Cumulative Notes Up Until 6th Week of Class
Cumulative Notes Up Until 6th Week of Class PSYCH 2588
Popular in Attitudes Toward Death & Dying
Popular in Psychlogy
This 19 page Bundle was uploaded by Maya Blair on Tuesday February 9, 2016. The Bundle belongs to PSYCH 2588 at George Washington University taught by Pamela Woodruff in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 45 views. For similar materials see Attitudes Toward Death & Dying in Psychlogy at George Washington University.
Reviews for Cumulative Notes Up Until 6th Week of Class
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/09/16
BACKGROUND Life line ● A comparison of how long you have lived and how long statistically you have left to live ● Draw a line and mark it off from 0100 by 5. ● Put a star next to 0 ● Put a * next to your age ● Put an X if you are a male beyond 76 ● Put an X if you are a female beyond 80 ● What you have shown is how long you have lived and how long you have left to live Shneidman: ultimate uncertainty, ultimate certainty ● Paradox which the Greeks brought to us but in this case (Shneidman) ● Stating the obvious: life is both of those things and death is the ultimate certainty (all we mortals will die) but the ultimate uncertainty is WHEN you are going to die ● It’s going to happen to everyone but we just don’t know when Death related words ● Most are phrases: passed away, bit the dust, down the tubes, exterminated, liquidated ● “I was dying to meet you” “dead end” “dead right” “dead ahead” “you’re killing me” Thanatology The study of death 1. Thanatos god of the long sleep (death) 2. Hypnos god of the short sleep (regular sleep) 3. Part of Greek mythology were brothers Changes in the 20th Century ● Moving death from families to the funeral context ● Most die in institutions (no longer a family experience at home) 1959 Feifel The Meaning of Death ➢ Brought attention to death ➢ Psychologist in the field of death and dying ➢ Thought he could put together a book w/ 10 articles relating to death ➢ Had to go into many disciplines before he could get enough articles to make up a book ➢ Basically not much existed on this subject until he put together this connection 1969 KublerRoss On Death and Dying ➢ 5 Stages of Grieving ➢ Seminal work ➢ Got the average person introduced to this field ➢ ***ARTICLE #3*** Euphemisms ● Passed ● In a better place ● No longer with us 1 Who shall live: who shall die? 1954 new ethics in medicine ● In 1954 at the University of Washington created a dialysis machine to fix people who had kidneys that didn’t function ● 3x a week for 4 hours at a time...also more people needed this than could be provided ● So a committee of 7 was put together...they decided which patients could go on the machine Death related behavior David Bowie studied people crossing the street After interviewing them he found 5 types of people: from AE 1. Risk taking behavior a. The Type A pedestrian very cautious, crossed at the corner, looked both ways, etc. Found that they valued their life b. The Type E pedestrian darted out after cars, didn’t look. Found they had negative views of their life 2. Sex discrimination after death Even in death there is sex discrimination Looked at death notices (looks like an ad, pay by the line) and obituaries (free, biographies) Found that though the death notices, about the same number of men and women die In terms of the obituaries, men are written up MUCH more frequently than women If women are written up, they are defined in terms of their husbands CHILDREN The Child’s Understanding of Death: Developmental Stages Nehy interviewed a large number of children at what age they had a concept of death as permanent Between birth 6 months Child doesn’t understand itself as a self entity (has no self) Between 6 months 2 years We learn the concept of all gone Learn that even though we are sad about separation...parents will come back from wherever the went How do you see separation as permanent? Between 25 Children talk about the dead but talk about them as if they are someplace else Not permanent We talk about flowers coming back in the spring...confuses children Between 56 Think people die under certain circumstances (ex. old or war) Think if they do what they’re told, they’re safe and they won’t get hurt Starting at 10 Usually understand death as permanent Universal (happens to everyone) Individual (me) Understand the causes 2 Talking with the child about death Don't use euphemisms or metaphors Don’t tell them only old people die Find out what prompted the questions Bring to cemetery and explain what it is Visit hospital, nursing homes, etc. It’s okay for them to see parents crying Never force them to be part of a funeral service unless they want to be Child may feel responsible for the death so they need to be told that nothing they did caused the death The child’s exposure to death ● TV, video games unrealistic death (may see them come back to life which can confuse them) ● Pet, roadkill if pet, don’t replace it right away. It’s a good opportunity for grieving. ○ Let them talk about the