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All notes for Chem 1B with Dr. Arasasingham

by: Amir Mahmoodi

All notes for Chem 1B with Dr. Arasasingham Chem 1B

Marketplace > University of California - Irvine > Chemistry > Chem 1B > All notes for Chem 1B with Dr Arasasingham
Amir Mahmoodi
GPA 3.5

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About this Document

This set of notes contains all notes for Dr. Arasasingham's Chem 1B class at UC Irvine.
General Chemistry
Dr. Arasasingham
Chemistry, General Chemistry, Chem 1B, UCI, Irvine, Arasasingham, GChem
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This 26 page Bundle was uploaded by Amir Mahmoodi on Monday February 8, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Chem 1B at University of California - Irvine taught by Dr. Arasasingham in Winter 2014. Since its upload, it has received 64 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry in Chemistry at University of California - Irvine.


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Date Created: 02/08/16
Arasasingham – Amir’s Notes 01/10/2014 ▯ Monday 1/6/14  General information about the course o Go to Lecture on time o Do the homework assignments assigned and suggested o You can go to more than 1 discussion per week o Surveys are 5% extra credit o All Exams end up on a Friday  Chemical Bonds o Ionic, Covalent, and Metallic o Metals are on the left side of the periodic table and they are called electropositive:  Not selfish at all and have endothermic electron affinity (will need energy to take an electron) o Nonmetals are on the right side and they are called electronegative:  Electronegative are selfish and have high exothermic electron affinity (will give energy for an electron) o Metal with Metal makes a Metallic bond o Nonmetal with nonmetal makes a Covalent bond o Metal with a nonmetal (Electronegative + Electropositive) makes an Ionic bond (depending on their charge)  Noble Gases o Don’t make any chemical bonds Wednesday 1/8/14 Ionic Compounds o Large Lattice structure made of cations (+) and anions (-) o Smallest unit of the lattice is called a Formula Unit o High boiling and melting points o Conduct electricity in molten state or when in a solution o They are brittle and shatter with applied force  Covalent Molecules o Two atoms that share electrons o Energy is given off when the bond is made between two nonmetals o They have low melting and boiling points o Exists as gases, liquids, or solids o Poor conductors of electricity  Metals o Billions of electropositive atoms form a macro-structure o All except Mercury (Hg) are solid at room temperature o Have high melting and boiling points o Shiny and lustrous o Malleable and ductile o Good conductors of electricity and heat because metallic bonds are a sea of electrons that connect electropositive atoms who gave up their electrons to the sea. (-)(+) interactions  Energy is released when a bond is formed!! o Therefore energy is absorbed when a bond is broken (we need to put in energy to break a bond)  Electronegativity o a measure of “selfishness” in electron sharing o It is used to find out if the Covalent bond is polar or nonpolar or if a bond is Ionic or covalent  Covalent bond with electronegativity difference of of 0.0-0.4 is nonpolar  Change in electronegativity of 0.4~2.0 is polar  Greater than ~2.0 is usually an ionic bond Friday 1/10/14  Dipole moment o look at individual dipole moments and compare each individual bond to see if the molecule is overall polar  Allotrope: a molecule that can exist as multiple different forms  Bonds of Covalent Compounds: o Intra-Molecular (within the molecule)  Electron Sharing shown by solid lines  They are very strong  Have fixed lengths called “bond length”  Found between two atoms  Cl-Cl +239 KJ/mol to break this bond o Inter-Molecular Forces (between molecules)  Weak Forces shown by dotted lines  Not bonds  Variable lengths  Non-directional  Cl-Cl ------ Cl-Cl +5 KJ/mol to break this Force  Strongest in solids Arasasingham - Amir 01/13/2014 ▯ Monday 1/13/14  Three Types of Inter-Molecular Forces: o Dipole-Dipole (strong)  Dipole means two opposite charges.  