History of Native Americans-Second Half
History of Native Americans-Second Half HIS 104
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Native Americans and the Civil War Era October 13th I. Native Americans and the Civil War North versus South: Civil War 20,000 Native Americans participated in the war but fought for both the Union and Confederate side. Many more sided with the Confederacy than the Union. The reason is because most Indians lived in Oklahoma, the Cherokees, Choctaws, creeks, etc. Why they sides with the South Most tribes living in Oklahoma came from south/east. This is the region that became the Confederacy. Many tribes were extremely mad at the federal government for policy of Indian removal (Trail of Tears in Georgia). Some Indians owned slaves and took them with them when moved to Indian lands. Once Civil War began, the Confederacy sent agents to Indian countries to side with the south. The union did not do that; they actually wanted them to stay out of the war. The agents signed treaties with tribes and these treaties allied them with the confederacy over the union. In these treaties the confederacy promised to pay all union debts that the tribes had. For example, if the tribe had been promised annuities, the confederacy agreed to pay. If might have not worked out but they still promised to do that. Second, they promised to protect all tribes. Third, they said the Indians could physically be represented in the Confederate congress. Indians could take part in the house and senate. Despite the fact that they signed these treaties, there was still prounion and pro confederate. The elite of the nation that owned slaves was proconfederacy. They pushed to sign the treaties. The nonslave holders sided with the union or stayed neutral. Once Indians took sides, they fought in two civil wars. The first civil war is between the north and the south. A mini civil war within Indian Territory between the south and Oklahoma. Different factions of the same tribe fought each other. They fought because of precivil war issues. Because of the pro and anti treaties in the Treaty of Echota. After the civil war ended, Indian country was a huge mess. The economy was pretty much destroyed. Homes were burnt, livestock was stolen. Second, the political situation was a disaster, it was anarchy. Third and finally, there was a huge population decline. 60,000 Native Americans before war and 6,00010,000 died as a result of the two wars. Those who didn’t die fled the violence in Indian country. Once the union won, some Indians supported the Confederacy so they used that as an excuse to get Indian country. This was used as a punishment. Took place during the civil war but not necessarily related to the war: II. The Dakota War of 1862 (In Minnesota) Here are some positives for the Indians who were not living in Oklahoma. Less settlers moving onto Indian country. There was a decline in federal troops in the western regions of the United States. They sent them to fight in the South. Some tribes thought this was a good time to rebel. Troops are gone; maybe they can get their land back. o Causes Land loss beginning in the 1830’s the Dakotas had lost their land to the United States. Settlers supported Land cessions where they thought the land was really good for farming. Timber Company’s wanted Dakota lands so they could use the timber. This ended in 1851; the Dakotas signed two treaties with the United States that took all the lands in MN. The treaty of Travers Dessioux and Treaty of Mendota. Historians called these treaties a monstrous conspiracy. Another example of unfair treaties. Two reasons why they were unfair o After the treaties were negotiated, the federal government set up three tables and said the treaties were all the same. The second table had a trader’s paper and it said “ all the money they received for the land will be given to traders”. Signed something they did not want to. o The treaty promised the Dakotas a permanent reservation in Minnesota. They would not have to leave to Oklahoma. But when the treaty was to be ratified, Congress said no the permanent reservation. They could move there, but they knew they were not allowed to stay there for good. This leads to the Dakota War. In August of 1862, The Dakotas went to war. They did so by attacking frontier settlements around southern Minnesota. Despite the fact the Civil war was going on, Abe Lincoln sent troops to put down the rebellion of the Dakotas. The fighting lasted for 6 weeks and the Dakotas were eventually defeated. Following the war, all Dakotas were placed in prison camps. The men were at Mankato, MN and the women, children and the elderly were placed in Fort Snelling. The men were put on trail, about 400 men for war crimes (murdering settlers). 303 were found guilty and sentenced to be hung. During the trails there were no translators, lasted 5 minutes or less and there was a problem with names. If you were a firstborn boy you received the name Chaske and later you would be given a name based on a personal characteristic. This confused many trials because there was 300 Chaske’s and they didn’t know which one was which. Twoman commission Abe Lincoln made commission to look at the trial and make sure they were actually committed. He decreased the number to 39 but actually 38 were hung. Largest mass execution in history. Everyone hung at the same time. Removed all the men, women, and children from Minnesota. The men who were held were held in prison for three more years in Davenport Iowa and the families were moved to the Crow creek reservation in South Dakota. III. The Sand Creek Massacre (1864) Depressing time period, one of the events that historians take about because of how unfair the Indian policy was. 1858 Gold was discovered in Colorado. Despite the fact that the civil war was going on, thousands of people were moving to the west because of the gold. The Cheyenne were the Native Americans who lived in this region. They tried to remain peaceful when all these settlers were moving in. Example: Black Kettle went to Washington DC in 1861 and told the government he wants peace. He was given a big United States flag, symbol that he made contact with the government and promised to stay peaceful. Despite this fact, the settlers were getting nervous. Things became worse in 1864, when