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PHL 140

by: Taylor Young
Taylor Young
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All notes prior to week 5
Introduction to Logic
Meixner, John
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This 24 page Bundle was uploaded by Taylor Young on Monday February 8, 2016. The Bundle belongs to PHL 140 at Central Michigan University taught by Meixner, John in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Logic in PHIL-Philosophy at Central Michigan University.

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Date Created: 02/08/16
SOC 100- Intro to Sociology 01/19/2016 ▯ ▯ What is sociology? ▯ The study of the human beings in the social worlds they consciously create and inhabit. ▯ Study based on systematic observation and logically constructed theories. ▯ ▯ Our Focus: ▯ Individual in their world/social context. ▯ ▯ The Sociological Imagination: ▯ C. Wright Mills (1959) **coined the term sociology** ▯ The ability to see the connection between personal troubles and public issues ▯ How are they related in this historical moment? ▯ Troubles- privately felt problems. ▯ Issues- Affect large number of people and have origins in institutional arrangements. ▯ ▯ Social Worlds: ▯ Society: a large social grouping sharing the same geographical or social territory, subject to the same broad social arrangements. Today, pretty much a nation-state. ▯ Other “Social Worlds” - families, communities, states ▯ ▯ Social Structure: 1 ▯ The organized (not random) pattern of social relationships and social institutions that together constitute society. (AKA the way the society is set up) ▯ ▯ Social Institutions: ▯ Are “established and organized systems of social behavior with a particular and recognized purpose” (Anderson and Taylor 2009) ▯ Systems that fulfill key societal functions ▯ “The building blocks of Society” ▯ A macro view of society ▯ ▯ A Framework for thinking about these social institutions: ▯ Universal Social Institutions ▯ Components that all societies have some form ▯ Family ▯ Economy ▯ Education ▯ Political Systems ▯ Religions ▯ Important Institutions that have emerged with complex societies: ▯ Components that most societies today have in some form ▯ Media Healthcare ▯ Sports/Leisure ▯ 2 ▯ ▯ Quick and basic definitions: ▯ Family: primary, relatively permanent social unit of persons relied of for companionship, economic needs fulfillment and care of off-spring ▯ Economy: the way resources are obtained and distributed in society ▯ Education: the way beliefs and skills are transmitted from on generation to another ▯ Political system: the way power is distributed for the purpose of rule making and decision making for the society at large ▯ Religion: an explanation for life, a guide for ethical behavior, and an explanation for human problems that cannot be understood with existing knowledge ▯ ▯ We study these “Big Systems” knowing that… ▯ They are increasingly complex! ▯ They can interact, overlap and conflict with each other ▯ Their form is subject to power and influence ▯ They change over time ▯ ▯ Studying and Institution: ▯ What does the Institution look like? ▯ How did it evolve to look this way? ▯ Is it undergoing change? How? Why? ▯ Who is the society is served well by the institution as it is and who is not? ▯ Does it serve the functions we think it serves? ▯ How does it affect, interact, overlap and conflict with others major social systems? 3 ▯ ▯ Social Groups: ▯ Two or more people with a relevant commonality ▯ We all belong to multiple social groups ▯ ie. Social class, gender, family, business ▯ ▯ Social Norms: ▯ Established standards of behavior maintained by society ▯ These are both formal or informal norms ▯ ▯ Power: ▯ The ability to exercise ones will over another/will in your own life and choices ▯ ▯ Life Chances: ▯ A person’s opportunity to provide themselves with basic needs, material goods, positive living conditions and favorable experiences ▯ ▯ What else is Sociology? ▯ Systematic: Based on actual social life ▯ Scientific ▯ ▯ Social Arrangement: 4 ▯ Structure vs. Human Agency ▯ ▯ Human Agency: ▯ The ability to choose a response to social conditions ▯ Social conditions may constrain choices ▯ Interweaving of choose and constraint ▯ Our choices mold and effect society just as society molds and affects us ▯ ▯ Structure vs. Agency Debate ▯ ▯ Globalization: ▯ The interconnections of societies across the global. ▯ Ways we are interconnected ▯ Ideas about implications of interconnectedness ▯ ▯ Where did Sociology come from? ▯ The Science of Sociology:  As an academic discipline th o Took root in 18 century in Europe (1700’s) th o Recognized as “Sociology” in 19 century (1800’s) ▯ The 18 century: 5  Immense social change o Industrial revolution (approx.. 