Polar molecules have a Dipole Moment  This allows interactions between neighboring molecules.  δ+ portions of one molecule attract δ­ portions of other  molecules  The difference in electronegativity must be greater than 0.4 for a molecule to be polar.  If a molecule is non polar it’s dipole moment = 0 o Hydrogen Bonding (strongest) o London Dispersion Forces (weakest) o These forces are much weaker than Intra-molecular bonds (like covalent bonds) and they are the ones that will break if some energy is put into the system ▯ ▯ ▯ Wednesday 1/15/14  Non-polar molecules o Hydrocarbons are non polar because the electro negativity difference between Carbon and Hydrogen atoms is less than 0.4  Hydrogen Bonds o A hydrogen atom covalently bonded to N, O, or F is able to perform a Hydrogen bond o This is because their inter-nuclear distance is very small but their fractional charge difference is great. o N-H ---- N-H (dotted line shows hydrogen bond between electron pair of Nitrogen which is partially negative and the partial positive charge of the hydrogen)  The H ---- before the dotted line is called a H-bond donor  This hydrogen atom needs to be covalently bonded to a O, N or F  The ---- N on the right side of the dotted line is called a H-bond acceptor and this nitrogen just needs to be covalently bonded to an atom with much lower electronegativity value (not necessarily Hydrogen). o Molecules that have Fluorine don’t really mix with anything. They’re like Teflon. o Ice is less dense than liquid water because when water freezes it expands and forms structures with empty spaces between them. Thus making ice less dense than water  Boiling Point o The stronger Inter-Molecular Forces the molecule has, the higher its boiling point  IMF strength = H-bond > Dipole-Dipole > London Dispersion Forces ▯ ▯ ▯ Friday 1/17/14  London Dispersion Forces o The weakest inter-molecular Force o Arise when the motion of electrons in a molecule or atom produce a temporary dipole o Covalent molecules o Instantaneous and temporary o The temporary dipole in one molecule induces a dipole in neighboring molecules  At room temperature this dipole fluctuates all the time. However, as you decrease the temperature it slows down, thus giving molecules the ability to form solids at very low temperatures.  Polarizability o The more polarizable an atom, the stronger the London Dispersion Forces o Bigger molecules are more polarizable Arasasingham - Amir 01/27/2014 ▯ Wednesday 1/22/14  London Dispersion Forces o Elongated(molecules that take up more surface area) and heavier molecules have stronger London Dispersion Forces.  Elongated molecules have a larger surface area and therefore more polarizability  More polarizability = stronger London dispersion forces  Higher molecular mass also means higher London dispersion forces.  Bigger atomic radius = stronger London dispersion forces o London dispersion forces vary depending on the Size, shape, and polarizibility of the moleculse  For most molecules London dispersion are the prevailing inter-molecular force  Boiling point o Boiling point increases as mass does. o Higher inter-molecular force also increases boiling point. ▯ Friday 1/24/14  Crystalline and Polycrystalline solids o Molecular Solid  Component units are molecules  Held together by intermolecular forces  H2O is an example of molecular solids o Ionic Solids  Component units are cations and anions  Held together by electrostatic interactions (aka ionic bonding).  Ex: NaCl o Atomic Solids  Component units can be Metallic Solids  Held together by metallic bonding  Can be network solids  Held together by covalent bonding  Ex: Diamond – one huge network of covalent bonds.  Can be Group 8A solids  Covalently bonded networks held together by London dispersion forces.  