some Cheyenne and other Indians attacked the gold settlement. Even though it was some Cheyenne, the settlers blamed it on all. Black Kettle went to Denver to talk to the governor and he said it was just a small number of Cheyenne and the vast majority still wanted peace. The government had a plan that Black Kettle and his people would move to Sand Creek and the government would protect them. They moved but at the same time General Chivington was placed in charge of troops in the region. He was called the fighting person because he had militated views on how the Indians should be treated. “ All Indians should be killed.” November 29, 1864, Chivington attacked the settlement at Sand Creek. Black Kettle was there and he was shocked. He took a white flag that meant peace and the American flag, but they still attacked. Over 150 Indians were killed, a lot were women and children. The men were out hunting, so there weren’t many men to kill. Chivington mutilated the bodies. They were scalped, used knives and destroyed women. The congressional committee said to was unjustified and they called it a massacre. But no one was brought to justice for this. Nothing happened to Chivington. IV. The Navajo Long Walk (1864) (New Mexico) Like the Dakotas, the Navajos saw the Civil War as an opportunity. Now would be a good time to rebel. They attacked settlers and military outposts. It wasn’t a full blown war, more kind of raids. The army sent Kit Carson to put down the uprising against the Navajos. His mission was to put down the uprising and move the Navajos onto a reservation. They refused, he began a campaign against them by destroying livestock, buildings, burned food stores. Eventually they worked and the Navajos were moved to reservations. The movement was called the Long Walk. (Similar to Trail of Tears) 8,000 Navajos had to walk 300400 miles to there new home that was called Basque Redondo. They did not have adequate supplies. 200 Navajos died along the walk because of condition and lack of supplies. The new reservation was a terrible place. It was incredibly isolated and almost like a prison camp. They had poor water. They only water was a river that was contaminated. A large amount of the population got sick. The soil was poor. It was not good for growing crops and the Navajos were supposed to be civilized farmers. The Navajos planted crops but were destroyed from drought and worms. They had a problem with the Comanche’s; they lived there without asking them. They were on the reservation for 4 years, very high death rate. After 4 years they were allowed to return home because of the poor conditions. But their numbers were much declined. th October 15 The Lakota’s and the War for the Plains, 18651890 I. Introduction: Why talk about the Lakota’s? Timeframe? After the civil war to the late 19 century. Focuses on the Lakota’s because they provide context for the story “My people the Sioux”. The second reason is because the late 19 century was a time for war on the plains and as they lost they were moved to reservations. The Lakota’s fought war, lost wars and moved. II. The Treaty of Fort Laramie (1868) Background Gold: after the civil war, gold was discovered in Montana, so people wanted to get to the gold. No easy way, no trails and no water way. So the government decided to build a trail called Bozeman Trail. It would run from Fort Laramie (SE section of Wyoming) to Montana. These trails ran through the Lakota country and through the Black Hills. The Black Hills were sacred to the Lakota’s and they called them the Paha Sapa, which translates to the heart of where everything is. It was a big deal because they didn’t want people building forts. The Lakota’s went to war in 18661867 called the Red Cloud wars. Red Cloud led it. These wars were very successful for the Lakota’s. The Lakota’s embarrassed them sometimes. To stop the attacks, the US agreed to negotiate with the Lakota. This led to the Treaty of Fort Laramie, which was ratified in 1868. Both sides agreed to end war and live in peace. Multiple agreements over Lakota lands. First the US agreed to abandon the Bozeman Trail. The treaty guaranteed the Lakota’s the Black Hills. The government set aside a reservation called the “Great Sioux Reserve”. Indians were supposed to move to this reserve but hunt off the reserve. They did not have to stay on it if they did not want to. The government provided funds for civilizing the Lakota’s. To contrast schools, become farmers. No revisions were supposed to be made to the treaty unless ¾ of the adult, male Lakota’s agreed that the treaty should be made. III. Renewed Pressures on the Lakota’s Things were changing that created problems for the Lakota’s. 1869First trans continental railroad was completed: this means that this brings more settlers in to challenge their land The buffalo were decimated. The buffalo formed the key part of their culture and food. In 1865 there were 1215million buffalo and by 1885 there was only 100. American hunters killed them, where they thought it was a sport. So how are the Lakota’s going to survive now? Gold was discovered in the Black Hills in 1874. IV. Renewed Warfare on the Plains So, as gold came in. The US made the first move and said they would buy the Black Hills. Lakota’s said absolutely not. The US said they are going to take them anyways, they sent troops to protect the minors. They also sent an ultimatum saying the Lakota’s had to stay on their reservation by January 1876. After that date, if they didn’t move they would be kept hostile. At this time the Lakota’s divided them to figure out what they want to do. Red Cloud reburts his thinking and now advocated peace because he knew they were going to lose again. Younger warriors such as Sitting Bull and Crazy Bull wanted resistance. They thought the only way to respond is to go to war. WAR BREAKS OUT Lakota’s did well by defeating the US military. Crazy Horse led warriors and won the battle of Rosebud. The battle of little big horn was led by Custard and they won again. Despite their victories, they were in trouble. They had trouble winning the overall war. The problem was the Lakota’s needed time off to hunt and gather food to feed their families. The government did not give them any time to do this. Lakota resistance ended in 18761877 through attrition. The Lakota’s could