CDFS 112 chapter 14, 15, 16 notes
CDFS 112 chapter 14, 15, 16 notes CDFS 112-003
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Date Created: 02/08/16
Types of separation of divorce -Trial separation: short period of time living apart -Living apart- during trial separation, don’t plan to reunite -Permanent separation- couple decides if living apart is permanent -Legal separation- involves court hearings, custody, more formal type of separation -Separation agreement- signed document Divorce statistics -Rate of divorce has decreased -Highest and lowest divorce rates -State: highest- Nevada, lowest- DC -Region: highest- The South, lowest- North East -Children more likely to live with which divorced parent? Mom -Divorced women or men more likely to receive public assistance? Women Divorce Laws -Canon law – marriage was a really sacred union and only end with a death of the spouse -Marriage = sacred -Annulment – rare -Fault-based divorce system – you had to prove your spouse violated marriage contract in order to divorce -Adultery, neglect, desertion, and “cruel and inhumane treatment” (abuse) -If violated, absolute divorce granted -No fault divorce- could get divorced without having to prove spouse violated marriage contract -California’s Family Law Act (1970) -“Irreconcilable differences” (when judge grants there is no repair to marriage) What Causes Divorce? -No one thing decides divorce, but many factors -Demographic factors -Societal factors -Lifestyle factors Demographic factors -Education level -College graduates: more stable marriages -Differences between couple education (divorce rates are lower when the man has more education level than the woman) -Income level -More money = less stress -More debt = more stress -Employment status -Low-status jobs = more likely to divorce -Unemployment = more likely to divorce -Women working – less dependent -More partner options -Religion -All major religions discourage divorce -Religious couples – less likely to divorce -Race and Ethnicity -African Americans – highest rate -Disparities between races -Acceptance -Support -Importance on family -Religion Society Factors -Social Integration -Interaction with community -More interaction – lower divorce rate -Diversity in US – higher divorce rate -Cultural Values -Shift in happiness -Media Lifestyle Factors -Age at marriage -Married under 18 (after 10 years) – 48% divorced -Married at 25 or older (after 10 years) – 24% divorced -Why such a big difference? Brain development, maturity -Premarital pregnancy – increases likelihood of divorce, especially for young people -Premarital cohabitation -Over 50% dissolved after 5 years -Research – many other factors -Intergeneration transmission –couples who have divorced parents are more likely to get divorced themselves Bohannon’s Stations (6 stations to divorce) 1) Emotional divorce -Generally postpone legal divorce for children -End – apathy and less conflict 2) Legal divorce -3 parts: husband, wife, and the state -Expensive ($20.000) 3) Economic divorce -After legal issues -May last for years 4) Co-parental divorce -Decisions about children -Many fights 5) Community divorce -Social life changes -Extended family changes 6) Psychic divorce – start to feel level of independence, 100% able to let go of the person -Independence -Possible that a person doesn’t go through this change What happens to the adults? (Aftermath of divorce) -3 main categories: economically, mentally/emotionally, physically -Economically -Standard of living Women- decline Men- less decline or increase -Mentally/Emotionally -Depression and anxiety -Social isolation -Friendships lost -Physically -More health problems -Die sooner -Riskier behaviors What about the Children? -Over half of divorces involved children -5 factors: personal adjustment, interpersonal relationships, antisocial behaviors, cognitive functioning, self-esteem -Personal adjustment -Greater effect on boys -Conflict – greater impact -Involvement of non-custodial parent -Interpersonal relationships -Date earlier -Premarital sex -Choose high-risk partners -Cohabit before marriage -Divorce -Antisocial behavior -Deviant behavior -Less likely if two adults (biological or not) are present -Lack of supervision -Cognitive functioning -Lower academic achievement -More likely to drop out -Self-Esteem -Not divorce directly -Other factors may cause self-esteem to drop… -Conflict -Little family support Outcomes of Divorce -Children -More mature -Higher self-esteem -Better at empathizing -Wiser -Adults -New/better life -Increased independence -Personal growth -Women -Career opportunities -Increased