PSY2012 Study Guides
PSY2012 Study Guides PSY 2012
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This 19 page Bundle was uploaded by Stefanie Villiotis on Monday February 8, 2016. The Bundle belongs to PSY 2012 at Florida State University taught by in Spring 2013. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 02/08/16
Chapter 3 PSY2012 Neurons The body’s information system is built from billions of interconnected cells called neurons. Neurons are nerve cells specialized for communication. 3 Types of Neurons: Sensory (to the CNS); Motor (from the CNS); Interneurons (CNS to CNS) Dendrites receive information or electrochemical messages. Cell body (soma) manufactures cell components. Action Potential- a neural impulse. A brief electrical charge that travels down the axon to the terminal branches. Action Potential properties: All or None response- neuron either fires or it doesn’t Intensity- an action potential stays the same through the length of the axon. Glial Cell- cell in the nervous system that plays a role in the formation of myelin and the blood brain barrier; responds to injury; removed debris; enhances learning and memory. Terminal Branches release information Synapse- the place where the axon terminal of one neuron meets the dendrite of another neuron. Synaptic Gap- the space between two neurons (neurons don’t quite touch). Two Types of Neurotransmitters: Excitatory- make it more likely that a neuron will send its message to other neurons. Inhibitory- make it less likely that a neuron will send its message. Neurotransmitters: Serotonin- mood and temperature regulation, aggression and sleep cycles. Dopamine- motor function and reward. Glutamate- main excitatory neurotransmitter; participates in relay of sensory information and learning. GABA- main inhibitory neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine- brain arousal, mood, hunger, and sleep. Anandamide- pain reduction, increase in appetite. Acetylcholine- muscle contraction (PNS), cortical arousal (CNS). Dopamine- motor function and reward. Endorphins- type of neurotransmitter involved in pain reduction and reward. (think of it like an involuntary pain killer) Central Nervous System- processes, interprets, stores information, issues orders to muscles, glands, and organs. (Brain and Spinal Cord) Peripheral Nervous System- transmits information to and from the CNS. Somatic Nervous System- controls skeletal muscles. Autonomic Nervous System- regulates glands, blood, vessels, internal organs. 2 Sympathetic Nervous System- mobilizes body for action, energy output. Parasympathetic Nervous System- conserves energy, maintains quiet state. The Hindbrain Medulla- regulates breathing, heartbeat, and other vital functions. Pons- connects cortex to cerebellum and triggers dreams. Cerebellum- coordinates voluntary movements and balance; allows for certain types of associative learning; modulation of emotions; discrimination of sounds and textures. Thalamus- sits on top of the brainstem, brain’s “sensory switchboard”, receives sensory input (except smell) and sends info to specialized regions of the brain. The Limbic System Amygdala- Tied to emotions such as aggression and fear; important in the formation of emotional memories Hippocampus- important functions in storing & retrieving declarative memories; differentiate between declarative memories and procedural memories. Cerebral Cortex divided into 2 hemispheres (left & right); outermost covering of the brain; hemispheres are connected by the corpus callosum. Each hemisphere is divided into four Lobes, separated by fissures: 3 - Frontal Lobe: making plans, judgments, speaking, muscle movements. - Central Sulcus - Parietal Lobe: registers and processes body sensations - Occipital Lobe: processes visual information. - Temporal Lobe: processes auditory information and some speech. Electroencephalograph (EEG)- measures electrical activity via electrodes placed on skull; can tell which regions of the brain are active during specific tasks. Brain Scans- CT and MRI (structure of the brain) PET Scans- changes in brain activity fMRI Studies- use blood oxygenation levels to visualize brain activity. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS)- applies strong and quickly changing magnetic fields to the surface of the skull that can either enhance or interrupt brain function; allows casual determination of functioning. Magnetoencephalography (MEG)- measures tiny magnetic fields generated by the brain. Nature (genes) vs. Nurture (environment) Nature: DNA -> Cells -> Organs (Ex. High cortisol levels( stress hormones) more likely to experience anxiety) Nurture: concerns how our experience (environment) affects behavior. Behavioral Genetics 4 Heritability- percentage of the variability in a trait across individuals that is due to genes. Psychologists have been able to breed rats that are predisposed to be serene or reactive, quick or slow learners. 