not continuously respond to the US pressures. They lost their main leaders. Crazy Bull died in 1877 and Sitting Bull fled to Canada. THE LAKOTAS LOST THE WAR V. A New “Agreement” for Lakota Lands (187677) THIS IS THE REVISED TREATY After the Lakota’s lost, a new agreement was made. Why agreement instead of treaty? In 1871, the treaty system ended. It ended because treaties assumed that Native American tribes were nations. Beginning with Andrew Jackson, many people said that Indian tribes are not nations. Secondly. According to the treaty system it was the Senate that ratified treaties and the House was very upset about this. So, now both Houses of Congress would ratify treaties. All this led to a new agreement that was produced in 1876 and ratified in 1877. This agreement overthrew the treaty of Fort Laramie. Even into the present day, the Lakota’s see this as the most unfair and false agreement. They lost the Black Hills entirely under this new agreement. Great Sioux Reserve was much smaller and broken into small independent reservations. Only 10% agreed to these revisions so this is why it was so unfair. The 10% were starved at the time because the government cut off all rations. They were also forced to sign this agreement at gunpoint. VI. The Ghost Dance and Wounded Knee Now the Lakota’s are on small reservations and lost the Black Hills. Suffered from poverty, alcoholism and loss of land. A new reservation swept through. This new religion gave people to opportunity to help them. It was called the Ghost Dance Religion. It started with a tribe called Paiute from Nevada. Wovoka who was a Paiute in Nevada at the time founded that. They said: No alcohol, live in peace, and perform circle dance all the ghost dance. It promised that the white man would disappear, they would be reunited with ancestors and that they buffalo would return. This was not a precursor to war. They truly believed in it. From the perspective of Indian agents, they were planning military resistance. Tensions grew on the Pine Ridge reservation. In 1890, tensions grew when the government wanted to arrest Sitting Bull when he came back, but they just killed them. Two weeks after his death, the army massacred 300 men, women and children in Wounded Knee. Many of the people were wounded because of winter conditions so they froze to death. WARFARE ENDED AND LAKOTA’S LOST AGAIN VII. Into the Present Day Resistance continued and continues into the present day. Lakota’s want the black hills back. In 1980, the Sioux sued the US government. It made it to the Supreme Court and it was called the US vs. Sioux Nation of Indians. This case said that 1977 agreement was wrong. They ruled in favor of the Lakota’s. The Supreme Court did not order the government to return the black hills, they told them to pay them for it. They said they had to pay for the lands value in 1877 plus interest. It turned out to be 570 million dollars. The Lakota’s said it was too low but they just wanted their land back so they refused the settlement. Into the present day the money still gathers interest in Washington. Other plans: There was a plan to get back 1.3 million acres back to the Lakota’s. It was defeated through some senator and never went through. Terms: Treaty of Fort Laramie (1868 and 1876), Ghost Dance and Wounded Knee (1890) Mount Rushmore located in the Black Hills. “Kill the Indian and Save the Man,” Federal Indian Boarding Schools, 18701924 I. Introduction Indian reformers: thought they were saving the Indians by Americanizing them. They will convert them into Christianity and civilizing them. How to Kill the Indian and Save Man: Send Indian children to federally funded boarding schools. By breaking up the reservations which was known as the Dawes Act of 1887 II. The First Indian School A. Early Indian Schools Some issues: Were not publicly funded. Instead they were run by missionary organizations. Most of these were day schools that were located on or near the reservations. As Indian reformers were looking at these schools, they realized that they did not work. Because they were short of funds. They had contact with families and communities because they went home at night. They still spoke their language and participated in their ceremonies. They knew they had to construct off their reservations, which they came up with boarding schools that were federally funded. B. Richard Henry Pratt and Carlisle (Terms) 1878 First Boarding School Biography of Richard: He was not originally interested in Indian education, he was a military man. He became interested in it through one of his military assignments. In 1870, 72 Indian prisoners were captured. They were transferred to a prison in Saint Augustine; FL. Pratt was in charge of these prisoners. He started a prison school, and argued that this schoolwork and the Indians were becoming Americanized. He resigned his position and opened up Carlisle in rural Pennsylvania. He chose that because it was far away from most tribes. There were 25 off reservations. III. Getting the Children to the Schools IV. Life at the Boarding Schools A. Arriving at the Schools B. Education at the Schools Different classes in the morning and afternoon. In the morning there were traditional classes. They learned to read and write, mathematics. They also learned history and this was all in English. In the afternoons, they were separated by gender and were vocational. The boys learned how to plow, herd animals Girls were taught traditional domestic like cooking, cleaning and sowing. Things that would lead them to be good housewives. They mainly focus on the vocational education. Problems with the vocational education: Unpaid labor, constantly short of funds. The boys were farming produce that would be used to eat at school. Students were taught trades they could not use on their reservations. They also argued the boys were taught to be small farming when the nation itself was moving away from small farming. Many boys did not have good farmland at home. It was based on racial ideas. Focused on the fact that Indians are funneled into one type of labor. Example: didn’t train them to be lawyers or doctors Children had to go to church as well. Each school was assigned to a religious denomination. C. Discipline and Punishment Military model at all boarding schools. A bell would ring for