ARH 253 Notes
ARH 253 Notes ARH 253
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Emily Paige Montgomery
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ARH 253 Notes Module One Lecture One The Proto Renaissance 13 and 14 Century Italy Imagery we will be discussing in the first few modules: A word about Christian art… Christianity is a monotheistic religion based on the teachings and miracles of Jesus Christ (Jesus of Nazareth) Canon of lecture: Bible Two major sections: Old (history and story) and New (life and story of Jesus) Testaments Singular God, specifically, figure whom created Earth and that Jesus Christ was sent by God Began with Jewish foundation in area that we now know as Israel In the 4 century Christianity became the dominant religion of Roman Empire Christian Ideology goes beyond the teachings and miracles of Jesus Christ God is human also the savior of humanity. Jesus is Son of God. Major groups: Roman Catholic church, Eastern Orthodox church, and various churches of Protestantism Shift into Christianized Western Europe, Christian art becomes the dominant imagery or subject matter in Western Art. Because of that we see major events of Christ broken into themes: Major Events are broken up into major Christian themes: i.e. annunciation (when Virgin Mary learns she is pregnant), nativity, crucifixion, ascension, etc. Ultimately, Christian art was the foremost trend in Western th th Art from the 14 -18 centuries Italy in 1400 Florence and Siena are primary location focuses. Italy speaks to the influence of the ancient Romans The republics in Italy were vying for power of this region during this time. A lot of competitions, even religiously. Renaissance Definition: French, “rebirth.” The term used to describe the history, culture, and art of the 14 -16 century western Europe during which artists consciously revived the classical style Humanism Definition: In the Renaissance, an emphasis on education and on expanding knowledge (especially of classical antiquity), the exploration of individual potential and a desire to excel, and a commitment to civic responsibility and moral duty. Understanding these terms You must understand where we are coming out of at this time in the human experience specifically the Medieval Period and Dark Ages. Time of poverty and decay where renaissance and humanism spark a renewal. This moment of enlightenment came from “rumblings” rather than just over night. Little happenings that occurred rebirth. A lot of this can be accredited to Italian writers and poets. Such as Dontae: one of the most famous Italian authors. He was from Florence, Italy. He was different because unlike most writers he wrote in Florentine vernacular where as others wrote in Latin because that is what the clergy and royalty read. Allows accessibility to everyone at that time. This gave interest to scholarly pursuit. Beginning of 13 Century “Rumblings” Italian admiration for classical art surfaces early on. Fredrick ___ the II, King of Sicily, Holy Roman Emperor was in a long line of rulers who had encouraged art. Pisa Baptistery First collections of images are located within Pisa. Leaning Tower of Pisa and Pisa Baptistery When architects went back to fix the Leaning Tower of Pisa they did not put it completely vertical because they knew it would attract tourists. Located within Pisa, Italy is the Pisa Baptistery the Pulpit of the Baptistery (p.377-14.2) by Nicola Pisano, 1259-1260 Nicola Pisano was a sculptor who trained in southern Italy then traveled to Pisa for work. His work shows Fredrick the II’s interest in sculpture. He specialized in the pulpit. There are quatrefoil and trefoil arches in this work. In this sculpture are images of the life of Christ annunciation (when Virgin Mary learns she is pregnant), nativity, adoration of shepherds. Number of details that encourage rumblings. Compare Giovanni Pisano (Nicola’s son) sculpture of nativity. 1297-1301 Nicola’s depiction is a Classical Influence while Giovanni’s depiction is a French Gothic Influence. Set the stage for Proto-Renaissance Era Proto Renaissance: Proto meaning early/beginning Rumblings: Literature (Donte), Fredrick the II interested in cultivation of Roman inspired sculptures, Pisano being inspired by that as well then traveling north to Pisa for work. Studying Florence, Italy Capital of the Italian Renaissance Saint Francis Altarpiece By: Bonaventura Berlinghieri, 1235, Proto Renaissance This can be found in handout or page 378 14.5 Honoring St. Francis of Assisi, Franciscan monk 5 ½ feet tall located from originally from Pescia, Italy Rumbling Indicative of the Italo-Byzantine style Essentially the collection of images occurring the eruption of the Renaissance. Images that depict both Italian style and Byzantine. (Istanbul, Constantinople) Flat, frontal, thin figures, specific to B yzantine style, which influenced Italian artists at that time. Berlinghieri’s piece is example of this influence. Similarities: very flat, thin, floating, frontal, lack of realism, center Italian influence in the six smaller drawings around the floating man. The six drawings show medieval period influence, medieval manuscripts, hand drawn and hand made within monasteries to convert people to Christianity Markings on his hands and feet show stigmata (wounds that appear within Christian art that will appear on the body of a saint that references Christ’s crucifixion) Gold leaf: Byzantine influence, relates to religion because of rich look Paneled Madonna Enthroned with Angels and Prophets By: Cimabue, 1280-1290, Proto Renaissance Altar piece Cimabue’s original name was ____. It was common for artists to have a birth name and artist name. He was first artist to break away from Italo Byzantine style and challenging tradition Found in hand out and on page Saint Francis Altarpiece vs. Madonna Enthroned with Angels and Prophets Similarities between this and Saint Francis Altarpiece: shape, function, Comparing the two: B’s art is indicative of Byzantine style (flat, elongation, fully frontal); C’s art is stepping away from that in small ways like stronger dimensionality (Madonna and child are seated and curved, not fully frontal), definition of knees, breasts, etc. Surrounded by angels (same space and dimension of her) where as B’s art is surrounded by images that seem to be separate from him. C’s art seems to revolve around the throne; adds depth. He is exemplifying perspective and naturalism. Perspective Definition: the depiction of three dimensional objects on a two dimensional space Naturalism By artists, the