anima, bury the animal, grieve Images of death With each one the first represents life, the second death 1. Connectionseparation (with the people you love/trust; not with them/can make you worry) 2. Movementstasis (free to run/play; having to stay still) 3. Integritydisintegration (body is whole; hurt, fell down, scrape) The adolescent and death Not until you’re an adolescent until you can review (past) and preview life (thinking about the future) Adolescents tend to have the highest rates of accidents because they see themselves as invulnerable Grief in the child 1. Bowlby : (psychiatrist who wrote the trilogy:) Attachment, Separation, Loss May act like nothing happened If they carry on as usual they may not actually be dead Taking on the gestures/mannerisms of the dead person Becoming afraid that they will die from the same thing Blaming the person for the death Feeling guilty that they caused the death through magical thinking (wishing them dead) 2. Freud, Anna (Freud’s daughter) Went to Britain Specialized in children and adolescents Found 3 possibilities 1. Some stayed in denial (didn’t deal with death) 2. Some invested themselves in school work, music, hoby, later their job 3. Allowed themselves to love another individual (coach, neighbor, etc)...they did the best 3 Possible grief reactions to death of a parent 1. Acting like nothing happened 2. Saying only good things about them 3. Worrying if they have the same symptoms Death in children’s books ● Just talked about examples and fairytales Some death statistics ● 1900s vs present ● Average life expectancy: 50 years vs 80 (if you average m/w together) ● Children vs elderly ● Dying at home: 80% vs 25% (b/c of hospice movement) The dying child (telling parents about the diagnosis) ● Once a diagnosis is made, both parents be present ● A quiet place w/o interruptions ● Such a shock...parents may ask the same questions repeatedly ● Internet: good information and bad information Truth telling Vernick (social worker) and Karon (doctor) NIH, 50 years ago, child should be at least 5 ➢ Better to let the child know the name of the disorder and that sometimes children die of it but we’re going to do all kinds of things to help you → Children learned through truth telling and ended up being more cooperative Child’s reactions to dying It isn’t until they are much older until they actually focus on dying Up until age 5 they are concerned about separation/abandonment Between 510 there’s more of a concern about the actual procedure (about things being painful) After 10 they can more focus on death itself (become concerned about their own death and other patients that have become their friends) Parent’s reactions to the dying child Some ashamed (suppose to be the smartest, attractive, etc) Child may have bloating, bruises, etc Sometimes they resent the child (how much it compromises their life) For a long time parents were locked into their jobs The terminally ill adolescent 12 or 13 year old...may be rejected by peers Hard b/c time when you want to be around friends 1415 peers can be supportive and perhaps even protective 1617 it hits home that they won’t finish education, have a career, or have children 4 Communicating and interacting with the dying child You don’t stand over them but sit on the bed with them Call them by their first name Wear friendly clothing Role play and role reversal (let the child be the doctor) Interactions that let them express how they’re feeling (coloring, etc) Asking direct questions “is there anything I can do to help your mother?” Don’t try to be an authoritarian figure 1. Interpersonal functions (Carl Rogers) adult → child a. Empathy trying to image their situation b. Respect having respect for them as an individual c. Genuineness being yourself w/ child 2. Types of communication (that children display) child → adult a. Direct language call things what they are “I have a sickness called Leukemia” b. Verbal symbolic language euphemisms c. Nonverbal symbolic language body posture, tone of voice, facial expressions Siblings Often parents don’t share with the healthy sibling But need to keep them informed b/c could become jealous of all the attention May regress in behavior (thumb sucking, wetting the bed) Could get somatic symptoms (headache and stomach ache) Grandparents Quite neglected in terms of resource Can be of great support to their adult children Can be devastating b/c grandchild was their future and now they’re going to be cut off Family’s bereavement of the dying child When it becomes obvious that the child isn't going to live much longer, parents sometimes force the child into a role that is not healthy They don’t want the child whining or complaining or saying that things hurt They have an image of the child dying peacefully or blicefully Sometimes withdraw from the child because physically there’s nothing they can do to help the child May resent the child Spinetta; isolation of the dying child Clinical psychologist Heard that dying children start to withdraw from others, but it was all anecdotal Wanted to test it, so set up an experiment 