dinner lunch and things like that. A lot of regimentation: marching. Punished for speaking their own language, for not following the bells, not having their rooms neat enough. Punishments were physical, they were whipped, hit with a ruler, their rations were cut (cant eat breakfast). They would have a “prison” which was a small closet where they could be locked in. Problem at school was illness and death. They did not have enough to eat. Each boarding school had their own graveyard. D.Resistance Some of it was overt. Main was running away. Students would run away and get back to their families and communities. Running away was prevalent in their early months of school. Running away was tricky, it was very far. Some were successful and historians know that because of attendance. Covert: many would speak own language at night. Many tried to sneak out of windows and hold religious ceremonies. Sneak food out of kitchen if they were on kitchen duty. Mostly used by girls because that is where they worked. V. Evaluating the Schools Positives: Some rated their experience as positive. Education became power. When they returned home, they used math skills to see if the trader was cheating them in goods. Writing skills: wrote about conditions on reservations. Literacy skills to make life better for their community. Led to first large scale pan Indian movement. Negatives: led to factions within the tribe. They divided among themselves. Elders were separated from these children. Many of them were there for 5 years or more and some of them only spoke English and their families didn’t speak English. Civilization: Many children thought civilized was the o VI. Briefly: Australia and Canada also had Boarding Schools th October 27 – MISSED October 29 , 2015 John Collier and the Indian New Deal I. The 1920s and Reform Not a good time for Indians. Americanization programs were expected out of Native Americans and they were supposed to do them in two ways: Dawes Act was supposed to take away communal land and convert it to private property. Second, boarding schools. Things seemed to be looking up for Native Americans. Examples of Reform In 1924, N.A were finally granted US citizenship without being civilized. N.A were the last group to get citizenship. 1928: beginning of the Meriam Report. It began in 1926; the government commissioned a team of scholars and Lewis meriam was in charge. They were supposed to go to reservations and report what they found. They did this for two years and then published findings in 1928. They talked about what they found. In general the Meriam Report was the living conditions of the N.A and the harsh conditions. The report pointed out tons of problems: terrible health issues (had measles, ammonia, TB, had terrible eye disease that led to blindness), found infant mortality rate (190.7 out of 1.000 babies died on Indian reservation), very poor material conditions (poor diets, housing, water), poor infrastructure (no paved roads, no bridges), the report found poor economic conditions (income was low, Indians were small farmers), criticized agents for poor conditions. The meriam report offered solutions. Some way to get lands back under the Dawes Act. There were no boarding schools. Boarding schools should be ended and schools should be on reservations and should be day schools. Report said to stop all Americanization programs advocated cultural pluralism. II. John Collier and Indian Reform in the 1920s Reformer who read and was influenced by the Meriam Report to actually change the policy. John worked as a social worker and worked with immigrants. As he was working, he starting to worry about the decline of traditional culture, language and religion as they assimilated into the US. He applied what he learned with working with immigrants to that of Indians. When he was a social worker, he went to New Mexico on vacation and visited the Taos Pueblo (longest inhabited structure within US). When he was there, he had this epiphany that Indian culture had value and they had a lot to offer. He saw them as more spiritual and less materialistic than Americans. Once he came back, he started writing about Indian issues. He wrote “Our Mingling Worlds”. He thinks Indian culture and religion should be saved. III. The Great Depression and the Indian New Deal A.The Depression, Indians, and Public Works Programs Native Americans were not really affected economically because they are already on the bottom of American society. FDR did allow Indians to participate in new deal programs. He also developed new programs for Indians. One of the first things he did was he appointed John Collier commissioner of Indian affairs. Collier served in 19331945, which made him the longest commissioners. So, one of the first achievements of Collier was that he convinced FDR to convince Indians to participate in new deal relieve programs. Public Works Administration (PWA) and Civilian Conservation Core (CCC). They were not specific for Indians, he wanted the Americans to get back to work, but Collier wanted the Indians to participate in them as well. They provided Indians with jobs and wages. In addition it helped their reservations because the work they did was on their reservations. They build roads, bridges and some dams for better water source. Collier had bigger plan than to just add them into these deals. He wanted to completely change the reform. B. Reforming Federal Indian Policy—“The Indian New Deal” He wanted to protect Indian culture and religion. He ended government suppression of Indian religious rituals. The federal government banned Lakota sun dance, so he ended that. It was no longer illegal to perform ceremonies. He also supported Indian crafts; he thought this would stimulate the community. He made funds available for women to purchase stuff for woving. He had an exhibit of these homemade crafts in which people would buy them. He also tried to end boarding schools. He is trying to implement the Meriam report. He wanted kids to attend on reservation schools that only operated during the day. He was a realist and the boarding schools would not just close over night, so he wanted those to be reformed (better diets, better medical care, less discipline) and he said they could no longer push Christianity to them. In school learned traditional craft and had Indian