New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Human Variation and Cancer

by: Caitlin Notetaker

Human Variation and Cancer BIOL-102-01-4162: BIOL 102-01: INTRO BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS - S-Spring 2016

Caitlin Notetaker
U of L
GPA 3.45

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These notes cover Exam Two materials (more to come!) This includes human variation and cancer
Intro to biological sciences
Dr. Linda Fuselier
75 ?




Popular in Intro to biological sciences

Popular in Department

This 7 page Bundle was uploaded by Caitlin Notetaker on Tuesday February 9, 2016. The Bundle belongs to BIOL-102-01-4162: BIOL 102-01: INTRO BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS - S-Spring 2016 at University of Louisville taught by Dr. Linda Fuselier in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views.

Similar to BIOL-102-01-4162: BIOL 102-01: INTRO BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS - S-Spring 2016 at U of L


Reviews for Human Variation and Cancer


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 02/09/16
February 2, 2016  Genetic drift: change in proportion of genes in the population due to chance o Not natural selection o Has the largest impact in smaller populations o Genetic isolation  Founder effect o Population founded by a small number of individuals (founders of a colony on an island) o Followed by genetic drift o Pingelapese people  Achromatopsia (colorblindness) has a very high frequency in this population  Totally colorblind individuals can only see shades of gray, black, and white o Old Order Amish in Pennsylvania  Ellis-van Crevald Syndrome  5000x more common  Race based medicine o Race and ethnicity are not good predictors o Use of race to guide medicine (like gender)  Codeine o Metabolized in the liver to morphine o Ultra metabolizers: multiple copies of allele for liver enzyme  Risk of overdose o Allele frequencies differ in populations  Not related to race  Race and personalized medicine  Cell Reproduction and Cancer o List most common cancers for men and women o Compare and contrast benign and malignant tumors o Describe cellular basis of cancer o Describe events that occur during the cell cycle o Explain and give examples that relate mutations to cancer and the cell cycle  Top cancers for men are: prostate, lung and bronchus, colon and rectum  Top cancers for women are: breast, lung and bronchus, colon and rectum  What is the difference between a cyst and a tumor? o A) The two terms can be used interchangeably as they are synonymous o B) A tumor is a mass of cells, a cyst is a fluid-filled and has no solid parts o C) A cyst is found only in women whereas a tumor may affect men and women o D) Cysts are diseases of the digestive tract whereas a tumor may develop anywhere in the body  What is the difference between a tumor and a cancer? o A) Cancer is a disease that disrupts body functions and a tumor may and may not be cancerous o B) Tumors are cancers but they are deadly cancers in men and women o C) The two are actually the same and words can be used interchangeably o D) A tumor is a mass of cells with no apparent function, a cancer had a function at one time  What is cancer? o A group of diseases characterized by uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells o Tumor- mass of cells  Two types- benign or malignant When cells from a cancerous tumor breaks away and spreads and starts new tumors, it is…  A) Become malignant  B) Undergone mutations  C) Undergone metastasis (metastasized)  D) Become cancerous  E) None of the above  Metastasis o New cancers started in other places o Lymphatic and circulatory systems  Tumor markers o When Nicole underwent surgery to remove her ovary, she was tested for CA 125, a tumor marker o This protein occurs at higher levels in people with cancer o But it also occurs normally (cannot be used to screen for ovarian cancer) o Used to monitor cancer o Her CA 125 levels were much higher 5 months after the surgery, which means she probably has cancer  Why does cancer primarily affect older people rather than young people? o A) The immune system of older people is not as effective in distinguishing normal cells from cancer cells o B) Because older people have been exposed to more carcinogens o C) Because cancer develops after multiple mutations have occurred which takes years to happen o D) None of the above  Most cancers are genetic diseases o Accumulation of mutations o Most have a minimum of six to nine different genes mutated  Genes involve din regulating the cell cycle (cell reproduction) o Inherit susceptibility o Exposure to environmental risk factors  The cell cycle o G1 Cell growth o S synthesis, DNA is copied o G2 Growth and preparation for division o M Mitosis o Cytokinesis  DNA replicates before Mitosis. Why? o A) So the cell can move on to the G1 phase o B) Because the genes that control DNA replication are turned on at that point in the cell cycle o C) Because cytokinesis has already occurred and requires two sets of DNA o D) So each daughter cell has the same genome as the original parent cell o E) DNA polymerase is most highly concentrated just before mitoses February 4, 2016  Cell Cycle Control o G1 Checkpoint  Is cell division necessary?  Are growth factors present?  Is the cell large enough?  Are sufficient nutrients available? o G2 Checkpoint  Was DNA replicated correctly?  Is the cell large enough? o Metaphase Checkpoint  Are all the chromosomes attached to microtubules?  