5 PSY2012 Exam #3 Study Guide - Intelligence: the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt when facing novel conditions. Different models and types of intelligence - Sensory Capacity Galton’s Theory = “People with better senses acquire more knowledge” Different sensory capacities only weakly related to each other; measures of sensory ability are not highly related to intelligence - Abstract Thinking “Higher Mental Processes” – reasoning, understanding, judgment intelligence has something to do with the capacity to understand theoretical concepts - General vs. Specific Abilities Positive correlations among items on IQ tests led to Spearman’s development of G and S o General Intelligence (g) = accounts for overall differences in intellect among people o HOW TO IDENTIFY “g”? Factor Analysis o Factor Analysis is a statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items (factors) Specific Abilities (s) = our particular skills are reflected in “s” g s s s s s s Fluid Intelligence Crystallized Intelligence Capacity to learn new ways of Accumulated knowledge of the world we solving problems gain over time Examples: Examples: Raven Matrices What is the capital of Texas? Sudoku How many days are there in September? Fluid Intelligence “flows” into crystallized intelligence over 8 Intelligences in Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences: 1. Linguistic 2. Logical-Mathematical 3. Musical 4. Intra-Personal 5. Inter-Personal 6. Bodily-Kinesthetic 7. Visual-Spatial (Argued: autistic savants provided Support for these different types of intelligences) Sternberg’s 3 Intelligences: Believed that... “having one intelligence does not mean you have the other” 2 (Triarchic Model) 1. Analytical (book smart) – ability to reason logically 2. Practical (street smart)—ability to solve real world problems 3. Creative (creativity)—ability to come up with novel and effective answers Triarchic Model: - Has several weaknesses - Practical intelligence is not independent of g - Causal relationship between job performance and practical intelligence is unclear - WE ALL possess strengths and weaknesses, but they might not be as distinct as theorized Calculating IQ - Binet’s concept of MENTAL AGE led to the development of the INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENT - Modern IQ tests use deviation IQ that eliminates age effects Flynn Effect - The average IQ of the population has been rising by about 3 points every 1o years. - Most likely result of environmental changes: increased test sophistication, complexity of modern world, nutrition, changes at home/school. Developmental Psychology - Study of how behavior and mental processes change over the life span Post Hoc Fallacy - Logical error where you assume that A causes B, just because B came after A - Example: All serial killers drink milk as babies, so milk causes people to become serial killers 3 Continuity View of Development Stage View of Development Change is uniform and gradual Change can be rapid with different stages across the lifespan Methodological Considerations - Cross-Sectional Design= measures age-differences (NOT intra-individual change) Group 1 Group 2 Compared at one time Group 3 - - Cohort Effects = sets of people who lived during one period can differ in some systematic way from sets of people who lived during a different period. Example: Holocaust survivors >>We can better study intra-individual change by looking at the same individuals over time = Longitudinal Design - Cons: costly and time consuming - Selective attrition 4 Cross-Sectional Study Longitudinal Study Studies different ages at the Studies the same people for a same time long period of time Pro: cheaper and quicker than Pro: Same people, no longitudinal studies changing variables Con: different people means Con: expensive, time- different variables consuming, people can die and or get lost. Cognitive Development—Schemas - Mental representations of the world - Schemas organize and interpret incoming information - They act as “mental filters” - Children form schemas naturally and change them over the course of development - ASSIMILATION = new information is interpreted in ways that fit existing schemas (make experience fit the schema) Ex: DOG - ACCOMMODATION= existing schemas are adjusted to fit new information (make schema fit experience) Ex: DOG and CAT are NOT the same Jean Piaget 5 - understanding of how the mind develops: - role of maturation (simple growing up) in children’s increasing capacity to understand their world—they cannot do certain tasks until they have psychologically matured enough to do so. - children’s thinking doesn’t develop smoothly—there are