close observation of the natural world; integral in the return to and influence of Classical antiquity Passing to students Cimabue passes naturalism to his student Giotto, first Renaissance artist Madonna Enthroned By: Giotto, ca. 1310, Early Renaissance First to make the first radical break from the Italo Byzantine style Took naturalism even further than Cimabue He gave figures stronger dimensionality, weighted substance Madonna Enthroned with Angels and Prophets vs. Madonna Enthroned Functioning the same, both altarpieces Use the same imagery Mary and Jesus seated at throne, looking out at views, surrounded by angels and prophets Little details: drapery (c’s: too perfectly gathers, G’s: naturalistic, more subtle, minor gathering, faint curvature Figures that surround: C’s stack around G’s in a group which is more realistic because you cannot see everyone Module One Lecture Two Early Renaissance Lamentation Type of true Fresco painting Mary is mourning the crucifixion of her son By: Giotto, 1305, Early Renaissance Small piece of artwork that is part of a larger piece that is located at the Arena Chapel in Padua, Italy All of the pieces in Arena Chapel are done by Giotto The two different shades of blue near the angels is a reminder that frescos are time consuming and take several layers of plaster. Two days work. Fresco There are two types of frescos (wall paintings) 1. Buon Fresco: also referred to as a fresco or ‘true fresco.’ A wall painting in which wet plaster is first applied to a wall, then painting is applied to wet plaster. Very durable. Most common fresco. 2. Fresco Secco: ‘dry fresco.’ A wall painting applied to a dry wall. Not as durable. Started in ancient art with the Minoans and carried throughout the ancient Greeks and Romans. Also carried through the medieval period and into the Renaissance. Ancient Egyptians used this. Temper paint is the type of paint that is used with frescos/plaster. Mixed with egg, water, etc. Powder paint. Republic of Siena Located directly south of Florthce th Very powerful during the 13 and 14 century along with Florence. Just like Florence in that it was an urban center for bakers, merchants, etc. Siena competed economically (ex. selling bread) competing to become capital of Tuscany, which Florence eventually won. Florence essentially won because the River Arno is located through and around Florence and although the River Arno is the main source of water for Siena, it is further away. Siena is known for their well system. Artists of the Senesce School (collection of artists that have the same style) of are the name of artists from Siena. Senesce School held on to Byzantine style longer than Florence artists.gop Virgin and Child Enthroned By: Duccio, 1308-1311, Early Renaissance Center panel of Maesta Altarpiece which is located at Siena Cathedral right in the heart of Siena Example of more broad theme and trend in Renaissance (Mary enthroned with Jesus with congregation around her) Uses saintly attributes, emerged in the Renaissance, depicted important figures of the Bible specifically by holding certain anecdotes that defined who they were or how they were killed. Example: in this painting Paul is holding a sword because he was decapitated while being a martyr. Matthew holding book. John the Baptist has hair shirt. Betrayal of Jesus By: Duccio, 1309-1311, Early Renaissance Detail from the back of Maesta altarpiece Uses more naturalism in the fact that there is not one person (most important person) standing above everyone else. The trees mark as where to look, one behind Jesus, Judas, etc. Annunciation altarpiece Another example from the Senesce School By: Simone Martini, 1333, Early Renaissance Located in Siena Cathedral Martini was a student of Duccio Northern imagery, Eastern (Byzantine), shapes, colors, gothic arches Annunciation, Gabriel telling Mary she is pregnant Text in Mary hand, lilies represent purity First to include multiple styles in one piece He helped found international art school (international meaning outside of Italy) Palazzo Pubblico Located at Il Campo in Siena Tower served as a lookout tower and symbol of power Towers at different levels signified power in Florence. If someone was no longer in power, their tower would be chopped so that it wasn’t the taller than the one of whom was in power. Effects of Good Government in the City and Country Located inside the Palazzo Pubblico By: Ambrogio Lorenzetti, 1338-1339, Early Renaissance Part of Lorenzetti brother team, Peitro was a brother and student of another famous artist Illustrates Senesce public concerns: turbulent politics, violent party struggles, overthrow of government Reminder of fair and just government without corruption Peaceful city: traffic moving peacefully, women dancing in the street, churches and markets that are flourishing. Displays the good that can come from a functional administration Peaceful country: farm land, peasants, crops, fattened animals that suggest fruitful and peaceful commonwealth that affects country Top left corner: security above landscape, scroll that promises safety, watches over promising to ensure safety After the late 1330s there are simply just an end to the Lorenzetti brother paintings. Assume the black death was very popular, that may have been the cause of death. ARH 253 Notes Module Two Lecture One Fifteenth Century Northern Europe: Northern Renaissance Burgundy and Flanders Flanders Region we are currently studying Belgium, France, Netherlands Flanders: name stems from medieval region, Flandria We refer to the art of Flandria as Flemish art. We must understand what was happening politically and socially during this time to better understand the art. Hundred Years War 1337-1453: Involving Kingdom of England and Kingdom of France Mainly involving Northern Europe stemming over territory Flanders emerges out of war with a new economic system: allowing for a rise in secularism (wealth outside of church control) and sometimes called a form of capitalism. Art directly reflects the things that are going on during that time. Simultaneously three important events (new political shift): o Oil based painting invented Shifts the process of art making Most artists before this time would use tempera (powder pigment mixed with egg and water, summer camp paint) paint then they started using oil paintings. o Printing press/movable type invented by Johannes Gutenberg o Both resulted in the rise of private art commissions (Commission refers to the individual who pays for the art to be created) Example is like if your parent