inversion: separating tensions by time -EX: have girls nights once a week and the rest of the time is with the hubby Segmentation: separating tensions by topic/space -EX: someone who doesn’t like talking about their childhood but will talk about their career and passions all the time Aesthetic Moments: a fleeting sense of unity thru mutual respect -EX: renewing your vows, family vacation, birthday party II. All about dialogue: RDT 2.0 Utterance chain: every conversation we have sets up our next conversation or highlights previous conversation Dialectal flux Aesthetic Moment Critical Sensibility Constitutive : idea of communication being the focus of our relationship A. Applications 1. Feelings of tension and conflict are a normal part of being in a relationship 2. Relationships change over time 3. Relationships take effort How is theory an interpretive theory? Uses more qualitative aspects, not based on data, but interpreting how people feel how close and separate someone is in their relationship. How much disclosure they choose to share, no scale for relationships. People are people there is emotions it is not based on numbers. Uses the lens metaphor t view different dialiectal tensions with the use of different lenses. What it means to be a human in a relationship, deeper appreciatioin for relationships and their interaction in them in order to further improve relationships. MO solid absolutes, it is not about absolute truth people have their own individual truths in their relationships. Not based on cause on effect, just because something works for one couple doesn’t mean it will work for all couples. Honor individual experiences and relationships.
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