Psyc 405, Memory, Intelligence and Alzheimer's notes
Psyc 405, Memory, Intelligence and Alzheimer's notes PSYC 405
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This 11 page Bundle was uploaded by Stacey Kane on Monday February 8, 2016. The Bundle belongs to PSYC 405 at Towson University taught by Kim Shifren in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Aging in Psychlogy at Towson University.
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Date Created: 02/08/16
Working memory o Cognitive resources that can be used to encode, access, store, and manipulate information o Working memory imposes limits on language How many digits are retained (forward digit span) How many digits can be recorded (backward digit span) How many words are retained while simultaneously reading other sentences (reading span) Reading span task How many sentence relations, especially hierarchical relations can be made at one time o Involves simultaneously selecting, coordinating and processing incoming information o Deficits in working memory: Distractibility and poor working memory Inability to focus on one aspect of an intersensory task Older adults are more susceptible to interference Use of ineffective strategies in encoding or retrieving o Disease or damage can also lead to poor working memory Recollection o Retrieval of contextual information about a past event Remembering the time and place of an event o Affected by divided attention and response time deadlines o Substantially impaired in normal aging o Senior citizens believe they are remembering everything correctly when in actuality they are not Familiarity o Recognition about the event without retrieving contextual information “oldness” feeling about an event Affected by task factors and changes in how stimuli look from a practice to the actual test o Unimpaired or only slightly impaired as we age o Can happen more in later life because this already happens as well as the issue of retrieving date and place Short vs. long term memory o Primary and secondary memory Primary memory is conscious awareness of recently perceived events o Secondary memory is the retrieval of events that had left consciousness Forgetting from sensory stores is due to simple decay From short-term memory it is displacement From long-term memory it is interference (on the tip of your tongue) o Age related changes Younger adults work faster in searching contents of short term memory (processing speed) Using digit-span or letter-span tasks show that short-term memory is not affected by age to any great extent Verbal memory can improve throughout the lifespan Episodic and Semantic Memory o Episodic: Conscious recall of specific details of previous events Self-awareness that a past event actually happened to the person Details about a past time can permanently change in their mind o Semantic memory: Remembering learned knowledge about the world and until this part of the brain starts to actually deteriorate, we will always have and build on this memory Knowing certain knowledge but not always recalling when it was learned and from whom Source memory o Ability to remember the context of time and/or place when a particular piece of information was learned o Patients with damage to the frontal cortex have pronounced source memory errors o Inability to monitor source may lead to repetition of the same stories in the same settings o Errors in source memory are more likely to occur in older adults o Younger adults have better source memory than older adults o Older adults forget the reliability of a source, so may believe unreliable information o Older adults may confuse one list with another, attributing incorrect information to items or people o Older adults may forget they already told a story in situation and repeat it again Autobiographical memory o Flashbulb memories: exceptionally vivid, detailed and long-lasting mental image of an important personal event Can be a negative thing if the memory is a negative memory o Reminiscence bump: memory of early memories from adolescence and early adulthood, a happier time for many Not everybody has positive memories from this time o False memories: remembering events that never occurred Fooled by others’ implanting fake memories while under hypnosis Older adults tend to think they learned something because it sounds familiar or especially if they can’t remember much about it Non-declarative memory o Success at doing something due to ast learned information o Information that is usually perceptual or motor o Information that has become automatic, such as playing a sport, an instrument, or tying your shoes o Can be any type of information o Procedural memory Priming and implicit memory o Priming: giving hints after a memory task to help improve recollection o Implicit memory: determined by indirect measures Procedural memory Priming Issues here means that you really have a disease or damage; you should be concerned about this o Explicit memory: memory for specific information, relies on semantic, declarative o Memory o Subjective memory: people may over or underestimate their cognitive abilities, resulting in less investment of effort into a task Your own personal view about your memory o Objective memory: leading to poor performance on actual cognitive tasks Your actual memory, like a math or verbal math test o Older adults buy into the statement that older adults have poor memory Crumley, Stetler and Horhota (2014) o Conducted a mea-analysis (53 studies) of older adults subjective and objective memory relationship o They found a small but significant relationship between subjective and objective memory across studies o Older adults have a limited and varied perception of their own memory abilities o Oldest-old had expectations of cognitive decline that were closely associated with actual performance o More educated individuals had more accurate view of their memory, which associated better with actual cognitive Can help you remember to take meds or perform in a play etc. Gain different types of memory abilities o More depressed individuals showed less accurate subject memory, and less association between subjective and objective memory Person can do very well on a test but still think they have poor memory o Prospective memory studies show strongest relation between subjective and objective memory o Prospective memory: remembering