commission an artist to paint a portrait of you and they are funding it while also having say so instead of simply buying off of gallery walls. Private art commissions: away from the church, not an altarpiece, force behind private individual. What can oil painting do? More precise detail Richer colors, intense tonality Allowed for focused clarity (clean, easy to view details) Luminosity (bright) Much smaller but has equal but more detailed image Mérode Altarpiece By: Robert Campin, ca. 1425-1428, Northern Renaissance Campin had the nickname “Master of Flamel” (region of Flanders which is where he is from) Private commission, meant to be used for household prayer Most famous piece Three paneled altarpiece: “trick tic” Three separate pieces: middle image main focus Middle: Depiction of the annunciation (when Mary finds out she is child bearing) you can notice this because of angel wings, lilies, Mary holding book of prayer. Left: Depiction of patron. Individuals who commissioned painting Right: Joseph: Jesus’ father, carpenter. Symbolism: mouse trap on table which shows Christ as bait to catch devil Northern Renaissance grows stronger in time with symbolism Fusion of secular and religious imagery: panel in the center you can notice the setting is unusual and non-tradional. It is set in a 15 century home. This is fusion of religious and secular imagery. o What does this mean? What is the function? Fuses religious and non-religious imagery It functions as more accessible to the viewer and strengthens the bond between the image and the viewer. More relatable if you can imagine it happening in your home or time period. Stronger religious bond. Private commission allows for secular and religious imagery to fuse Ghent Altarpiece By: Jan van Eyck, 1432, Northern Renaissance Most famous Netherlanders/Flemish artist First to receive international fame (outside home region) Court painter for Duke of Burgundy (Phillip the Good) Most famous piece – Largest altarpiece made during altarpiece Given credit for inventing oil painting – not believed by everyone Really detailed, lots of figures, scenes, details Entire altarpieces depicts the theme of salvation Background of work: commissioned by Judicious Vid (diplomat of court); after commission he was chosen to be chief midstride of court, commissioned art gave lot of political power Closed view: what you would see when church is not currently having service Open view: what you see when church is in service Studying Ghent Altarpiece closed view: exterior panels that depict donor on bottom, Judicious Vid and wife, St. John Baptist, annunciation In middle closed view: annunciation Top closed view: images of Old Testament figures Micah and female prophets Studying Ghent Altarpiece open view: much more luxurious because depicted during religious ceremony Very top: God at the Father seated, script above him and below him. At feet crown, worldly crown. To left of him Mary, right St. John Baptist. Adam and Eve on each side (important towards salvation, naked) and angels singing praises. Bottom panel: theme of salvation, community of saints from four corners of earth, center in the altar where there is a lamb representing sacrifice of God, left prophets, right 12 apostles. On lower wings there are hermits, pilgrims, knights, and judges. All of them coming to altar symbolizing four corners of virtue: temperance, prudence, fortitude, and justice. All comes to central theme of salvation. Giovanni Arnolfini and his Bride By: Jan van Eyck, 1434, Northern Renaissance Perfect example of fusion of religious and secular art Giovanni Arnolfini was banker who worked for Italian baking family Wife next to him Example of Northern symbolism, every object filled with symbolism Positioning of figures: man next to wall, woman by bed. Giovanni by window because he is man going out into the world to provide. Wife by bed to symbolize domestic and child bearing. Religious overtone of positions of a Christian marriage. She is not pregnant. She is to become pregnant. Clothing makes it look like she pregnant. Shoes are kicked off to denote they are standing on holy ground. Dog between them (Phito=trust) represents fidelity. Oranges represent fertility Candle represents all seeing, all knowing God Small finial behind bed depicting St. Margaret (Patron saint of child birth) Mirror: around mirror depiction of the crucifixion of Christ. Artist uses convex mirror that shows same image. Two additional people in reflection and Arnolfini has his hand raised. Quote above the mirror that says “Jan Van Eyck was here” Some say Arnolfini is giving legal meeting to give business rights to his wife while he is absent Others say sanctifying marriage because of the perfection Eyck wrote his name to remind the viewer some type of transaction has occurred. Man in a Red Turban By: Jan van Eyck, 1433, Northern Renaissance Portrait – became more popular as patrons became wealthy Different portrait because the sitter is looking at painter Very composed, detail (wrinkles, weathered eyes, vein below eye) Sitter has quality of following wherever you are within a room (same as Mona Lisa) Three quarter pose allows viewer to feel like eyes are following you We don’t know who the sitter is, some say it’s a self portrait Inscription on top says: As I can Inscription on bottom says: Jan van Eyck made me Module Two Lecture Two Northern Renaissance Deposition By: Rogier van der Weyden, 1435, Northern Renaissance He was assistant for Robert Campin Known for dynamic compositions, human action, and drama Ability to convey drama gave heightened emotional connection with viewer Paints more religious paintings than secular Fusion of religious and secular imagery (Pure Christian theme yet the people around Jesus are in contemporary clothing) Deposition takes place immediately after the crucifixion of Christ Commissioned for the church of Notre Dame outside town walls within Flanders (Ghent) Also commissioned by the archers guild of the church, Lou Vian Look at corners: there are crossbows. Crossbow is sign of archers guild who commissioned the artwork A lot of action within small space. Figures almost just out of pictures. Cannot see much of a background, no type of landscape. Large sculptural type figures A lot of emotion, look at Mary (in blue) intense agony and loss. Emotional impact. Mother who lost her son. People helping her. Few painters are able to recreate van der Weyden depiction of the deposition Portrait of a Lady By: Rogier van der Weyden, ca. 1460, Northern Renaissance Small painting, private portrait