1750) and accompanying urbanization o Political revolutions – People have inalienable rights? Interesting. ▯ Shift in what people thought was the correct “Way of Knowing”:  The beginning of the Enlightenment & Enlightenment Thinking – o Belief that reason and human rationality to create understanding o Search for the practical, useful knowledge as the power to control nature (Movement away from traditional and religious explanations for life and society. No more “It’s God’s Plan” as the reason why some people have/some have not, some rule and some are ruled) ▯ The Enlightenment brought:  Belief in Modern Science to Solve Problems ▯ So…  We have immense change and therefore things we really want to understand about the social world  We have a new sense of the appropriate way to understand things ▯ ▯ Positivism – Using the exact Scientific Method like what is used in Physics ▯ Auguste Comte (Frenchman)- gave the name sociology “We can use the methods of the natural sciences to study social life and solve social problems.” ▯ ▯ Two Sociologists so far:  Mills  Comte 6 ▯ ▯ Types of Sociological:  Macro – the big pictures, large-scale social processes, such as social stability and change  Micro – small scale interactions between individuals, such as conversation or group dynamics  Critically – with the perception that some findings/outcome/issues are good and some are bad. There may be a need to change  Non-critically – just to report, with no concern or necessarily opinion about whether things are good or bad. You just want to see what ‘is’  With post-modern perspectives – there is no real good or bad. The ideas of good and bad are themselves product of society and they change over time. Actions can only be understood through the lens of the actor ▯ Types of Theory:  Formal – more like a lens, can be used to organize, interpret understand any topic  Substantive – specific to the topic under examination ▯ ▯ Key Sociological Prospective/Theories: Formal Theories o Explanatory perspectives that can be applied to any topic  (Shapes the way you look at things) ▯ 3 Key Theories: 1. Conflict theory 2. Structural Functionalism ▯ (Both macro perspectives, competing and often contradictory of one another) 3. Symbolic Interactionism (Micro- level perspective) 7 1. Conflict theory:  Emphasizes the role of coercion and power in producing social order and social change  So, society as it looks is the product of ongoing conflict between key groups with different levels of power and different interests o Inequality is a root of things o Power:  The ability to exercise ones will over another ▯ Some factors of inequality in the U.S.  Socioeconomic status (class)  Race  Religion  Gender  Education  Age (experience) ▯ ▯ 2. Structural Functionalism  The perspective in sociology that sees society as consisting different, but related parts, each of which serves a particular purpose  Sociologists using this approach explain social structures and social behavior in terms of their functions ▯ Example:  Deviance (going against basic social order) o Stealing 8 ▯ ▯ Conflict view:  The rules and norms are created by the dominant group and thus proscribe behavior that perpetuates their position o Ex: Property rights – theft  Groups are perceived differently and have different advantages/disadvantages in the face of transgressions  Unequal access to resources may require actions outside of ‘rules’ to survive Functionalist perspective:  Seeing others censured for deviant behavior helps to define limits of proper behavior for others in society  Witnessing or experiencing punishments/negative sanctions acts as a deterrent to others  Helps maintain shared valued through solidarity against offenders ▯ ▯ Symbolic Interactionism – micro  Society exists at the level of interaction rather than at the institution level  To the degree that we produce meaning through our actions and reactions we produce our world. “Social construction”  