to perform a planned action or intention at some future point in time, such as daily life Remembering to take a medication Some conclusions about aging and memory o Older adults have greater trouble recalling recent explicit, declarative information but information from the past is more easily recalled by older adults o Older adults do as well as younger adults on implicit memory tasks o Memory processing vs. memory knowledge is more impaired with aging Memory processing seems to be more of the problem The nature of intelligence o Definitions Is it a single ability or a collection of many independent mental abilities? Spearman (1987) Primary mental abilities; several separate abilities Such as verbal comprehension, word fluency, number, space, associative memory, perceptual speed and induction Horn (1998) proposed two factors: Crystallized intelligence: knowledge, judgment, understating o Can always improve throughout the lifespan Fluid intelligence: perception, recall, drawing inferences, processing speed o Needs to be worked on to stay in the brian Measurement of Intelligence o Hypothetical construct o Can only be measured indirectly Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale has six subtests on the verbal scale and five subtests on the performance scale Developmental Changes in Intelligence o Crosssectional studies Steady decreases in older age groups beginning in late adolescence Performance subtests showed greater decline Subtests are in fluid intelligence Crystallized intelligence increases until one’s sixth decade while fluid intelligence has a steady decline beginning in early adulthood o Longitudinal Studies Increases in IQ performance up to age 50; Then abilities are usually maintained or have a small decline IQ gains were in verbal abilities and losses were mostly in nonverbal abilities Those who actively use mathematical skills won’t have a decline in those areas IQ scores remained very stable over the fortyyear span once they start looking at 65+ Intellectual Functions and Neurobiological Aging o Cohort Effects Gains in IQ were more highly associated with education than aging Schaie’s Seattle Longitudinal Study: Decline in performance somewhere between 5570 years in fluid intelligence Baltes; education, health and work increase intelligence o Selective Dropout The unhealthy and unmotivated drop out in higher numbers The sample at the end of studies tend to be positively biased in that subjects are highly educated, successful, motivated and healthy o Health Those in good physical health can think, reason, and remember better Hypertension leads to a decline in intellectual functions Fluid intelligence more related to health problems than crystallized intelligence Healthy diets lead to higher scores on IQ tests Poor diets have poorer results on IQ tests; bad foods hurt your brain and heart Terminal Drop o Tendency for psychological and biological abilities to exhibit a dramatic decrease in one’s last few years of life o May be limited to abilities in fluid intelligence usually being the least affected by age Vocabulary and other verbal abilities Mental exercise and Cognitive Training o Plasticity suggests that older adults have substantial cognitive reserve capacity, and cognitive training can make use of it o With training, older adults show significant gains on different primary mental abilities, and these improvements generalize Brain gym o Training leads to less functional decline and better IADLs o Training works better for younger than older adults Intelligence and Everyday Problem Solving o IQ: poor indicator of everyday problemsolving abilities Poor predictive validity with life activities Performance subtests are speeded in nature; they work against the elderly who have psychomotor retardation, anxiety, or caution IQ tests originally developed to predict school success not everyday problemsolving Conclusions about Adult Intellectual change o Crosssectional studies show greater decline in abilities than longitudinal ones o Longitudinal studies suggest that intelligence remains stable until 60 years o Crystallized intelligence increases with age o Fluid intelligence decreases with age o Processing speed decreases with age o Traditional IQ tests are modestly helpful o Traditional tests for ADLs are more important for older adults so we can know if it is okay for them to live on their own and have a good quality of living Don’t care about their verbal skills or anything like that, as long as they can function by themselves Creativity o Definition and measurement of creativity Creativity and intelligence are not the same Creativity: ability to make unique and original contributions to society Creativity is divergent thinking: many different answers to a single question While convergent thinking: one correct answer Creativity requires an amount of knowledge about a field o Creativity is not something new, it is something you always have and use it more at certain times o Developmental changes in creativity Some research shows Greatest quality of productivity in one’s 30s and then gradually declines; 80% of the most important creative contributions are completed by age 50 In Dennis’s study (1969), the 60s was the most creative decade among famous scholars, scientists and artists who lived until at least 80 years of age o Ordinary creativity Peaks at about 30 years and then declines Only one aspect of divergent thinking, word fluency declined with age Psychological and social change affect creativity You cannot separate what is happening in the brain from what is happening in everyday life What happens to senior citizens that limit their abilities? Taking the bus vs. driving Living alone vs. living with someone McCrae et. Al. (1987): crosssectional and longitudinal combined study Associated fluency: give synonyms Expressional fluency: write sentences Ideational fluency: name objects Word fluency: write words Consequences: imagine unusual results Genius o Both intelligence and creativity are necessary, but not a sufficient condition for the development of genius o Geniuses enjoy problem finding more than problem solving o Geniuses approach work with childlike enthusiasm and obsessiveness o Often loo for different things to stimulate their brain We have now talked about cognition in many ways: o Through changes in brain structure o Memory changes o Intelligence o