Don’t know who is depicted in this portrait Suggestions of her clothing is that she is of nobility and that she even has a portrait Insights into her personality: locked lips, tight intertwined fingers, fergility of her frame make her seem reserved. Hands folded could show prayer. Very elegant. Fashion trend: Women would pluck the hairs from their forehead to make their forehead seem larger because this was a sign of beauty. Strong connection to the viewer. Very detailed. Portinari Altarpiece Hugo van der Goes, ca. 1476, Northern Renaissance Tempura and oil painting both on wood Flemish painting made for chapel in Florence, Italy Portinari was an Italian ship owner, he commissioned this painting This painting was known for bringing oil painting to the South Oil painting was a Northern Italy thing until people saw this painting in Florence Chapel and were awestruck by the details Indicative of Flemish fame, relationship with Italy Italy had the Medache family, very wealthy banking family, because of new banking system in the North, they set up a relationship with Flemish and Netherlanders bankers. Strong economic relationship allowing for art to evolve. Van der Goes was the dean of the painters in the guild of Ghent He received his commission from Portinari, Italy Depiction is adoration of shepherds. After Christ’s birth within shepherds came to visit him Foreshadowing, Mary kneels very reserved, three shepherds on right of Mary filled with wonder and tired, architecture three panels, Iris flowers hint the death of her son that is to come, 15 angels in the artwork symbolizing the 15 joys of Mary that took place during Christ’s life, wheat by iris flowers that symbolizes the city of Bethlehem (house of bread) When placed in Florence Chapel it caused uproar. Loved detail and emotional depiction. Virgin with Saints and Angels By: Hans Memling, 1479 Central panel of St. John’s Altarpiece Memling was contemporary of van der Goes Most of Memling’s work was private commissioned by private patrons We see two angels playing music, St. John the Baptist and St. John the Evangelist flank Mary, foreground St. Catherine who had spiritual marriage with Christ, luxurious fabrics All indicative of Flemish qualities during this time January from Les Tres Riches Heures du Duc de Berry By: Limbourg Brothers, 1413-1416, Northern Renaissance France after hundred years war stayed poverty stricken Anarchies rose only making very small group of people wealthy like dukes th Sole arch patrons (dukes) in the 15 century We have plateau of artistry: Because we do not have a lot of commission there are not a lot of innovations being made in art Medieval qualities, doesn’t have as much luxurious qualities as others Example of manuscript painting, still focused on medieval roots that achieved gothic elements L Brothers, early 15 century artists, which furthered the infatuation of manuscript paintings. Good but reminds us of social and economic poverty happening during this time Depicts commissioning of the Duke of Berry. Characteristic activities of each month. Unusual provenience. Paul, Herman, and Jean who were from the Netherlands but lived and trained in Paris Melun Diptych, Etienne Chevalier, and Saint Stephen By: Jean Fouquet, ca. 1450, Northern Renaissance Emerges out of France at this time Depiction and example of images for private devotional use He was in demand as he was the artist in residence for King Charles the Seventh When we look at this work we see that the depict that we have here, there were two panels, follow details that we see present We see integration of sacred and secular imagery. Both political and personal prevalence within this image. Also see meticulous representation of pious kneeling donor with a standing patron. Virgin and Child By: Jean Fouquet, ca. 1451, Northern Renaissance Also commissioned by King Charles the Seventh Virgin and child is further suggestion of the fusion of secular and religious art Virgin in this work was the mistress of King Charles the Seventh Chevalier commissioned this painting to fulfill a vow he made after Sorel’s death in 1450. ARH 253 Notes Module Four Lecture One 16 Century High & Late Renaissance High & Late Renaissance High Renaissance: 1495-1520 o Really means middle but classifies as a climax in this time period. o Years coincide with rise of the careers and death of Leonardo (1519) and Rafael (1590) Late Renaissance: 1521-1600 Used to differentiate highs of a century The Renaissance style still dominated throughout the 16 th century, however two minor styles emerge at the end of the century: Venetian and Mannerism Leonardo da Vinci Born in Vinci (small area outside Florence) Refer to him as Leonardo Definitive Renaissance Man o What is a Renaissance Man? Jack of all trades Leonardo was a scientist, sculptor, writer, artist Interested in botany, geography, anatomy, etc. He felt as if his scientific endeavors only enhanced his art Art and Sciences have always been together You couldn’t be a good artist without understanding scientist You couldn’t depict a human body without knowing how to represent it and how it works Leonardo was truly an innovator Madonna of the Rocks By: Leonardo da Vinci, 1483, High Renaissance Can be found in The Louvre Simple oil on wood We see it has a lot of details that become indicatives of innovations Center panel of Immaculate Conception in Milan Emotionally compelling, emotive, unified, strong spatial relationship Ariel perspective: background behind Mary is blurred, depth Figures are in pyramid Mary in center, Christ to Mary’s right in blessing pose, John the Baptist on the left, and angel on right pointing at John Fact that they are all pointed to one another suggests unification, circular quality Landscape is important in this painting Lighting: Leonardo used sfumato, has an overall haziness to it Leonardo’s Innovations Pyramidal grouping: figures placed in pyramid shaped formation to suggest order and symmetry which relates to the Renaissance Sfumato: Italian meaning “smoky”; haziness that softens outlines in paintings; applied to Leonardo’s works exclusively Last Supper By: Leonardo, 1495-1498, in Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan, High Renaissance Made of oil painting Leonardo love oil painting because of the minute details it allowed Fresco secco (instead of created with wet plaster) meaning dry fresco He thought he could substitute the egg with oil paint Fresco seccos are not as durable and this was no exception because it began to deteriorate almost immediately 1999 began restoration