The social world is continually negotiated and created at the level of interaction Methods:  What is Social Research o A systematic process to answer questions about social patterns and practices  Who is involved in Social Research 9 o Consumers of Social Research  General public  Agency administrators  Policymakers o Producers of Social Research  Academics  Private Sector Investigations  Government agencies Paradox o If we successfully answer one question, it only spawns others. There is no moment when a social scientist’s work is done Research methods: o Research methods are standard rules that social scientists follow when trying to establish a casual relationship between social elements  Quantitative methods seek to obtain information about the social world that is in, or can be converted to, numeric form  Qualitative methods attempt to collect information about the social world that cannot be readily converted to numeric form  Two approaches – different purposes o Quantitative  Data is represented numerically  Measureable data  Numerical analysis is applied  Attempts to be generalizable  Quantitative – Quantity 10 o Qualitative  Data may not be numeric  Deals with descriptions  Data can be observed but not measured  Colors, textures, smells, tastes, appearance, beauty, etc.  Qualitative – Quality  Looks for interpretation and meaning  Usually not generalizable  Causality vs. Correlation o Causality is the idea that a change in one factor results in a corresponding change in another factor o Sociologists conduct research to try to prove causation ** Example** o Ice cream goes up o Bathing suit goes up Correlated but NOT Causality!!! (correlated because of the season/weather) ▯  Variables o A dependent variable is the outcome that a researcher is trying to explain o An independent variable is a measured factor that the researcher believes has a causal impact on the dependent variable.  The Hypothesis 11 o a hypothesis is a proposed relationship between two variables, represented by either the null hypothesis or an alternative hypothesis  Types of Data Collection o Types of data collection used in social research  Participant observation/ethnography  Interviews  Survey research  Comparative research  Experimentation  Content analysis  Historical methods o Selecting a research design  A function of you  Research question  Resources  Possibly your audience  Your need for statistical accuracy/generalizability  Feasibility  Ethics ▯ Ethics of Social Research  Researchers must meet codified standards, which are set by professional associations academic institutions, or research centers, when conducting studies. 12  Researchers must guard against causing physical, emotional, financial/legal or psychological harm to their subjects.  Informed consent and voluntary participation are guidelines researchers use to ensure subjects know they are participating in a study and have voluntarily chosen to participate ▯ ▯ Research Ethics – “Protection of Human Subjects”  Ensure that research subjects are not subject to ‘unreasonable’ physical, mental or legal harm’  Study subjects informed of the rights and responsibilities of each party  Self-regulation proven to be unsatisfactory  ASA now has code of ethics  U.S. government has regulations – overseen by Dept. of Health and Human Services  Institutional review board – IRB, initial and yearly review, vulnerable groups ▯ ▯ Some Key Sociological Studies:  Tuskegee Syphilis Study (1932-1972)  The Tea Room Trade (1970)  Stanford Prison Experiment (1971)  Milgram Obedience Study (1961) ▯ Sustainability: Meeting the current needs of a biological system (any system) without compromising the ability of the system to endure in future generations ▯ ▯ Systems: 13  From the Greek… “ to cause to stand together”  A system is a perceived whole whose elements “hand together” because they continually affect each other over time and operate toward a common purpose  Examples of systems: o Human body o Solar system o The water cycle ▯ Systems structure:  Pattern in the interrelationships among key components of the system  May include the hierarchy aspect of structure as well as process flows  Also included a multivariate array ▯ ▯ System Analysis: Understanding Links & Loops  Cycles of “cause and effect” inherent to the system  Describe systems with pictures… symbols representing different