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verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
This 9 page Bundle was uploaded by Jenna Zagrodniczek on Monday February 8, 2016. The Bundle belongs to CDFS 110 at West Virginia University taught by Katie Snider in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 45 views. For similar materials see Families Across the Life-Span in Child Development at West Virginia University.
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Date Created: 02/08/16
Romantic love Finding a life partner is a major milestone in early adult development. Mate selection: How women make choose their mate -Intelligence, ambition, financial status and moral character, same age of slightly older How men choose their mate: physical attractiveness, domestic skills, and younger age Sternberg’s Triangular Theory of Love 3 components of Sternberg’s love theory: 1) Intimacy: emotional, warm, tender communication 2) Passion: desire for sexual activity and romance 3) Commitment: cognitive, partners decide to keep the love Passionate love: intense sexual attraction. Felt at the start of a relationship. It gradually declines and gives way to intimacy and commitment forming the basis of companionate love. Traditional and Egalitarian Marriages Traditional- clear division of roles -Woman: cares for husband, children, home -Man: head of household, economic support Egalitarian-partners relate as equals -Share authority -Balance attention to jobs, children, home, spouse Trends in having children -Fewer married couples have children -Childless can either be voluntary or involuntary -Voluntary child free couples are often from higher SES and college educated -Have first child later in life -Smaller numbers of children -Sometimes a woman’s career and economic security can cause delay in having children Cohabitation- staying together but not married Characteristics of cohabiting couples: -Have had more sexual partners/poor quality relationships -More politically liberal -Less religious -More androgynous (genderless, or asexual) -Parents might have divorced 10/9/15 Sexuality in middle adulthood -There is a slight drop in frequency of sexual activity among married couples by middle adulthood. -The predictor of sexual frequency is marital happiness. Research shows that the link between the two is bidirectional -Intensity of sexual response diminishes due to physical changes of the climacteric. Both men and women take longer to feel aroused and reach orgasm. Cognitive Development -Middle adulthood is characterized by an increase in crystallized intelligence. These are skills that result from accumulated knowledge, experience and mastery of social convention. They excel at practical problem solving. -In contrast fluid intelligence declines. This is based on speed of information processing, speed of analyzing information, and capacity of working memory. -From twenties into sixties, the amount of information one can retain in working memory diminishes -Crystallized intelligence increases steadily through middle adulthood while fluid intelligence begins to decline in the twenties. Information processing -There are two views that explain the decline in the speed of information processing -Neural network view: As neurons in brain die, the brain adapts forming bypasses (slower); new synaptic connections that compensate for the dead neurons but they are less efficient -Information loss view: Older adults experience greater loss of information as it moves through cognitive system. The whole system therefore slows down to inspect and interpret the information. Practical problem solving skills -In middle adulthood people gain in skills of analyzing and solving issues in real-world situation. This is expertise; an extensive, highly organized and integrated knowledge base that can be used to support high level of performance. -Expertise is not just for the highly educated. Even people without formal education can be experts in different fields. 11/11/15 Emotional and social development in middle adulthood Theories of psychosocial development Erikson’s Theory of Generatively versus Stagnation -Generatively: Reaching out to others in ways that give to and guide the next generation (ex. Community service, voluntary work.) Driven by a need to be needed, attain symbolic immortality -Stagnation: Self-centered approach to life. Lack of interest in young people; focus on what they get from others, less on what they can give Levinson’s Four Tasks Theory -Young-old: Seeking new ways of being both young and old -Destruction-Creation: Greater awareness of death drawing near, they focus on leaving a legacy for future generations -Masculinity-Femininity: Striking a balance between feminine and masculine self. Men learn nurturance and caring while women learn autonomy and assertiveness. -Engagement-Separateness: Balancing between engagement with external world and separateness. Sacrificing career ambition to focus