of this painting Only 20-30% is the original art belonging to Leonardo after restoration The scene is located in refectory (dining hall) of monastery Formal, emotionally intriguing Depicts the moment after Christ saying one of you is about to betray me talking about Judas Disciples are shocked Christ is calm and head is framed by window Vanishing point is at Christ’s head Judas clutching money bag as sign of his betrayal Gets more intense as it grows closer to Christ Trinitarian symbolism: groupings of images of three symbolizing the Christian trinity Disciples are broken up into groups of three, windows in three all representing Trinitarian symbolism Mona Lisa By: Leonardo, 1503-1505, High Renaissance Arguably the most famous painting Located within the Louvre Mysterious work Mystery behind her is her identity, eye contact, and landscape behind her Her identity is still unknown, Gergio Vecarsi said her name is Lisa, but he cannot be trusted because he wrote biographies were not always true Mona short hand of Madonna meaning My Lady – My Lady Lisa Non traditional portrait because traditionally portraits represented wealth with jewelry, elegant fabrics She is far from that because she has no jewelry, hands folded, etc. She makes eye contact with the viewer, three quarter pose Background is very other worldly, middle earth, whimsical Leonardo’s innovations are included Raphael Born as Raffaello Sanzio Born in Umbria, SW part of Italy Father was a painter Incorporated Leonardo style and created his own Madonna in the Meadow By: Raphael, 1505-1506, High Renaissance Leonardo’s pyramidal grouping Different because the color is bright, no sign of sfumato Commissioned by Pope Julius II School of Athens (Philosophy) 1509-1511, High Renaissance One of Raphael’s most famous paintings Located within the Vatican within the Stanza della segnatura - which means ‘room of the signatures’ – Pope’s private library Raphael was commissioned to paint all four walls Four walls each had theme of their own: theology, law, poetry, and philosophy – each represent four branches of thought or Western knowledge These four aspects are a reminder of the Pope himself School: collection of craftsmen, artists, thinker Two main ones are highlighted in the middle by a vast hall which are Plato and Aristotle We see Plato on left with his hand raised to heavens – Plato pointing the heavens shows his inspirations – Plato holds book Tameus – surrounded by philosophers: Donate Aristotle on the right with his hands positioned towards the Earth – Carries his book of ethics, speaks of his interest of worldly matter, surrounded by philosophers, scientists: Pathagerous, Galileo Elegant poses Raphael placed himself on the mathematics side of the painting See individual depicted which is Plato has been modeled after Leonardo Michelangelo is Heraclitus Michelangelo known for having bad attitude Module Four Lecture Two High & Late Renaissance: Michelangelo Michelangelo In School of Athens he is represented very melancholy pose, head down, arm rested on his head Known for his bad attitude, argumentive Born in Tuscany Associate him with being a Renaissance Man because he was a painter, engineer, poet, architect He thought of himself as a sculptor Sculptors think sculpting is more important because of the 3D Pietá By: Michelangelo, 1498-1500, High Renaissance Located within St. Peters in Rome Christ dying in Mary’s arms after he had been crucified Humanizing image, very emotional scene Created early in his career for Vatican Movement, emotion, luminous Christ seems childlike in her arms, she is twice his size: This tells us that Christ is still Mary’s son Wounds hardly visible Mary is youthful, beautiful. She is representation of the church Created this when he was 21 years old before he was well known People saw it and were amazed and there is a sash across Mary’s chest that says “Michelangelo made me” David By: Michelangelo, 1501-1504, High Renaissance Located in Accademia within Florence Important figure within Florence Commissioned after left over piece of marble One of the most famous Renaissance sculptures How is Michelangelo’s David different? o Donatello, Verrocchio comparison o Michelangelo’s is very different o Chose to depict the moment before David killed Goliath o There is no head or sword o David is more vulnerable, pensive, contemplative, psychologically intense o Him before he is a hero and we can connect with him as a young man, thoughtful. He is thinking about what is about to take place Michelangelo perfectly created David, he is perfectly proportioned Neo-Platonism: builds upon Plato’s theories of beauty and the natural world, heavy theory but important to Renaissance The Medici family, Michelangelo, were followers of Neo-Platonism Idealized body – God given beauty – Spiritually idealized body – Spirituality Only beautiful things come from the natural world because it comes from God Neoplatonic ideal Neo-Platonism rises during the Renaissance The only thing that is not proportionate about Michelangelo’s David are his hands. They are twice the size they should be. Indicative of the Hand of God The Sistine Chapel One of the most famous characteristics is the Sistine ceiling which was done by Michelangelo Commissioned under Pope Julius II Story behind it is that Michelangelo was asked in the middle of a project to come to Rome to do this for Pope Julius II and painting was not his favorite Ceiling was about 5800 square feet, 70 feet high Located in Vatican City, Rome Began in 1508 and only took 4 years to complete High Renaissance Michelangelo had a lack of enthuse 300 figures, very complex Central theme: conflict between good and evil Narrative from Genesis: starting with separation of light and darkness, ending with drunkenness of Noah Four corners are Old Testament stories of David, Judith, Homman, and Moses You view the reverse fall of man when you see it now Private chapel for Pope Julius the II We see that it has an incredibly complex depiction Creation of Adam Detail of the Sistine Chapel ceiling, by Michelangelo,1511-1512, High Renaissance Very nontraditional representation Humanist God reaches out to Adam Touch is out of center Curvature of Adam’s body is eye drawing Adam’s body is proportionate which representative of the Neoplationic ideal The Sistine Ceiling restoration project One of the most well known conservation projects 1977-1989 massive cleaning project The colors we now see are vivid, luminous Post cleaning we see Michelangelo was an avid colorists Controversial because of the color