parts of system  Cow – Milk – Glass  Ecosystems ▯ ▯ Key Points of Chapter 1 (The Core)  1.1 – describe properties of life common to all livings things (modules 1.1, 1.4, 1.5)  1.2 – Differentiate among the hierarchical levels of biological organization studied by biologists (modules 1.2, 1.4, 1.6)  1.3 – outline the basic methodologies used by scientists to investigate the natural world (modules 1.3) 14  1.4 – describe the process of evolution and how it leads the diversity of life (modules 1.7 1.8)  1.5 – recognize ways in which livings things interact with, and adapt to, their environment (modules 1.5, 1.7, 1.8) ▯ - The word science is derived from a Latin verb meaning “to know” ▯ - Science is a way of knowing that is based on inquiry (we ask questions and seek answers) - Generally, we want to “know” if there is a difference two (or more) “things” - Science seeks natural causes for natural phenomena. - This limits the scope of science to the study of structures and processes that we can observe and measure The process of Science:  A hypothesis is a tentative answer to some question  It is an explanation that be put on trial ▯  A hypothesis should state a possible relationship between two variables.  The independent variable is the one that is being suggested as a “cause”  The dependent variable is the one where the “effect can be seen ▯  If the hypothesis is “true”, then we should be able to use it to accurately, what will happen to the dependent variable if we manipulate the independent variable.  Then the hypothesis is tested by performing an where we manipulate the independent variable to see if the dependent variable responds as we had predicted. Evolution and the origin of life: 15  How old is the earth? o 5+ billion years  What is the approximate age of the of first forms? o 3.5 B  What is speculated as to their “type”, size and form? o Prokaryotic  What was the earths early atmosphere like? o Rich in methane gas  What happened to change the gas makeup of the earths atmosphere? o Photosynthetic “plants” evolved, releasing oxygen  How did that event help the increase of more species evolving over time? o Allowed for evolution of many single celled/multicellular life forms with eukaryotic cells ▯ ▯ 1.4 Cells are the fundamental units of…  Every living organisms composed of one or more cells o Some organisms are unicellular o Others are multicellular  All cells contain genes made of DNA ▯ ***ALL LIFE ON EARTH IS COMPOSED OF ONE OF TWO TYPES OF CELLS: PROKARYOTIC OR EURKARYOTIC*** ▯ 1.4 Bacteria are prokaryotic cells 16  prokaryotic cells are small, simple cells  They lack membrane-bound organelles  Always unicellular  First appeared 3.5 billion years ago  DNA not contained  Bacteria and archaea 1.4 Cells are the fundamental units of life  Every living organism is composed of one or more cells o Some orgnanisms are unicellular o Other are multicellular  All cells contain - Evolution is the core theme of biology - All life on Earth is connected through a shared evolutionary history that stretches back over 3 billion years. 1.7 The evolutionary view of life was formalized by Charles Darwin  In 1859, Darwin published The Origin of Species.  Darwin laid out a very easy to understand logical argument for evolution by natural selection  Darwin argued that a few readily verifiable observation lead to a profound conclusion ▯ ▯ Darwin’s observations:  every species has the potential to increase its numbers very rapidly by exponential growth  For all organisms, resources (food, shelter, sunlight) are limited ▯ **From these two observations, Darwin concluded competition is a factor for all living things 17 ▯ I. Introduction  Logic has nothing to do with reality  Logic can’t tell us what’s true and false  Logic deals with relations among beliefs ▯ ▯ 1. Grass is the same color as emeralds. ▯ 2. Emeralds are green. ▯ 3. Grass is green. ▯ ▯ Logic tries to explain why 3 must be true if 1 and 2 are. ▯ ▯ Logic is:  The study of correct reasoning  A theory of inference  A symbolic or mechanical system for representing and testing patterns of argument, etc. ▯ 18 ▯ Benefits of Studying Logic:  Heightened ability to express ideas clearly and concisely.  Increased skill in defining terms and concepts.  Ability to formulate arguments rigorously and analyze them critically.  Increased ability in analytical problem solving.  