self-confidence -Men -Time and money for self -New partners -Improvements of communication skills Chapter 15 Single parent families, remarriage, and stepfamilies Starting the Process all over -More difficult this time around -Dating -1 year after divorce = children met 2 new dating partners -Satisfying romantic relationship = strongest contributor to adult’s well- being -Lower and slower for mothers to find a new partner -Young divorces = more optimistic Cohabitation -Half of remarriages -More common after divorce than before first marriage -More likely than re-marriage -More instability if they become married -White women- more likely -Fewer children- more likely Remarriage -Higher for men- 52% of divorced men remarry vs. 44% of divorced women -Women > 25 – less likely to remarry Marriage for Love? Status? Money? -Sugar daddies- older, wealthy. Women date for companionship in exchange for money -Sugar mommies- less common, opposite of sugar daddies -Issues – kids, death earlier Remarriage within Races -White women- most likely to remarry -College- educated African American women- reduced prospects -College- educated African American men -Marry younger -Less educated women -Different races/ethnicities -Asian Americans- lowest rates Stepfamilies -Also known as: remarried or blended families -Types- defined by parent-child relationship -Mother-stepfather family: household is mother, biological children and new husband (stepfather) -Father- stepmother family: dad, his bio kids, and stepmom -Joint stepfamily: one kid biologically to both and one child only one bio -Complex stepfamily: both parents have kids from past relationships or marriages Differences of Stepfamilies from First-Marriage Families -Everyone has experienced some important losses -Histories -Negotiate strategies, rules, and traditions -Parent-child bonds -Biological parent not physically present -Member of two households -Role of stepparent Stepfamily Challenges -Adults -Financial strain -Disciplinary boundaries -Lack of bonding time and less involved -Stepparents and children -Children -Loss of power and control -> helplessness -Anger -> disruptive behavior -Divided loyalties -Emotional barriers Successful Stepfamilies -Mourn losses -Realistic expectations -Parents develop strong relationships -New family traditions -Step-relationships form -Work with absent parent Single-Parent Families – Mothers -Most births to women over 20 -Most likely to live in unhealthy environments -More likely to be in poverty -Widows vs. Divorced mothers -Supportive mothering beneficial -Involvement of father -Varies by race -Children raised in single parent families because of death are better off than children raised in single parent families because of divorce. Single parent families- fathers -Spend more on out of home food, alcohol, and tobacco -Single vs. Married – Single fathers less education, less money, married fathers more education and more money -More likely to have custody of sons than daughters Challenges for Single Parent Families -Children -School- twice as likely to drop out -Work- greater risk for unemployment -Pregnancy – twice as likely to become teenage parents -Lifestyle- might have to move schools, reestablishing -Parents -Co-parenting- huge challenge -Money- not as much money when 2 parent family -Lifestyle- lifestyle changes Chapter 16 Enduring marriages and families: successful patterns of commitment What is commitment in a relationship? -Short term= making the decision to love somebody -Long term= deciding to maintain that love over a long period of time -Love, trust, respect = essentials -Strongest predictor of relationship persistence -3 types -Personal- committed to somebody for desire to keep relationship going -Moral- committed because you feel sense of duty to finish what you started -Structural- valuing the time and energy you already invested into relationship Commitment Factors -Work -Dual-earner families: both spouses are working -Work-family conflict: commitment between work and family Role perception – how you see your personal view within the family or society - Sacrifice - Communication - Health - Attitudes The Changing Family -Demographics of American society -Class, race, and ethnicity -Types of couples – family is more defined by commitment and love, not marriage Successful Marriages -Communicate -Unselfishness -Cheerleader – give each other encouragement -Spirituality and values- share basic moral values -Commitment to happiness -Affection -Have fun -Ability to cope -Trust -Share responsibility -Empathize -Celebrate change
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