after the restoration Cleaning process took a while because they had to remove grime The glaze used by artist during this time attracts dirt and grime Tomb of Guilano de’ Medici By: Michelangelo, in Medici Chapel in Florence, 1519-1534, Late Renaissance Indicative of his work with the Medici family Unfinished work Dedicated to Guliano Medici Hyper muscular, hyper physical figures Michelangelo was fascinated by human form Michelangelo and the Vatican Protestant Reformation: o Martin Luther (German monk) in 1519, wrote out his dissatisfaction/theses (95) with the Roman Catholic Church o Indicative of growing dissatisfaction which came to head in 1519 o Problem with Paul III: leadership and policies Main issue with Church: o Selling of indulgences (pardons for sins, reducing time spent in Purgatory for the exchange of money) o Nepotism (clergy appointment of relatives to important jobs/positions) o Clergy members were pursuance of personal wealth by clergy members Michelangelo in the midst of it. Moment of evolution evolve in his works. Pre and post reformation. The Last Judgment By: Michelangelo, at altar of Sistine Chapel, Vatican, Rome, 1536- 1541, Late Renaissance Indicative of change in pre-post reformation Commissioned by Pope Paul III Painting done post reformation during counter reformation Counter reformation lead by Roman Catholic church and Pope Paul III to restore Catholics Painting has extreme Christian imagery Christ is judge of the world; giant figure in damnation of the people around him Mary is to left of Christ in fear Hyper colossal figures Michelangelo was demanded to cover figures up with cloths There are saint surrounding Christ and Bartholomew. He has knife and his skin because he was slayed alive. Self-portrait of Michelangelo. Michelangelo incorporated cardinal in the painting who constantly jabbed at him about his work Module Four Lecture Three High & Late Renaissance: Venetian Art & Mannerism Venetian Art Distinctive style produced by the artists in Venice Easy to distinguish Tendencies towards soft colored palettes and landscape subject matter Venice has distinct identity, even today, especially in art Pastoral Symphony Artist still unknown by some think it was Giorgione/Titian Ca. 1508-1510, Venetian Soft figures, country landscape, paradise, praising beauty, love, music, and poetry Figures nude, possibly allegorical figures Smoky shadow to the whole art piece The Tempest By: Giorgione, 1510, Venetian Located within the Academia Poetic qualities, lush landscape Biblical narrative vs. mythology narrative We don’t really know what is going on There used to be a nude woman standing where man is on left Stormy skies threaten the day Woman nursing baby as a man looks on The overall theme of soft tonalities remind us it is Venetian Assumption of the Virgin By: Titian, 1516-1518, Venetian Titian was supreme colorists Light, colors emerge Accent of the virgins body going to heaven Detail of angels: putti – young boy/cupid like Venus of Urbino By: Titan, 1538, Venetian Located in Florence now Called that because commissioned by the Duke of Urbino Thought to be martial portrait We called her reclining nude He has implemented reinvention of reclining nude Luxurious Lap dog symbolizes fidelity Servants gathering things from chest in the back, these chests associate with marriage: this allows us to know it was a marital portrait The Mannerist Movement Emerged in the 1520s as a reaction to the Renaissance style The term mannerism comes from maniera meaning style or manner Characteristics: peculiar, weird, no naturalism, stylized, imbalanced, ambiguity (Notion of Artifice) Artifice being it has artificial work Entombment of Christ By: Pontormo, 1525-1528, Mannerism Exploitation of Eerie colors, ghoulish figures, contorted bodies, lack of naturalism Christ being carried to his tomb and people are on their tippy toes Madonna with the Long Neck By: Parmigianino, 1534-1540, Mannerism Type of elegant style seen here Mary is huge, small head, long neck, long fingers She hold Christ in her lap and he is large, lifeless Group of angels in scene with a sexy leg to the left Here have never seen it before like this Traditional theme is distorted Venus, Cupid, Folly, and Time By: Bronzino, ca. 1546, Mannerism Student of famous painter Pontormo Gift for the King of Italy from France Indicative of allegory Strange image Cupid in center with his mother Right is Folly who showers them with petals Figure unveils the theme Understanding that love when accompanied with evil and with time all will come to light soon with folly Weird because cupid is touching his mother’s breasts ARH 253 Module Five 16 Century Northern Europe Northern Renaissance 16 Century Northern Europe There were four major nations at this time: Spain, France, Holy Roman Empire, and Italy Continuation of the Northern Renaissance At this time Spain is the dominant superpower in Europe: o Calculated marriages o Territorial expansion o Trade acceleration Also happening cultural: o Christian Humanism: focus on education of spiritual literature and knowledge; attempted to connect Christianity and humanism o Protestant Reformation led for divide between Protestants and Catholics o Most famous Christian Humanist: airaspus, Sir Thomas Moore (Council Hennery the Eighth) Known as Golden Age of Spain Isenheim Altarpiece By: Matthias Grunewald, 1510-1515, Northern Renaissance From Holy Roman Empire German originated He was court painter Created for the Saint Anthony Isenheim Hospital which was a monastic hospital This is a very complex reflection of Catholic beliefs Suffering, disease, also healing, hope, and salvation Open view and closed view Open view: o Central image of a carving by sculptor Hagneiur o Guilded o Chromed figures of Anthony, Abbott, Austine, and St. Jerome o Surrounding those images on each side are upsetting images o Right: image of temptations, demons, man dying of disease (argotism: fungus on rye, most prevalent disease at this hospital) o Left: meeting of Saint Anthony and Paul, Saint Anthony is health and wise, references to strength o Seen when religious ceremony was in process Closed view: o Crucifixion in center o Left: Saint Sebastian, his saintly attributes (arrows, speared to death) o Right: Saint Anthony, solemnly depicted o Bottom: Pre-Della which is lamentation of Christ, mourning of Christ o What would be seen by people while service is not occurring Albrecht Durer Leading artist in 16 century Holy Roman Empire Known as Christian humanist Northern European print maker Durer and humanism: o