teachers. Third and finally, collier presented Congress with a massive bill and was supposed to completely reform Indian affairs. Indian Reorganization Act (IRA) of 1934 Collier asked Indians what they wanted before he sent the bill to Congress. He conducted 10 “Indian congresses” which was from March to April in 1934. Based partially on these congresses, the IRA was sent to Congress. And if was finally passed in 1934. Two main parts of this: First: Dawes Act was officially ended and the act provided for ways for Indians to regain land that they lost. Second, Indians living on reservations could establish their own governments. Third tribes would vote on the act if they wanted to accept or reject it. If they accepted it they could write their institution and govern themselves. If they rejected they couldn’t apply funds and could not establish a government. In the end 174 accepted the act and 78 tribes rejected the act. IV. Evaluating the Indian New Deal A.Positives of the Indian New Deal First, Native Americans were consulted before Collier sent the act to Congress. For the first time, they were asked what they wanted. They were allowed to accept and decline the act. Second, if tribes accepted the act they could try to get lands back that they lost through the Dawes Act. Third, the Indian New Deal went against civilization programs. Fourth, tribes were given some measures of selfgovernment (they could write a constitution). B. Negatives of the Indian New Deal It was unpopular among white legislators in the Senate and House. They thought it was too expensive and that civilization was the correct way. Post WWII, they thought it was communist existence and the government should not support that. It also was unpopular among many Native Americans themselves. Why did the 78 tribes against the act? Some tribes said it was another attempt to do what they thought was right for the Indians, which was called paternalistic. (It was the right way to go even if Indians did not agree). Second, many tribes had trouble with the voting system. The problem as that the voting system followed Euro American system by tallying the votes, but many N.A tribes did not follow that voting system. The Lakota’s went to vote on the Pine Ridge Reservation but it barely passed. The problem was that according to Lakota that if you did not vote that meant a “no” vote, but according to Euro American structure the vote just did not count. There was a problem with the new government. Indians were allowed to establish governments, but the constitution had to be approved. The only ones that were approved were the ones that were just mirrored to the American ones. The government was strictly watching over the Indian Affairs. Fourth and finally some tribes rejected the IRA because of specific reasons to their tribe. The Navajo example: they rejected the IRA because they hated Collier because before the IRA Collier had overseen a huge stock reduction on their reservation. The Navajo survived by raised stocks of sheep and goats. The idea was that they had too many goats and sheep’s, which led to environmental problems and collier, demanded stock reduction. The government ended up killing thousands of animals. They flat out rejected it because they did not trust Collier because he destroyed their economy. Iroquois example: They rejected it because they have their very own strong government that existed for hundreds of years. They issued their own passports. November 3 , 2015 MISSED th November 5 , 2015 The 1960s and 1970s I. Activism in the 1960s and 1970s A. Background Into the 1960’s N.A faced problems living on reservations because they faced poverty. Poverty increased after the policy of termination was applied. Reservations decreased in population as many Indians left the reservations to move to urban areas. There were also problems for N.A who moved to cities. They faced segregation, poverty and job discrimination. Increasingly, there was police brutality. Despite these problems there were some positives. In cities, N.A settled in the same area so they went to the same churches and centers. This increased the pan Indian identity. It became much stronger as they relocated to cities. N.A would fight for their rights, which was known as the Red Power Movement. They focused on non-violent protests. II. Important Events in the ‘Red Power Movement” 1. 1961: American Indian Chicago Conference This was one of the largest and most diverse conferences that happened. There were over 400 delegates from 65 tribes who attended this conference. It brought together different tribes, it brought young and old and people who lived in urban lands versus reservations. Chicago had been one of the places that Indians got relocated too that is why this conference was held there. They held social events for the Natives to meet each other and connect. There was also a political aspect they composed a declaration of purpose. No paternalism. They wanted the government to end the policy of termination. Also asked if the federal government include Indians in their policy making. They presented this to JFK. He came to the last day of the conference and gave a short speech and they presented this to him. He said he would take it into consideration, but before he could act on it he was assassinated. So the VP took over. 2. 1963: Johnson’s War on Poverty He created what was known as the great society, it was a bunch of programs that was supposed to end poverty. He passed Medicare, funding for American public schools, low-income housing and something called head start for people with disabilities. However, one specific program was for Indians. 170 reservations would receive $70 million in anti-poverty funds to use for infrastructure (roads, bridges) and economic development on reservations. 3. 