Creativity o A new way: postformal thought Postformal Thought o Moving beyond Piaget with cognitive thought Postformal thinkers possess an understanding of the relative, nonabsolute nature of knowledge Relativistic thinking Accept contradiction as a basic aspect of reality Hard concept for some adults to understand Always see the middle ground o Recognizing when something is not right for you Dichotomous thinkers will just give up and walk away o Not everyone will reach o A contextual approach to problem solving Solve problems by continuously creating new principles based on changing circumstance, instead of set principles applied to all contexts Coming up with new ways to think of things Understanding that some techniques can’t be used in the same context o Postformal thinking tends to be domainspecific People use in some but not all areas You can be dichotomous thinking in one area and postformal thinking in another o Directed towards problem finding o Based on social cognition – reasoning about the social and interpersonal world Dementia o Loss or decline in memory and other cognitive abilities o Can be caused by variety of diseases resulting in damaged brain cells o Following criteria must be met to have dementia: Decline in memory and at least one of the following Decline in coherent speech, spoked or written Decline in ability to recognize or identify objects Decline in performing motor activities, sensory function, and comprehension of task Ability to make judgements, carry out complex tasks Must be severe decline that interferes with daily life o Most common type of dementia is Alzheimer’s disease Accounts for estimated 60-80% of cases Progressive, fatal disease More than 5.3 million Americans have it 7 leading cause of death in US 172 billion dollars/annual cost (doesn’t include costs from unpaid caregivers) 10.9 million unpaid caregivers Alzheimer’s Disease o 1906 Alois Alzheimer described it o 1910 Emil Kraepelin said the brain disorder should be named after Dr. Alzheimer o Transfer of information at the synapses begins to fail Number of synapse declines and eventually cells die Advanced Alzheimer’s disease patients have brains with large shrinkage from cell loss Lots of debris from dead and dying neurons o Plaques Build up between nerve cells Deposits of protein fragment called beta-amyloid o Neurofibrillary tangles Slows or interrupts communication Form inside dying cells Begin in areas for learning and memory and then spread out to other areas Younger onset o More than 500,000 people in their 30s, 40s, and 50s, have Ad or a related dementia according to the Alzheimer’s Association o Current estimate of 200,000 under 65 may have younger-onset AD o May be due to rare genetic variations involving chromosome 21 Gene for amyloid precursor protein o Chromosome 14 on gene for presenilin 1 protein o Chromosome 1 on the gene for preseniln 2 Older or late onset o Most cases of Alzheimer’s disease occur in those over 65 years old o Genetic factor Apolipoprotein E-e4 (ApoE-e4) One of three common forms of the ApoE gene that has protein able to carry cholesterol in the bloodstream o Those who inherit ApoE-e4have increased risk for developing Alzheimer’s disease o If you inherit two ApoE-e4 genes you have an even higher risk o However presence of these genes is not a guarantee you will develop Alzheimer’s disease Stages of Ad o No impairment Not seeing any type of changes, no issues o Very mild impairment Brief memory lapses, forgetting roads, location of keys o Mild cognitive decline Friends and family begin to notice changes Word and naming finding problems with family/friends Performance problems at work or social settings Decline in ability to organize and plan o Moderate cognitive decline Decreased knowledge of recent evets Can’t do challenging math Can’t do complex tasks (prepare dinner, do bills) Losing memory of own history Subdued, withdrawn in social situation o Mid-stage Can’t recall address, etc. during medical interview Confused on date, where they are Can’t do less challenging math o Severe Lose most ability to know recent events Personal history is sketchy Forget name of spouse or even forget you have a spouse Need help with getting dressed Disruption in sleep Urinary incontinence: body becomes week from being bed ridden, also forgetting that they have not gone Treatment o No treatment will slow or stop deterioration of brain cells in AD o US Food and Drug Administration approved five drugs that Temporarily slow down the worsening of symptoms for 6-12 months on average but only for about half the people who take the drug o Currently there are about 90 experimental therapies for slowing or stopping progression of AD going through clinical testing on humans Other dementias o Mild cognitive impairment o Vascular dementia o Mixed dementia o Dementia with Lewy Bodies o Parkinson’s Disease o Frontotemporal dementia o Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease o Normal Pressure hydrocephalus o Huntington’s disease o Wernicka-Korsakoff syndrome Treatments o Cholinesterase inhibitors Prevent breakdown of acetylcholine, which is needed for learning and memory o Memantine Regulaes activity of glutamate, another messenger involved in learning and memory o Brand names: Aricept Razadvne Namenda Exelon Cognex Research o Growing evidence that controlling potential problems with cholesterol, blood pressure, Type 2 diabetes, etc. and other things linked to cardiovascular problems can delay the onset of cognitive declines o Dieting, exercising, stress management, can play key roles in prolonging good health and avoiding cognitive decline o Much research on dementia involves medical studies on drugs that can help dementia patients o Non-medical studies generally focus on the caregiver-care recipient relationship o Less is known about living with dementia from the patient’s perspective Dementia o Guardian (rarely done) Takes care of you daily needs Appointed by courts and can be from family o Durable power of attorney Give someone right to carry out your medical decisions Act on your behalf Wills o Testamentary capacity Are you competent to execute a will o Three conditions necessary Do you understand a will is being created Do you know extent of property and assets being distributed Do you understand who will benefit from the will
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