Traveled to Italy to focus on Italian art o Began to understand Italian Renaissance (human proportion) o Became leading Christian humanist He left readable autobiography (diaries, pictures, etc.) Fall of Man (Adam and Eve) By: Albrecht Durer, 1504, Northern Renaissance Example of engraving Engraving: determine to be print making technique, carved into metal plate then inked and printed Quintessential Christian humanist image o How so? We have combo of Christian subject matter o Look at body of Adam and Eve: exactitude, combining it with biblical subject matter Very small; 9 by 7” Depiction of interest in Vitruvius theory of Human proportions Idealized, classical focused, naturalism Eve holds apple Genetalia covered with leaves Before reformation, midst of growing dissatisfaction We see cholera cat, mouse, sanguine rabbit, elk, phlegm ox - which are the four humours Developed by Hippocrates, the basic theory of the body’s functionality – the balance of each equals good health Understanding that these four body fluids (cholera, melchonia, black bile, yellow bile, and blood) when they are in balanced levels the body is healthy, if they are not balanced then it leads to disease We see cat and mouse (Tom and Jerry) tension; relationship of Adam and Eve, growing tension between them within the Garden of Eden Knight, Death, and the Devil By: Albrecht Durer, 1513, Northern Renaissance Engraving – metal plate We see that this is more complex image, complex technique Multiple tonalities and textures Depicted: Mounted knight, armed Forboating landscape: something very ominous, frightening to viewer Knight is Christian knight, armed with faith Death- we see suggestion of death riddled with snake and hour glass (mortality and death) Devil- horned figure following him Knight is not affected by all that is around his (evil, death) because he is armed with faith and God Muscular and anatomy (humanism) and biblical story (Christian) Ephesians Quintessential human work Very obvious came a decade later (progression of technique) comparison to Fall of Man Battle of Issus By: Albrecht Altdorfer, 1529, Northern Renaissance Battle of Issus is Alexander the Great defeated Persian King Darius III in the 4 century BCE – seen as triumphant war of Alexander the Great’s career Commissioned by Duke of Bavaria – while in midst of tension with the Turks Banner above reiterates what is being represented Armored figures Most present? Landscape: awe inspiring, mountain, water, winds (natural world) We see a moon and a sun The French Ambassadors By: Hans Holbein (the younger), 1533, Northern Renaissance He was very famous artist during this time Anti dramatic (compared to Durer) He was court painted for Henery the Eighth Very strong composition, linear patterning, beautiful colors French ambassadors: humanists because scrolls, globe, etc. their fabric is rich and luxurious which indicates wealth On the bottom we see anamorphic image (defined as a distorted image; look through mirror at an angle) which is a skull that indicates death Garden of Earthly Delights By: Hieronymus Bosch, 1505-1510, Northern Renaissance Indicative of 16 century Netherland-ish image Netherlands were very prosperous land at this time due to trade, land, and commerce; however they under control of th Spain in the second half of the 16 century, large population became Protestant Bosch imaginative artist rose to international fame with this work Triptych that indicates a wedding in fantasy world Nude men, women, sexual focus, animals Read from left to right Left: God presenting Eve to Adam, Garden of Eden; fruits and birds surround them that represent fertility Center: nude people, bizarre creatures, peculiar image, frolicking in open body of water, flying contraptions – shocking image, overwhelming shocking during this time Right: horrors of hell, beastly creatures, two ears with sharp knife, toad like figure over whole scene Become an image in pop culture embraced: book, TV, commercials Netherlandish Proverbs By: Pieter Bruegel, 1559, Northern Renaissance Seen as most famous Netherlandish painter in this time Humans and nature Human activity is dominant Multiple scenes of anecdotes Crowded village from birds eye view Every scene filled with different proverb Clever imagery Hypocrisy depicted Figure beating head against wall; ambitious idiot Short sided fool, shoots arrows and hits nothing Don’t put baby out without bath water Hunters in the Snow By: Peter Bruegel, 1565, Northern Renaissance Series of 6 paintings (maybe 12) Highlighting seasons Winter scene Depicted harsh winter in 1565 Women prepare fire Church enclosed in snow Chinese landscape maybe Burial of Count Orgaz By: El Greco, 1586, Northern Renaissance Indicative of 16 century banish imagery Spain: becomes superpower Isabella and Ferdinand married during this time Imagery such as this become symbol of Spanish commissions El Greco (the Greek), immigrated to Italy, settled in Spain Colors are reminder of Venetian colors (luminous) He worked under Titan Depicted division between two plains Below in earth (terrestrial) two saints lower the counts body In heavenly realm we see bountiful figures Both separation and unity Busy work ARH 253 Module Six – Part One 17 Century Italy and Spain - Southern Baroque Period Southern Baroque Period Characteristics Happens during the 7 century Baroque – irregularly shaped pearl (style of this and Italian Renaissance) This is a reaction to action Emotional complexity Lots of movement Drama (in subject and in color) – heightened sense of Theatricality Psychological intensity Dynamic Intense naturalism Powerful visual rhetoric – images that speak to the viewer because they are so powerful Why do we see this dramatic art emerge? o Art commissioned to restore the predominance and centrality of the RCC – renewed energy in the church (Reformation and Counter Reformation) Gianlorenzo Bernini Child prodigy Born in 1598 Sculptor and architect First discovered by B. family Gift from God First masterpieces were created at 8 Pope Urban the 8 patroned him a lot Obvious of use of baroque style David By: Gianlorenzo Bernini, 1623, Southern Baroque Marble sculpture In Villa bor gaze; museum within Rome Named after Borgaze family Quintessentially baroque depiction of David How did Bernini make his David baroque? o Moment depicted Bernini’s David is caught in the middle of the fight with Goliath There is drama, intense, very pure sense of movement and fluidity Face, legs, hair, torso are all intense His toes gripped tightly onto the pedestal Detail of movement, dramatically