1968: The formation of AIM—The American Indian Movement One of the most important events was The American Indian Movement. It started as an urban organization in Minneapolis. It was organized to help fight police brutality. One of the first things they did was they set up Indian patrols. The patrols would follow police cops cars and make sure they didn’t treat Indians poorly. The three main organizers were all Ojibwas- Clyde Belle court, Dennis Banks and George Mitchell. As AIM developed, they had two goals. One: fight for Indian sovereignty. They wanted to make their own decisions, their future and make their own mistakes. Second: AIM leaders wanted to hold the government responsible for broken treaties. Some communities divided over whether they should side with AIM or not. Actions of AIM Patrols in cities other than Minneapolis. Another thing was they focused programs on Indian children. They created survival schools that were supposed to be opposite of boarding schools. Survival schools were supposed to reintroduce children about the Indian culture. First one called the Little Red School House in St. Paul. 4. 1969: Alcatraz Island A group calling themselves Indians of all tribes seized Alcatraz Island. Indians of all tribes were not AIM affiliates but were inspired by them. Most of the members were young, college students and also pan-tribal (not just from one tribe). They seized the island to protest the federal government of breaking the treaties over the years. It’s a symbol for what tribes across the United States lost over the treaty process. This was peaceful and they received a huge amount of media attention, they made the nightly news. This was some of the first attention they got. They held a Thanksgiving open house where some famous people attended. After a few weeks, they asked the island be made into an Indian Cultural Center or Museum, of course this didn’t happen. 1970-The media lost interest, supplies went low and the leadership divided among itself. 5. 1970: AIM leaders received national coverage when they captured the Mayflower II, a replica of the Pilgrim’s ship in Plymouth Massachusetts 6. 1971: protested at Mount Rushmore to end desecration of Black Hills and gain their return to the Lakota’s. 7. 1972: Trail of Broken Treaties This started in Minneapolis and ended in Washington D.C. It was a caravan of Indians that moved across the United States. They would protest a broken treaty in the specific area where they stopped. By the time they arrived in Washington, they had about 500 protestors that joined them. The protestors brought with them a 20-point document that criticized the relationship between the Indians and the federal government. When the bureau of Indian affairs refused to read the document, they took over their building and held it for 6 days. They burned files and destroyed property. Nixon was president and his reelection was supposed to happen so he sent negotiators in to talk to the Indians. They were successful; they got the Indians to leave the building. In return, the government promised to look at the 20-point document. They also gave Indians transportation to get home. End of the story is the protestors left and the government never formally considered the 20-point document. 8. 1973: Siege at Wounded Knee The action centered on the Pine Ridge reservation (Lakota reservation in South Dakota). A Lakota man by the name of Wesley Bad Heart Bull was stabbed to death on the reservation. A white ndn was arrested for the crime, but he was only charged with 2 degree manslaughter and was let free after one day in jail. So, after this white man was set free, AIM protestors arrived and argued he should have had a much stronger charge. AIM soon clashed with police. Heart bull’s mom was sent to jail for 3-4 years for assaulting an officer. Federal Marshall arrived at the reservation and AIM leaders and protestors took over the village at Wounded Knee. The Lakota’s wanted sovereignty to establish their own government, they also wanted the treaty of Fort Laramie upheld that had been broken. Federal Marshall and troops surrounded the village, it lasted 71 days. Two Indians were killed and several were wounded. US fired lots of ammunition into the AIM compound. Siege ended when the government began to investigate their grievances. This was never carried through and Indians divided amongst themselves. Especially the older generation, they did not support the AIM. 9. 1978: WOMEN OF ALL RED NATIONS (WARN ): established to address issues directly facing Indian women and their families. III. Final Summary of Indian Activism in the 1960s and 1970s The positives: it focused public attention of N.A for the first time. Second it helped the N.A help them. Commitment to AIM made one woman stop drinking. It also led to some shifts in federal policy, Johnson’s War on Poverty that did help Natives receive more assistance and they were allowed to participate in these programs. In 1970-Nixon called for era of self-determination. Ex. Nixon appointed an Indian to the head of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. He also ended termination. Nixon also supported tribal status that was the Menominee Restoration Act which allowed them to receive their tribal status back and got federal funding. Twenty Points: 1. Restoration of treaty making (ended by Congress in 1871). 2. Establishment of a treaty commission to make new treaties (with sovereign Native Nations). 3. Indian leaders to address Congress. 4. Review of treaty commitments and violations. 5. Unratified treaties to go before the Senate. 6. All Indians to be governed by treaty relations. 7. Relief for Native Nations for treaty rights violations. 8. Recognition of the right of Indians to interpret treaties. 9. Joint Congressional Committee to be formed on reconstruction of Indian relations. 10.Restoration of 110 million acres of land taken away from Native Nations by the United States. 11.Restoration of terminated rights. 12.Repeal of state jurisdiction on Native Nations. 13.Federal protection for offenses against Indians. 14.Abolishment of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. 15.Creation of a new office of Federal Indian Relations. 16.New office to remedy breakdown in the constitutionally prescribed relationships between the United States and Native Nations. 17.Native Nations to be immune to commerce regulation, taxes, trade restrictions of states. 18.Indian religious freedom and cultural integrity protected. 19.Establishment of national Indian voting with local options; free national Indian organizations from governmental controls 20.Reclaim and affirm health, housing, employment, economic development, and education for all Indian people. November 17 , 2015 1970s to the Present Part II: Environmental Issues and Native Americans I. Resources Located on Reservations th th 19 century they were given lands that were viewed as unproductive. By the 20 21 century it was valuable because of minerals. It had 1/3 of sulphur coal, 1/5 of oil/natural gas and ½ of uranium. Indians living on reservations were pressured to get these resources from the government and from oil and coal companies. 