certain points where it just “takes off” and moves into new areas. Piaget’s Stages i. Sensorimotor Stage: 1st stage of cognitive development a. Birth--age 2 b. Infants understand the world through their own actions c. Ex. Visual Cliff d. Ex. Peekaboo—the child actually thinks you disappear when you cover your face e. Object Permanence = the awareness that objects continue to exist, even when they disappear from view. f. Deferred Imitation= imitation of behavior a child has seen before. (clapping, sticking out tongue, etc) ii. Preoperational Stage: 2nd stage of cognitive development a. Age 2- age 7 b. Children learn to construct mental representations of experience c. Capable of symbolic behavior Ex. Banana Phone d. Egocentric: unable to adopt the perspective of another person e. Children lack understanding of conservation: the concept that physical properties of an object can remain the same despite superficial changes in appearance. Ex: Pouring milk into 2 differently shaped glasses—the taller one doesn’t always hold the most liquid. iii. Concrete Operational Stage: 3rd stage of cognitive development a. Age 7- age 12 b. Children become capable of logical reasoning (pertaining to physical objects) c. Reversibility iv. Formal Operational Stage: 4th stage of cognitive development a. 12 years + b. Adolescents become capable of ABSTRACT REASONING, hypothetical situations, and logic c. Problem-solving involves logic, not trial-and-error 6 - Vygotsky: Social & Cultural Influences - Different children develop skills in different domains at different rates - Social structuring on the part of the parent facilitates children’s learning and development - Scaffolding = teachers model or demonstrate problem-solving process, then step back and offer support as needed - Zone of proximal development: Social Development—Attachment - Contact Comfort: warmth and comfort are important components of bonds between animals and humans - Attachment: deep emotional bond that we develop with our primary caregivers - Secure Attachment (60%)= separation from caregiver, upset when “mom” leaves, but happy when returns. - Insecure-Avoidant Attachment (15%-20%)= indifferent when mom leaves and returns. - Insecure-anxious attachment (15%-20%)= panics when mom leaves, mixed emotions when she returns. Parenting Styles i. Permissive= tend to be lenient, little discipline, very affectionate ii. Authoritarian= very strict, punishing, little affection 7 iii. Authoritative= supportive but set clear and form limits iv. Uninvolved= neglectful and ignoring Social Psychology = the scientific study of how people influence our behavior, beliefs, and attitudes. i. Think about = Social Thinking ii. Influence = Social Influence iii. Relate= Social Relations Attribution = the explanation why we or others engaged in a certain behavior (negative, unexpected, or personally relevant events) i. INTERNAL = DISPOSITIONAL, cause is internal to the person a. Ability—Poor memory; Personality—Lazy; Effort—did not study enough ii. EXTERNAL= SITUATIONAL, cause is external to the person a. Task-Unfair Test, Other People—roommate kept them up all night; Luck—got sick on exam day **FUNDAMENTAL ATTRIBUTION ERROR i. When we look at other’s behavior: a. Overestimate impact of dispositional influences b. Underestimate impact of situational influences Test Question: “We see Joe as quiet, shy, and introverted most of the time, but with friends he is very talkative, loud, and extroverted. He is exhibiting which phenomena?” Answer: Fundamental Attribution Error Attitude = Belief that includes an emotional component—may predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events >>Actions affect Attitudes Cognitive Dissonance: Unpleasant mental experience of tension resulting from two conflicting attitudes or actions. Behavior and Attitude Are Inconsistent Cognitive Dissonance Change something to reduce dissonance 8 Foot-in-the-door Phenomenon = the tendency for people who first agree to a small request to comply later with a larger request. Door-In-Face-Phenomenon = Gaining compliance with a request by preceding it with a larger request. (you want $15) “Can I have $20?” “No” “Can I have $15?” “Yes” Conformity - Tendency to alter one’s thinking or behavior in response to group pressure Obedience - Behavior following the rules or instructions from those of higher authority Prosocial Behavior - Intentional—unintentional acts don’t count - Benefit to others - Benefit one or more others (including society) - Not benefiting yourself - Social and interpersonal Informational Influence vs. Normative Influence - Informational = conforming to others behavior because believe it provides information about reality. Mainly to get the answer correct. - Normative = conforming to others behavior because they expect us to. This