25 children with leukemia 25 children w/o life threatening illnesses Ages 610 Created a diorama...box w/ steel floor and flooring that looked like the hospital 5 Had 4 dolls: doctor, nurse, mother, father All 50 children tested not in their hospital room Would say “look at this little friend in the hospital. Now here comes the nurse. Where does the nurse go when she is in the room? Here comes Momma, where does she usually go?” Took it away and measured where all the dolls were placed “If you could have daddy anywhere in the room where would he be? Where would the nurse be” Takes them out and measures In every instance, dolls were further away for those of the terminally than the control group Personal space (psychosocial distance) How close you want someone to be to you A stranger → farther Someone you love → closer to you But this experiment showed that dying children didn’t want the parents close AND parents and medical staff weren’t getting close since there was nothing they could do The death of the child As death is drawing near, some parents hope that the child will die soon They don’t want the child to hurt or suffer anymore When death occurs, parents will act surprised since they can’t process the reality Hard to get permission to do an autopsy on a child because parents are projecting: “I don’t want my daughter to hurt anymore” what they’re saying is that THEY don’t want to hurt anymore FEAR OF DEATH Why adults fear death Because of the unknown Being separated from everyone you love Fear of hell or damnation Expressing the fear of death Sometimes we do it through changing lifestyle → exercising, giving up alcohol etc Some challenge death → hang gliding, parasailing, etc Some don’t go vist anyone who is sick or in the hospital or go to anyone’s funeral Some take up an occupation that is counterphobic → exposed to death all the time (doctor, police, firefighter, etc) Feifel Did something to hundreds of “normal people” What does death mean to you and how would you like to die? AWARENESS OF DEATH Freud 1. Life instinct Eros ➢ Life force: hunger, sleep, sex ➢ Preserves us and our species 2. Death instinct Thanatos ➢ Most of the time directed outward 6 ➢ Bullying, yelling, fighting, killing ➢ Occasionally this force turns inward and we commit suicide Parsonsthe patient as social deviant Famous sociologist who said that to be a patient is to be deviant the way a juvenile delinquent is deviant To be a patient someone needs to recognize that you are sick and injured Need to seek and receive treatment The role of doctor is usually one that is sought out, but it is the doctor that tries to cure the patient (the social deviant) Dying is a psychosocial transition Graduating, birthdays etc. Death is the most significant one Cure vs. care Goal of most medical people is to cure the patient = success However in some cases where death is inevitable, it is much better if the doctor and others switch towards care = pain free, mobile, lucid → pain free death Social death Treating someone as if he or she were already dead People talk in front of them, make decisions for them We do this with old people too! Glasser and Strauss types of awareness 1. Closed awareness patient doesn’t know he’s dying and everyone hides it from him 2. Suspected awareness patient suspects he’s dying but never asks to confirm it 3. Mutual pretense awareness everyone knows but no one talks about it 4. Open awareness everyone knows and talks about it (considered the best situation) Glasser and Straussdying trajectories 1. Lingering trajectory someone who dies over weeks or months (cancer, AIDS, etc). Gives patient time to say goodbye 2. Expected quick trajectory heart attack, danger period over a couple of hours but sometimes nothing can be done a. Pointed trajectory b. Danger period trajectory c. Crisis trajectory d. Will probably die trajectory 3. Unexpected quick trajectory in and out surgery the same day, and you die → no one expects it How you learn you are dying Doctor tells you directly Overhear medical people making rounds Realize it because your pain is worse, you have less energy, you realize you’re not getting better 7 Kastenbaumwhen does dying begin Philosophical question 1. Does it begin when some pathologists or radiologists look at a specimine or CAT scan and realize that the patient is going to die 2. Or is it when the doctor tells the patient this is what you have 3. Or is it when the patient understands and accepts what the doctor says 4. Or is it when there is nothing more that can’t be done to try and cure you PREPARATION OF DEATH Marshallwhen is dying all right Varies, some are ready when they can no longer carry out their previous activities Some when they see themselves as a burden For some people, it is when they are no longer useful Finally, when their cognition and memory starts to go Interventions with the dying patient 1. Physical pain trying to keep them medicated so that they’re comfortable 2. Emotional pain medication (psychological pain like depression) 3. Social pain when you help the person finish working on