He is twisting and contorting Furrowed brow, intense face, windblown hair Indicative of baroque style Façade of Saint Peter’s By: Carlo Maderno, Vatican City, Italy, 1606-1612, Southern Baroque Renewed interest of Roman Catholics Largest Christian structure in the world rd Dates back to 3 century C.E. and did not last Pope Paul the 5 commissioned Maderno to complete this work in 1606 The façade is the last to be done Michelangelo commissioned to do the clock towers Part of aftermath of Counter Reformation He was restricted because much of it was completed He moved it back Bernini was apart of this project as well Vatican City is in the center of Rome Own city, own government St. Peter’s is the apex of the city Saint Peter’s Piazza By: Bernini, Vatican City, Italy, 1656-1667, Southern Baroque After Maderno completed the façade, Bernini was hired to created Piazza Obalesque, in the center, was brought from Egypt was the only restriction 4 rows of Tuscan columns inspired to have dramatic appearances Resembles open arms: body of church then arms reaching out giving opening embrace to the viewers and visitors Sacred space, not only religious, you know when you see it. You become quiet and walk slower. Seen in this place. Bernini allows for visitors to get ready to go into structure Creates optical illusion – there is small plaque and when you stand on center, all rows line up and if you turn 360 degrees you only see first of columns, allowed for stronger bond Interior of Saint Peter’s Huge Chapels Works located Fluidity and movement that are proclamation of Southern Baroque Baldacchino By: Bernini, Saint Peter’s, Vatican City, Italy, 1624-1633, Southern Baroque Commissioned by Pope Urban the Eighth Canopy like structure 100 feet high (eight story building) First marks place of St. Peter’s original tomb Pope Urban the Eighth was a member of the Barberini Family (who commissioned this work) o Bees were their family symbol o We see bees surrounding on column o Medici family had Loral and oranges Duality of purpose: functional and symbolic o Functional: grave marker for St. Peter o Dramatic welcome to visitors o Symbolic: mediator between man and God o It is first speaks to power of Roman Catholic church Reflective of foundation of Catholic faith Intercesorship – man becomes closer to God through priest Organic, lively, very detailed Ecstasy of Saint Teresa By: Bernini, Santa Maria della Vittoria, Rome, Italy, 1645-1652 Combination of architecture, sculpture, and painting Symptomatic of Southern Baroque period Fresco, stucco, stained glass, marble, bronze all seen here Focal point: Saint Teresa and an angel Saint Teresa was 16 century Spanish nun, mystical saint from Spanish Counter Reformation Father had died and she wrote of a trend of events that followed, falling into trances, hearing voices, etc. She writes an angel that pierced her with a golden sphere visited her. Transverberation Angel pierces Teresa, immense joy and ecstasy of God Her face is meant to symbolize spiritual ecstasy but is translated to physical ecstasy and this is problematic (sexually explicit) Within work there are people watching it, Corona cardinals sitting and watching this explicit arousal Notion of the spectacle, we see confrontation with private vs. public space ARH 253 Module Six – Part Two Continuation of Southern Baroque: Italy and Spain Caravaggio Born in Caravaggio His first name was Michelangelo Very outspoken about his hatred of classical masters Did not support tradition that was growing at this time (Academia in Venice, Florence, etc.) – You would copy works by famous artists Some called him anti Christ of painting – bad attitude He killed his tennis opponent one time because he got mad at him Conversion of Saint Paul By: Caravaggio, ca. 1601, Southern Baroque Quientessital example of Caravaggio’s work We see two things: o Chiaroscuro: treatment of the contrast of light and dark In any art by any artists o Tenebrism: painting in a shadowy manner with violent contrasts of light and dark; almost exclusively applies to Caravaggio Specific to Caravaggio Painted overall shadowy manner with bright white punches of light Conveys dramatcism Story of Apostle of Paul; he was Roman individual Pharisee, on way to Damascus he had a vision of God that knocked him onto his back and blinds him, he envisions himself with God and becomes a Christian (Psaul into Paul) He was martyred by being decapitated which is why he is normally seen with a sword Doesn’t look like spiritual moment Paul is thrown off horse and looks like he is about to be trampled on We have both chiaroscuro and tenebrism Low horizon line – perspective, way in which Paul is so low to the ground and you become apart of dramatic intensity Calling of Saint Matthew By: Caravaggio, 1597-1601, Southern Baroque Biblical scene Indicative of naturalism; refer to as ability to bring a contemporary viewpoint to the image itself Essentially we have calling of Saint Matthew where Christ summons Levi; Levi was tax collector, Christ was calling him to come join him Matthew (Levi at the time) on the far left Taking place in contemporary environment They have feathers in their caps which is contemporary Line created with contrast of light and dark which points viewers eye right at Matthew Christ’s hand referencing Adam Artemisia Gentileschi Her father was a painter Well known female painter of 17 century First woman admitted to Florence Academia Judith Slaying Holofernes By: Artemisia Gentileschi, ca. 1614-1620 BCE, Southern Baroque Refer to as Caravaggisti (followers of Caravaggio) Comparing images by Caravaggio and Gentileschi: treatment of light and dark, tenebrism present (don’t call it that), low horizon line We see Judith slaying Holofernes He invites her to his tent where Judith begins to distract him and she cuts his head off Very graphic, hyper dramatic Proclamation of Judith’s strength She is hyper interested in heroic females (artist) She paints same scene a lot Artist had art tutor who seduced her and he took her virginity then said he wouldn’t marry her – she sued Tatsi because taking her virginity and not marrying her made her undesirable to other suitors – she did this for financial stability Las Meninas (The Maids of Honor) By: Velazquez, 1656, Southern Baroque 17 century Spain Spain starts to struggle because of economic woes in Thirty Years War The idea being that you keep up façade of wealth by commissioning more paintings Velazquez was commissioned by the Spanish court Hung o
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