is because it is believed to have positive consequences, like approval. Ex. Laughing at a joke you don’t get, or agreeing with an opinion you believe others have. Bystander Intervention - Tendency to be less likely to help (and to receive help) as number of other bystander’s increases. - Pluralistic Ignorance= error of assuming that no one in a group perceives things as we do. “I don’t get it, everyone else does….” Social Identity Theory - We want to feel good about ourselves - Our identity (partly) comes from groups which we belong to 9 - Seeing our group as better than other groups raises self esteem Aggression - Any behavior intended to harm another person who is motivated to avoid harm i. Interpersonal provocation ii. Frustration iii. Media influences iv. Aggressive cues - Types of Aggression: i. Direct-target is present ii. Indirect-target is not present iii. Reactive (“hot”, emotional reaction) iv. Proactive (“cold” motivated by other means) v. Active (taking action) Ex. Punching someone vi. Passive (failing to take action) Ex. Doing nothing Jack yells at Joe because he’s angry at him = Pam spreads rumors about Joe because he dumped her= Indirect Ashley doesn’t give her boyfriend the message from work because she’s mad at him for working too much= Peter shoots his wife to get her life insurance= **Males engage in more physical aggression, females in more relational aggression females in more relational aggression ** Prejudice: A generalized negative attitude toward members of a group - Dislike of telemarketers - Dislike of fat people Stereotype: A generalized belief about members of a group - People from Boston hate the Yankees - Homosexuals are possessed by demons - Mexicans are all landscapers Motivational Original= Social Identity Theory 1. We want to feel good about ourselves 10 2. Our Identity comes from groups to which we belong 3. Seeing our group as better than other groups raises self esteem - Strong in-group identification leads to strong out-group prejudice - When self-esteem is threatened…people derogate out-group members Cognitive Origins= Categorization; Illusory Correlation Categorization: - People exaggerate differences between members of different categories - People underestimate within category differences Illusory Correlation: - Perceiving a correlation where none exists or over-estimating its magnitude - Caused by “distinctiveness” Prejudice Reduction: Contact Hypothesis - Simply exposing people to members of different groups should reduce prejudice (this hasn’t worked) 1. Out-group members have traits and abilities that challenge negative stereotypes 2. Contact is supported by social norms 3. Groups are of equal status (in contact setting) 4. Contact occurs in personal interactions 5. Groups engage in cooperative activities to achieve a common goal. Social Facilitation Theory: Social Loafing: tendency of people to become less productive in groups. 11 Group of 5 people You are less likely to do all of the work, because you feel everyone should do some of the work. Personality - Characteristic patterns of thinking, feeling & behaving Nomothetic = Identifies general laws that govern behavior of all individuals (good generalizability) Idiographic = Identifies the unique characteristics and life history of one individual (case studies) 3 Major Assumptions of Psychoanalytic Theory 1. Unconscious motivation 2. Psychic determinism “we aren’t free to choose our actions because we’re at the mercy of powerful inner forces that lie outside of our awareness” 3. Symbolic meaning Structure of Personality: Id= fights for manifestation and satisfaction of unconscious psychic energy Driven by “pleasure principle” The id is INSTINCTIVE and UNSOCIALIZED 12 Superego = Internalized rules and ideals pressed upon us. “Conscience” Ego = The decision maker, reality principle Trait = A relatively stable predisposition to feel and act in a certain way Personality is composed of many different TRAITS EX : A Dictionary search for words that one might use to describe people found a total of over 17,000 terms 13 **** THE FIVE FACTOR MODEL Openness to Experience = imaginative, intellectual---simple, down- to-earth Conscientiousness = Cautious, responsible, efficient--- Irresponsible, lazy, impulsive Extraversion = Sociable, assertive, outgoing--- Reserved, quiet, reflective Agreeableness = Good-natured, sympathetic, helpful--- Irritable, rude, demanding Neuroticism = Nervous, anxious, moody---Calm, composed, stable, flexible 3 Components to Social Cognitive Theory: Reciprocal Determinism: 1. Personality, Emotional, and Cognitive Factors 2. Environment 3. Behavior External Locus of Control = “I’m controlled by my environment” Internal Locus of Control = “I’m able to control my environment” 14
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