Genes code for a protein  Protein functions as a checkpoint in cell cycle  Mutation- dysfunctional protein, missing protein  Checkpoints are controlled by proteins  Tumor suppressors stop cell division o Stops tumor formation by suppressing cell division o Mutated tumor suppressor protein fails to stop tumor growth o Mutation occurs in DNA  Growth factors stimulate division  Tumor suppressors and growth factors are proteins that control the checkpoints and can cause cancer (uncontrolled growth)  P53 gene makes a protein that stops the cycle (tumor suppressor) o Stops cycle if DNA is damaged  50% of cancers – mutant p53 protein o Mutation in BRCA1 (tumor suppressor) o Cell division continues = tumor formation  What would you expect cells to be like if they did not have properly functioning p53? o A) Bad p53 inside cells would cause them to divide faster o B) Cells would replicate with damaged DNA that could lead to cancer o C) Cells with skip mitosis (M phase) and stay in S phase of the cell cycle o D) There would be no effect on the cells o E) All of these except D  Growth factors o Ras gene  Mutation in Ras causes overproduction of the protein that stimulates the cell reproduction o 30% of all cancers o Stimulates the cell cycle o Mutation = expressed all the time = increased cell division  Mutation in p53 causes missing protein that is suppose to stop the cell cycle  DNA damaged? o Cell starts apoptosis (cell death) o P53 activates apoptosis  Mutations o Cancerous cells have many mutations  Broken and rejoined chromosomes o Angiogenesis- growth of blood vessels o Contact Inhibition  Normal cells stop dividing when they come in contact with other cells  Cancer cells continue to divide, piling on top of each other o Anchorage Dependence  Normal cells stay anchored to other cells or to a surface  Cancer cells lose their anchorage dependence and can travel to new locations  Colon cancer o Accumulation of mutations over 20-40 years  Put in the following order associated with ovarian cancer: 1) Angiogenesis, lack of contact inhibition or anchorage dependence 2) Single cell in ovary acquired a growth factor mutation 3) Doubly mutant cell keeps reproducing cells with even more mutations 4)Cell within tumor undergoes a mutation to BRCA1 tumor suppressor o A) 1,2,3,4 o B) 2,3,1,4 o C) 2,4,3,1 o D) 3,2,4,1 o E) 1,4,3,2  HPV and Cancer o Cancer caused by viruses o 80-90% sexually active, have at least one HPV  Half of these are high risk o 2 high risk HPV’s- most of the cancer cases o Cervical, anal, oropharyngeal, penile o Vaccines protect against HPV  Pre-teen boys and girls o HOW? Virus DNA makes proteins that cause uncontrolled replication and no cell death o 10-30 years after initial infection o P53 and Rb tumor suppressors o Inactivated by HPV proteins February 9, 2016  A chromosome (two sister chromatids) at the stage shown below is NOT at which of the following stages in the cell cycle: o A) G2 o B) S o C) M o D) G1 o E) It could be at any of these  It can’t be in G1 because the DNA has already been replicated  Disease Causation o Genetic, Environment, Parasite  1. HIV  2. Lung Cancer  3. Breast Cancer  4. HPV Genetics 3 2 4 1 Environm Parasite ent  Tasmanian Devil o Carnivore o Marsupial o Once very common in Australia o Eradicated to protect livestock *genetic bottleneck o Males are larger than females o Bites on face are common (post-mating season defense, food fights) o Flesh from other devils o Eat 40% of body weight in thirty minutes o In 1996- facial tumors in populations notices  90% loss in some populations  Dead within three months  This disease is a cancer  What causes the devil’s cancer?  Same number of infected animals in areas with and without chemicals  Devil normal cells react normally to viruses; no virus found in tumors  Genetics? Sex chromosomes are not present in the cancer cells but four other chromosomes are present (inverted chromosomes that come from missing chromosome two and sex chromosomes that are fragmented) o All devils with cancer have cancer cells with exactly the same karyotype. This similarity across individuals indicates that:  A) The cancer likely originated in one individual devil, devil zero  B) The cancer evolved in another closely related species and then moved to devils  C) The cancer is young  D) The cancer is caused by a virus with little genetic variation o Can cancer be contagious? o Immune system connection  Cancer not detected by devil’s immune system  MHC- major histocompatibility complex  Genes involved in immune system  Recognition of self and non-self  Mutations that shut-off genes that help the immune system  Devils genetic diversity  Immune system doesn’t recognize cells from other devils as foreign o Why are the devils so genetically similar?  A) Their population has undergone natural selection in their environment and reduced all variation  B) When they were eradicated, the population decreased and lost genetic variation  C) Devil populations just naturally have low genetic variation  D) The interaction of the cancer cells across the individuals in the population resulted in loss of diversity o Inability to detect tumors- related to genetic bottleneck  They were hunted to near extinction; remaining devils were the founders of new population, so there is reduced variation in new generation


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

75 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Kyle Maynard Purdue

"When you're taking detailed notes and trying to help everyone else out in the class, it really helps you learn and understand the I made $280 on my first study guide!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.