on self and family Midlife Crisis -A self-doubt and stress during forties that prompt major restructuring of personality -Regret on the past losses and realization that time is quickly passing by -People do not make drastic changes in their lives; often changes are gradual (turning points) Gender Roles in Middle Adulthood -Women become more autonomous while men become more nurturing in middle adulthood -Parental Imperative theory: Traditional gender role identification helps to ensure children’s survival during active parenting years. Parents can express the “other-gender” of their personality after children have grown up Parent-Child Relationship -Launching phase: culminates “letting go” process. Decline in parental authority. Parents begin to invest in non-parental authority. Parents begin to invest in non-parental relationships and roles. The transition varies from person to person. Dealing with “empty nest” -Kinkeeper role: Gathering the family for celebrations and ensuring everybody stays in touch. Kinkeeper role is played by women or mothers in the family 110 11/13/15 Big Five personality traits Neurotism- high: worrying, temperamental, self-pitying, emotional, and vulnerable Low: calm, even-tempered, self-content, unemotional Extroversion- High: affectionate, talkative, active, fun loving, passionate Low: reserved, quiet, passive, sober, emotionally unreactive Openness to experience- High: imaginative, creative, original, curious, liberal Low: Down to earth, uncreative, conventional, uncurious, conservative Agreeableness- High: softhearted, trusting, generous, and good-natured Low: ruthless, suspicious, stingy, antagonistic, critical, irritable Conscientiousness- High: hardworking well organized, punctual, and ambitious Low: negligent, lazy, disorganized, always late, aimless Grandparenthood Qualities of a grandparent Valued elder: Being perceived as wise, helpful person Immortality: Leaving behind two generations after death Re-involvement with personal past: Passing family history and values to new generation Indulgence: Having fun with children without parental responsibilities Caring for aging parents Sandwich Generation: Middle-aged must care for multiple generations above and below them at the same time They either provide financial help or give direct care for their aging parents Relationships at midlife -Midlifers tend to adjust to divorce more easily than younger people. Their gain in problem solving skills and effective coping reduce the stressful impact of divorce -Feminization of poverty: A trend in which women who support themselves and families have become the norm Friendships at midlife -Men’s friendship: at all ages men’s friendships are less intimate than women’s. Men tend to discuss sports, politics, and business -Women’s friendship: Focuses on feelings, and life problems -Number of friends decline from middle to late adulthood as attention shifts to family ties Physical and cognitive development in late adulthood Physical Development -Chronological age: The actual age of a person -Functional age: Actual age may not match one’s chronological age. People are biologically at different rates. (ex: Dixon has a chronological age of 80 but a functional age of 60) Physical changes in the sensory system -Change in the taste buds: Difficulty with recognizing familiar foods by taste alone -Health Risks: -Food is less tasty, increasing likelihood of dietary deficiencies -Decline in odor sensitivity -Difficulty detecting gas fumes, rancid food, or smoke may be a threat to life Mental Disabilities -Dementia: a set of disorders that makes many aspects of thought and behavior so impaired that everyday activities are disrupted -Most common type of dementia is Alzheimer’s disease -Alzheimer: Chemical and structural brain deterioration associated with gradual loss of many aspects of thought and behavior -Depression is often misdiagnosed as Alzheimer Cognitive functioning in late life -Keep the mind active using cognitive skill training -Lifelong learning, understanding new ideas, learning new skills that enrich life, making new friends Retirement -Retirement can have either negative or positive cognitive change -Leaving a routine job for a stimulating leisure activity is beneficial. Retiring from complex job to a lifestyle of inactivity accelerates intellectual declines Social and Emotional Development in Late Adulthood Theories of psychosocial development in late adulthood -Erikson’s Theory of ego integrity versus despair: Coming to terms with one’s life. Adults who arrive at integrity feel whole, complete and satisfied with their achievements Peck’s theory of ego integrity -Ego differentiation: Finding other ways to affirm self-worth for those who invested heavily on career -Body transcendence: Surmounting physical limitations by compensating rewards of cognitive and social powers -Ego transcendence: Facing the reality of death constructively by making life more secure and meaningful Spirituality