Ex: Neon and Krypton and very low temperatures. Arasasingham - Amir 01/27/2014 ▯ Monday 1/27/14  Variations of Unit Cells (Cubes) o Simple Cube – component units found only at the 8 corners  Each corner = 1/8 of an atom  SCC contains 1/8 times 8 corners = 1 atom per unit cell  L = 2r  AA Layering  Coordination Number = 6 o Face Centered Cube – at 8 corners and 1 at every face too  Every face has ½ of an atom  FCC has ½ times 6 faces plus 1/8 times 8 corners = 4 atoms per unit cell  L = 4rcos45  ABC Layering  Coordination Number = 12 o Body Centered Cube – at 8 corners and one in the center  BCC has 1/8 times 8 corners + 1 in center = 2 atoms per unit cell  L = 4r/[Sqrt(3)]  ABAB Layering  Coordination Number = 8 Wednesday 1/29/14  Network Solids o The reason they are so strongly bonded is because they are held together by Covalent bonds not inter molecular forces  Face Centered Cube o ABC-ABC arrangement o Close packed array o 4 atoms in cube (6 face 8 corners) o Coordination number is 12 o Efficiently packed, 74% occupied  Hexagonal Lattice: o Made of 3 monoclinical unit cells (hexagonal unit cells) o AB-AB (aba, where a’s eclipse eachother) o 2 atoms per unit cell (1 in middle, 8 corners) o coordination number of 12 o Also 74% ▯ ▯ ▯ Friday---------------------------------------------------------------Midterm! Monday   Wednesday   Friday   Arasasingham - Amir 02/17/2014 ▯ Monday 2/10/14  Internal energy o Sum of potential and kinetic energy o The total energy of the system o Either changed by workflow or heat flow o E = q + w o If no work or heat flow then total energy remains the same  Change in energy is zero o Exothermic: Heat flow from system to surrounding o Endothermic: Heat flow to the system from surrounding  Volume expansion of gas, w = -  Volume compression of a gas, w = +  ΔΗ = Ηfinal - Ηintial  Pressure = Force / Area ; therefore Force = Pressure x Area ; since work = Force x distance, therefore o w = P(ΔΗ x A)  w = p x ΔV  applying the sign convention, we get:  w = - (p x ΔV)  ΔE = q – (p x ΔV) ▯ ▯ ▯ Wednesday 2/12/14  Enthalpy: is descried as the heat energy of the system at constant pressure o H = E + PV  The change in enthalpy under constant external pressure o ΔH = ΔE + P(ΔV) o For a system that undergoes volume expansion of a gas under constant external pressure o Δ = qp – P(ΔV) o qp = heat flow at constant pressure • Therfore: o qp = ΔE + P(ΔV) • In other words, the enthalpy change is defined as the heat flow at constant pressure  ΔH = qp = ΔE + P(ΔV) o ΔH = Hfinal - Hintial  If ΔH is positive, then the rxn is endothermic  If ΔH is negative, then the rxn is exothermic  Enthalpy change has Extensive Property and State Property o Extensive Property: any property that depends on the amount of substance  Ex: mass, volume, ΔE, ΔH o Intensive Property: any property independent of the amount of substance present  Ex: Pressure, temperature, density o State Property: Depends only on the initial and final states not the path taken to get there.  Ex: A → B = A → C → D → E → B ▯ ▯ ▯ Friday 2/14/14  Hesses Law: o If a reaction is reversed, then so is the sign of deltaH o If the coefficients in a balanced equation are multiplied by a number, then the deltaH is multiplied by the same thing  Can be used as a ratio to find amount of each product used in a reaction  Standard enthalpy of formation: change in enthalpy that accompanies the formation of 1 mole of a compound from its elements w/all of the elements in their standard states o P = 1 atm o T = 25 oC o All elements have to be in their natural states  Ex: O2(g) + ½ N2(g) → NO2(g) deltaHof = 34 KJ/mole  ΔHrxn = Σ(ΔHproducts) - Σ(ΔHreactants)  Calorieometry: study of heat flow based on temperature o Heat capacity: ability of a substance to absorb heat and undergo a temperature change o Specific heat capacity:  Cs = q / (m(ΔT)) Cs → J / (g * oC)  Q = Cs * m * ΔT o Molar heat capacity:  Cp = q / (mol(ΔT)) Cp → J / (mole * oC)  Q = Cp * mole * ΔT ▯ ▯ ▯                   Arasasingham - Amir 03/03/2014 ▯ Monday 2/26/14 ΔG = ΣG (of formation of products) - ΣG (of formation of reactants) Effects of temperature on G: o If a reaction is not spontaneous at low temperatures, it can become spontaneous at higher temperatures and Vice Versa. ▯ ▯ ▯ Wednesday 2/28/14 Preparation for the midterm Interactive information: bond being broken and new bonds being formed Dynamic information: the rxn is time dependent phenomenon ▯ ▯                      


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