Recognition that reason can be applied in everyday affairs. ▯ ▯ II. Argument  An argument is a piece of reasoning in which one or more statements, called premises, are offered in support of, or as evidence for, some other statement, called the conclusion. ▯ You haven’t completed UP requirements. [ only those who complete UP requirements may graduate.] ▯ You can’t graduate. ▯ ▯ Argument structure: __________ __________ ▯ ______________________ __________ __________ 19 Arguments ▯ Deductive Inductive ▯ ▯ Deductive argument:  The truth of the premises guarantees (or ensures) the truth of the conclusion  It is impossible for the premises to be true and the conclusion false  The conclusion follows with certainty (or necessity) from the premises ▯ ▯ Inductive argument:  The truth of the premises supports, but does not guarantee, the truth of the conclusion  It is possible for the premises to be true and the conclusion false  The conclusion follows with probability, but not necessity, from the premises ▯ **Double line means inductive** ▯ ▯ Valid argument:  An argument is valid if the conclusion follows deductively from the premises ▯ Sound argument:  An argument is sound if 20 1. it is valid 2. its premises are true ▯ - The conclusion follows deductively from the premises ▯ - The premises are true ▯ ▯ ***ALL SOUND ARGUMENTS ARE VALID, BUT NOT ALL VALID ARGUMENTS ARE SOUND!!!*** ▯ ▯ Logical form and content: ▯ ▯ Form ▯ __________ ▯ Structure ▯ Skeleton ▯ Syntax ▯ ▯ Content ▯ ___________ ▯ Meaning ▯ Flesh ▯ Semantics ▯ 21 ▯ Example: ▯ All freshman are students. ▯ Jones is a freshman. ▯ _____________________ ▯ Jones is a student. ▯ VALID & SOUND  ▯ ▯ All democrats are idiots. ▯ Trump is a democrat. ▯ _____________________ ▯ Trump is an idiot. ▯ VALID, UN-SOUND  ▯ ▯ Form: ▯ All A’s are B’s ▯ X is an A ▯ ____________________ ▯ x is a B ▯ VALID ▯  Whether or not an argument is valid is a question of form. 22  Whether or not a statement is true or false is a question of content.  Whether or not an argument is sound is a question of form and content. ▯ ▯ A note on terminology…  Statements (premises and conclusions) are true or false - but never valid or invalid, sound or unsound  Arguments (collections of statements) are valid or invalid, sound or unsound – but never true or false. ▯ ▯ Proving Invalidity:  An argument is invalid if and only if its logical form allows substitution instance with true premises and a false conclusion ▯ ▯ Logical Reconstruction:  Identify the conclusion, and separate it from the premises (visualize diagram)  Fill in unstated, but assumed, premises  Remove irrelevant information  Clear up vague language  Etc. ▯ Sherlock Holmes example: “The owner of this hat is highly intellectual.”  At this point, this is just an unsupported claim. It’s a question of cubic capacity, people with large heads must have something 23 ▯ ▯ Holmes example reconstructed: ▯ 1. This is a large hat ▯ 2. Someone owns this hat ▯ 3. People with large hats have large heads ▯ 4. People with large heads have large brains ▯ 5. People with large brains are highly intellectual ▯ ________________________________________ ▯ 6. Therefore, the owner of this hat is highly intellectual ▯ ▯ 1974 Mayaguez Incident – White House Press Release ▯ “Since the Cambodians have illegally detained a U.S. vessel, it follows that the President of the United States has the duty to obtain its release by any means necessary, because the President has the duty to defend all U.S. property, and the lives of all U.S. citizens.” ▯ ▯ ▯ Reconstruction: ▯ 1. The Cambodians have illegally detained a U.S. Vessel (The U.S.S. Mayaguez) ▯ 2. The President has the duty to defend all U.Ss property and lives ▯ 3. [The duty to defend lives and property requires the release, by any means necessary, or any illegally detained U.S. vessels.] ▯ ____________________________________________ ▯ 4. Therefore, the President has the duty to obtain its release by any means necessary. ▯ ▯ Two types of Enthymeme:  Enthymeme – An argument with one or more unstated, but assume, premises. ▯ ▯ “Innocent” enthymeme “Loaded” enthymeme ▯ Example: Example: ▯ Socrates is a man Murder is wrong ▯ _______________ ________________ ▯ Socrates is mortal Abortion is wrong ▯ [all men are mortal] [Abortion is murder] ▯ (FACT BASED) (OPINION BASED) 24


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