relationships (if you haven’t spoken to your sister) 4. Spiritual/philosophical pain Hospital chaplain (“why is God doing this to me?”) Shneidmanpsychotherapy Let them set the pace Therapy ends when they die Pick out a few goals to work on because you can’t mend everything Once the death has occurred, the family members can now be the ones who need psychological support Sexual expression and serious illness People who are terminally ill often still want to have sexual activity Might not be intercourse Could be snuggling, hugging, rubbing But we look at them as “untouchable” for them, being touched is a validation that they are NOT untouchable Disease as social stigma People are sometimes repulsed by some illnesses AIDs for instance View them negatively…”they brought it on themselves” mentality 8 THEORIES 5 Stages of Dying KublerRoss Ways of coping Psychological stages Never stated them as inevitable but other textbooks did Interwoven is hope 1. Denial Not me, can’t be true Functions as a buffer to unexpected/shocking news 2. Anger Why me? Rage, envy, resentment Can be at God, doctor, nurse, family member, friend Feeling frustration Can be both rational and irrational Feelings of envy (what they can’t do) 3. Bargaining “Just let me live until…” Usually with God but can be with the doctor, friend, or family member As a payoff once they reach the “just let me live until…” they are ready to die...except people don’t keep this bargaining...they have another “just let me live until…” 4. Depression You realize you’re not getting better Reactive things that you’ve had or done in the past...you won’t be able to anymore (ex. “I’ll never have another dog, or go to Spain” Preparatory something that you wanted but will never have (Ex. going to Paris) 5. Acceptance Not a happy stage Basically void of feelings Doesn’t mean that you like it Evaluation of the stage theory of dying 1. Kalish Pointed out that these stages are in no way a natural progression People have other significant stages Depersonalizes patents Dying is really made up of phases Active crisis (do crisis intervention) Long living/dying phase (incorporate dying into everyday situations) Terminal (give them approval/permission to die) 2. Weissman 3. Kastenbaum Existence of stages never existed Stages are meant to be linear, and these are not There are more than 5 ways to cope with dying 9 However she did awakened us to the needs of dying patients Those who are dying are more likely to take care of unfinished business ALTERNATIVE TREATMENT PROCEDURES Hosp ice care A waiting place or resting place for travelers from the 6th century through the middle ages Supported the people who went on the crusades Provided a temporary shelter but really the crusaders were killing Muslims and Jews (to promote Christianity) After this...it became a catchall place for orphans, widows, homeless, incurably ill In the 19th century it was developed as a place for dying patients (but didn’t catch on) This model adopted by Dame Cicely Saunders, MD Saunders opened St. Christopher’s 1974, National Cancer Institute gave money for a hospice in New Haven, CT Then hospice movement really To reduce pain, relieve other symptoms, and palliative care (don’t have to be dying to receive palliative care) Main goal: to die at home (80% of hospice patients achieve this) Hospice Goals 1. Let patients live meaningfully 2. Supportive environment 3. Caregivers who listen 4. Increase communication within the family Types of Hospice Care Home Care Inpatient care How to bath them Visitors at any time Main goal: pain management (keep them Animals can be brought in lucid, but control the pain) Can bring personal things (rug, table, Allow medication for other problems lamp) (depression, constipation, etc) Patient and the family are considered a Patient and the family are considered a unit unit AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) ● 1981 became known to medical community and general public ● Early 1900s from animals to humans ● Over a million people have it, 25% don’t know they’re carrying it ○ Might be some time between getting the virus and showing symptoms (as long as 9 years) ○ 15,000 deaths per year and is therefore called a pandemic ○ So many millions of people worldwide have contracted it and died from it ○ No current cure ● Some see it as disgusting or disgraceful...hard to fight off the disgrace (ex. liver = alcohol, but babies can be born with it) By turning the sick into aliens, it has become easier for people to look away (just like the homeless) ● Ways to control 10 ○ Limit sexual partners ○ Circumcision ● Results ○ Immune system low: can get thrus ○ Weight loss ○ Leaves people helpless: disabling, disfiguring, can't control bodily functions ○ Blindness & dementia ○ Isolates a person (social death before physical death) ● Book: Tinderbox ○ As more European countries were colonizing, there were two things being taken out that had to travel long distances: rubber and ivory ○ At this time, there were no regular roads. So they went through jungle and made roads. Now people who normally didn’t