1.) Navajo Oil Reserves: They had oil. The Indian New Deal had not supported this because Collier was focusing on livestock reduction. Because of that many Navajos were forced to leave the reservation and focus on waged labor so that they can survive. So, after WWII resources were found on this reservation. Bureau of Indian Affairs wanted to contact these companies and drill for these oils on these reservations. If they did that it would create jobs for the people and that means that they could move back onto their reservation. Tribal council did agree to do this and to drill for oil on the Navajo reservation. This began in 1956 and continues to the present day. They drilled over 577 wells and pumped 370 millions of barrels. The Navajos got 180million dollars for it. Although the money was paid to the tribe, the royalties was unevenly distributed. Most Navajos did not see any improvements for reservation life. 75% of Navajos had no electricity and no running water, so again the oil did not specifically benefit the Navajo reservation. There were also huge environmental issues that came from drilling. For example, the companies inserted CO2 and this led to contaminated waters and streams. The Navajos then had no water and did not have water for animals so they died. There were also accidents in terms of oil spills. By 1990, there were 99 spills that damaged 37,000 acres of land. 2.) Native Alaskans: in 1968 oil was discovered in Prudhoe Bay, Alaska. The US government needed to deal with Native Alaskans if they wanted to build a pipeline through it. Alaska became a state in January 1959, so programs that the other Natives faced did not affect them. In 1971 Nixon came across the Alaskan Native Claims Settlement Act of 1971. It’s very complicated. It affected about 100,000 Native Alaskans. About 80,000 who were living in Alaska and 20,000 had moved away from Alaska. According to this act, Alaskans signed away all their lands. They gave away 148, 500, 000 acres of land. In return they got to keep 44 mills of acres and $950 million for themselves. For the first time in history they were not forced to move to reservations. Instead 12 regional corporations would oversee the lands and money. Corporations would be comprised of Native Alaskans who are in the same common heritage and sharing common interests. The 20,000, who left, would join the 13 corporation and these corporations and would give them some land but no money. So this did open the way for the pipeline and still exists to the present day. This pipeline brought environmental issues to Alaska: oil spills, affected migration of animals and birds. There was a virgin soil epidemic: many of them brought measles with them and led to high death rate. Since the 1970’s tribes have attempted to takeover resources themselves. Council of Energy Resource Tribes (CERT) 1975 II. Storing Waste Govt and private companies contacted tribes to store nuclear waste and trash on reservation lands. First, the proposals were not fair. The Sioux were approached to use some of their land as a landfill. They were charged $1 for a ton of garbage. They saw that other people were getting $80 a ton so they rejected it. Second, they divided tribes among themselves. In 1994, Minnesota Power approached the Apaches and they wanted to bury 47,000 nuclear fuels on their reservation. The chairman, Wendell Chino, he supported it because the tribe did not have any economic development program and the Apaches were in poverty so he thought he could help them get out of poverty from the money they would receive. There was a great division, many people apposed it. They said every treaty with the US has been broken and it won’t promise them anything. The proposal failed and it was not stored on the Apache reservation. III. Hunting the Fishing Rights Treaties promised tribes that they would hunt and fish on and off reservation lands. Now, Indians argued that these treaties still hold today and they should be allowed to do it when they want with no restrictions. They should not be held to hunting seasons or quotas. These off reservation rights have led to huge conflicts with natives and nonnatives. NonIndian hunters and fishers said why should they not be able to follow the same rules as we do. There have been many court cases at both state and federal issues. In every case, the Indians won. Should Indians be able to hunt endangered species? Not eagles, but can apply to get an eagle from a eagle place. Pacific Northwest: They hunted whale for over 1500 years. In 1855, the Makah Whaling, a tribe in Washington, signed the treaty of Neah Bay. They were allowed to continue to hunt whales. So they continued until the 1920’s. By the 1920’s the whales were protected by the commercial fisherman. The last documented Makah whale hunt was in 1926. The whale population was recovered it and they were removed from the endangered species list in 1994. They wanted to continue to hunt the whale. They faced environmentalists and strongly protested that they hunt the whales. They were very unhappy with the Makah’s; they stood by the reservations and didn’t allow them to leave unless they promised they wouldn’t hunt them. They also went to court but the environmentalists lost. In 1999, the Makah did hunt one whale. They used a modern weapon and chose a weapon that was supposed to be more humane so they whale wouldn’t suffer. Since then, they have not hunted a whale because of court cases. Stereotypes: Indians are at one with nature and they are protoenvironmentalists. th November 19 , 2015 Native Hawaiians I. Introduction Why Native Hawaiians are generally incorporated with Native Americans? 1.) Cultural Differences: They have more in common with Samoans than with Cherokee or Apaches. 