and religiosity -US seniors often become more religious or spiritual as they age -A study revealed that only one-fourth of British seniors said they had become less religious -Reminiscence: Telling stories about people and events from the past and reporting associated with thoughts and feelings Relationships in late adulthood -Marital satisfaction rises from middle to late adulthood -Widowhood: men find it more difficult adjusting to widowhood than women. Why? -Relying on wives for social connectedness, household tasks, coping with stressors -Less involved in religious activities, feel uncomfortable seeking help with meals -Non-married, childless men are more likely than women to be lonely and depressed Negative Life changes -Older adults are at a risk for a variety of life changes (death of loved ones, illness, declining income, greater dependency) -Negative life events evoke less stress and depression in older than in younger adults Suicide Rates in late life -In most countries globally older adults are at increased risk of suicide -Males continue to lead in suicide from midlife to late life Elder Abuse -Physical abuse: inflicting pain, discomfort or injury through hitting, physical force, etc. -Physical neglect: intentional or unintentional to failure to fulfill caregiving obligation -Emotional abuse: Verbal assaults, humiliation -Sexual abuse: Unwanted sexual contact -Financial abuse: improper exploitation of financial resources through theft End of Life: Death, dying and bereavement Defining Death -Death is a process, in which organs shut down one by one and it varies from person to person -Brain death: Irreversible cessation of all brain activities -Persistent vegetative state: the brain stem remains active, but cerebral cortex stops registering electrical activity How we die: the phases of death A person moves through three phases during transition from life to permanent death 1) The agonal phase: A struggle that involves gasps of breath, muscles spasm as regular heartbeat disintegrates 2) Clinical Death: At this stage, heartbeat, blood circulation, breathing and brain functioning strops but resuscitation is still possible 3) Mortality: The individual passes into permanent death Death with dignity -Providing a dying person with compassionate care -Be clear about the death’s certainty -Doctors and nurses can help the dying person learn about their condition, so as to enable them decide whether to continue with treatment -Death anxiety: The fear of death. Avoiding any talk about death, by using words like “passing away,” “departing,” “gone to be with the Lord.” Kubler-Ross’s theory of dying stages -Denial: Failing to accept the impending death -Anger: recognizing that time is limited, yet there is much to do in life -Bargaining: Bargaining for extra time by striking a deal with doctors, nurses, family members or God -Depression: When denial, anger, and bargaining fail, the person gets depressed about the loss of life -Acceptance: In the last weeks or days the person reaches a state of peace and waits for their upcoming death 12/2/15 Place to die Dying at home: -Home offers an environment of intimacy an care in which the sick do not feel abandoned. Only one-fourth of Americans die at home -Home might not be ideal because of quality of care -Family members also continue to experience more psychological stress after witnessing a loved one die at home -Dying in hospital -Most hospitals now have well developed treatment programs to ease physical, emotional, and spiritual suffering during end of life. However, some hospitals lack suck facilities -Currently most people in the U.S die in hospitals Hospice approach -Hospice is a comprehensive program, which provides a caring community sensitive to the dying person’s needs so the patient and family members can prepare for death in ways that satisfy them. (aim at dying with dignity) -The emphasis is placed on meeting the patient’s physical, emotional, social and spiritual needs, including controlling pain, retaining dignity and self- worth, and feeling cared for and loved. Coping with the death of a loved one -Bereavement: From the phase ‘’be robbed” Experience of losing a loved one by death -Grief: Intense physical and psychological distress -Mourning: Culturally specified expression of grief by a bereaved person -Bereavement is most difficult in the death of a child. (A child represents parent’s sense of immortality) Stages of grief process -Avoidance: Experiencing shock followed by disbelief -Confrontation: Intense grief emotions like sadness, frustration, and anger, helplessness set in -Restoration: Overcoming loneliness by reaching out to others Death ceremonies and rituals -Different communities express their grief in different ways. Death ceremonies and rituals are culturally specific -The primary purpose of death rituals is to commemorate the deceased and to provide social support for the bereaved
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