2.) Political Differences: Comprised of small political units and operate by consensus= Native Americans. Native Hawaiians have a very stratified system, they have a king or queen that governor the islands. st 3.) It has a different history Hawaii came in late into the union (August 21 , 1959). Native Hawaiians didn’t have things like the Dawes Act and the Indian Removal Act. II. Brief History of Hawaiian Native Peoples A. Before Contact with Europeans People lived on 8 Hawaiian Islands; they had own political system but shared same economy. Each island had a chief. Social and political system: At the top were chiefs the priests then commoners (the largest class) and at the bottom there was a small class called outcast. Economy: very diverse on all the islands. They had agriculture so they grew crops and there most popular was taro which was a potato. They were also gatherers that picked up fruit and hunted fish. The commoners did almost all the work. In addition to doing work, they paid taxes. These taxes were paid to the priests and chiefs. Whatever the commoners produced, they had to pay a tax. They got to keep 1/3 or what they made and gave away 2/3 of it. B. Contact with Europeans First contact was with the British in 1778. Columbus arrived already so the Spanish Portuguesa was already there. The first British person to come was Captain James cook and called the Hawaiian Islands “Sandwich Islands”. Contact with Cook brought the same results that Columbus brought to the Americas: disease and death. Colonizers brought virgin soil epidemics: measles and smallpox. Estimated that before contact there was about 300400,000 on all 8 islands then 100 years later the population was 4050,000. As Europeans started to settle the Hawaiian environment was changed: The British who were followed by the French and then the Americans tried to develop the island. They tried to bring cattle ranching to the environment so it led to erosion and took away their native plants. Land Loss: They took land for cattle ranching and then switched to agriculture. Sugar and pineapple grew very well in the country. There was cultural and religious cthnge: Missionaries arrived in Hawaii and wanted to convert them to Christianity in the early 19 century. They created schools that made these Hawaiians civilized. C. Kingdom of Hawaii—17951893 Despite all these changes, the king consolidated power. At first they all had their own king or queen, this changed in 1795. Hawaiian king, Kamehameha, conquered all 8 islands and brought them together under his rule: Kingdom of Hawaii. Despite consolidation, the British, French and Americans continued to take their land. By 1900’s, Native Hawaiians lost their land. White corporations owned 50% of them. Individual white farmers owned 33%. Native Hawaiians owned only 17% of their land. Even though their land was taken, the king still had power. In 1892, he lost power. The American Sugar Interest began plans to overthrow the kingdom of Hawaii. They wanted American to annex Hawaii as a territory. (They wanted it to become a part of US). In 1893 there was an uprising to the queen by the Sugar Interest Company and an alliance with the US Army to overthrow the queen. They were successful in 1898 where Hawaii was a territory apart of the US (no queen and no kingdom).But didn’t become a state until 1959. III. The United States and Native Hawaiians Hawaiian Homes Commission Act of 1920 Once they gained control, they had to deal with the Native Hawaiians. They stressed English and wanted them to stop speaking their native language, they wanted them to be literate (read and write) and they established boarding schools. Acts: Hawaiian Homes Commission Act of 1920: similar to the Dawes Act but for Hawaii. The act set aside 200,000 acres of land for Native Hawaiian homesteads and farms. How it worked in practice: Sugar and pineapple planters wanted the best land to stay in the hand of corporations. Some of the worst lands on each island were setaside for the Native Hawaiians. Native Hawaiians had to apply for the land. An application was processed very slowly. In the first 70 years after the act only 3,000 received the homesteads. The most controversial topic of the act was the Native Hawaiian. You had to prove you were a Native Hawaiian and had to have 50% of Hawaiian blood in order to apply for the grant. As of today only about 9,800 got homestead and 25,000 who are eligible but still on the waiting list for the application to be processed. IV. The 1960s and 1970s Native Hawaiian Activism: They had similar goals. They wanted the return of land. They also wanted cultural and religious and linguistic renewal. They wanted to speak their language, their cultural practices and focus on Hawaiian religion and not just Christianity. They came together and created Kahoolawe, the smallest of the 8 islands. This island was the most bombed island in the Pacific. It was used for target practice by the US military until the 1970’s. The ground was eroded and there were unexploded bombs within the island=very unsafe. They were upset because this island was very sacred to them (Black Hills sacred to the Lakota’s). They believed it had religious importance and because it had cultural importance as well. Hawaiian activists worked to stop the bombing and to get it cleaned up so that they could return and use it as a cultural center. They launched protests. For example: used boats to sit in but had to be rescued because they didn’t realize how dangerous it was. They filed lawsuits to have the land returned to them. Nonnatives supported them because they were upset about the loud bombings so they joined with them to benefit for themselves. Eventually the Hawaiians won; in 1994 the land was retuned to them. The US promised to clear 1/3 of the island. As of today as of 70% of the island was cleared and is used today for religious ceremonies. V. The Present Day Native Hawaiian Government Reorganization Act of 2010 In 1993, Congress passed a Apology Resolution for overthrowing the kingdom of Hawaii. There is a huge law being considered right now, that is the Native Hawaiian Government Reorganization Act of 2010, but it’s not passed yet. The Native Hawaiian government reorganization act is also knows as the Akaka Bill. It has passed the House but not the Senate and it is in a holding pattern. This act would give selfdetermination to Native Hawaiian people. They do not have sovereignty. So this bill would recognize them as a sovereign tribe, which will give them the ability to form their own government.
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