travel, could travel ○ These people traveling were exposed to new people ○ There really is a SIMION (a monkey form) of this virus (green monkey are the ones that had them the most) ○ Chimpanzees kill monkeys and eat them ○ Some people eat chimps (bushmeat ), they would butcher the meat, and there was lots of blood (could get in cuts etc) ○ Went to Haiti because of the economic conditions (well trained in the medical field were offered jobs in Haiti and they carried the virus there) AUTOPSY AND POSTMORTEM (Autopsy = post mortem) Reasons and purposes ● Ways to find out death ● For an autopsy to be done you need permission ○ When you become dead you become a possession, a piece of property ○ Exceptions: even if the family want it to be done, the law takes over ■ Murder ■ Suicide ■ Accident ■ Unattended death ● About 25% are partial autopsies ● Gives genetic information ● Occupational hazards: substances on the body, form of quality control ● Effectiveness of new techniques and technologies Procedure 1. External examination ➢ Looking for anything lumpy 2. Dissection and examination of organs ➢ Virchow: Remove one by one OR ➢ Rokitansky: slice them all out at one time, then start working with them ➢ Measure, weigh, and look for any abnormalities ➢ Yexamination. Start at shoulders, middle, and go down from there 3. Microscopic examination of issue ➢ Where you have seen any abnormalities, you are going to take out little slices, mount them on slides, and then stained 11 4. Toxicology and cultures ➢ Looking for drugs (both legal and illegal) ➢ Bladder can be drained (pee) ➢ Takes up to 6 weeks ➢ Genetic testing DOCUMENTS OF DEATH Death certificate ● Gives us death statistics ● To receive benefit (life insurance, pensions, Social Security, etc): a copy of the death certificate must be sent ● If a house or car is jointly owned: also must turn in a death certificate Disposal of the remains ● Do you want the organs to be donated? ● Etc. Obituary ● Need to contact someone (like a funeral home) to verify the death (they wouldn’t want to publish it if it was just a joke) Death notice ● Could be a black and white or color picture ● Better to be published on the weekend (more people get the newspaper on the weekend) ● You write the death notice Least will and testament Will the written portion Testament where you say what you want ➢ Testateintestate (you die and you have a will that can be found vs you die but you don’t have a will) ➢ Testatortestatrix (male who made the will vs female who made the will) ➢ Executorexecutrix (male who has been named in a will vs female who has been named in a will) Harvesting the dead ➢ Organ donation ○ Have 15 hours between ○ Almost 50 parts of us can be donated ➢ Body donation ○ Can donate your whole body ○ Jaw, teeth, feet, etc ○ Surgeons will practice new surgical techniques ○ Body farm: people donate their body to be locked in a car for 3 months, or buried for 6 months etc. ■ Researchers then go and see the effects of the bodies at different times. Ex. When do the maggots start coming? What happens when it start raining? 12 FUNERALS The history of the funeral Iraq, 60,000 years ago ● Found tools and stones ● Means they thought there was an afterlife Egyptians ● In the beginning of the culture, there was no formal disposal of bodies they were simply buried in the sand ● Found that when the wind blew the sand away, the bodies were preserved...gave the idea to the Egyptians that you could preserve a body ○ Began to think that the body would travel ● Pharaoh the most elaborate ● People of wealth, something similar ● Put on a wooden table w/ sides that came up a little bit. Table on a slant for drainage ● 6 of the important organs would be removed and put in canopic jars (earthen vessels) each with the head of different gods ● Salts in the jars to preserve ● Would remove the brain by putting something medial in the nose, turned round and round until the brain was liquid. Tipped the corpse until the liquid came out the nose ● Heart NOT one of the organs that was removed ● Body then put on a table and 200 lbs of salts would be put over the body, then fragrant oils would be rubbed in ○ Salt reverses osmosis (water comes out of the body and would drip down the table) ○ 40 days ○ More salt put on for 30 more days ● Did not leave one written record of the process ● Once the body was ready, jewel might be put in the navel, eye caps or jewels, nails would have caps ● Final step: wrap ● If you were an important person you would also be mummified with dogs, cats, horses, slaves, servants, and other objects like chariots ● About 100,000 of these mummies were used as firewood in locomotives Greeks ● Thought that burning the bodies would be best Romans ● Designated someone to do the operation (not the family) ● Would rub the body with oils etc ● Would hire mourners Hebrews ● Burial suppose to take place within 24 hours ● Body was washed and then put in a simple shroud (garment that looks like a poncho) ● Body put on a plank or simple wooden box ● Would go into a seplica (sepulchre) (a hole that’s cut in rock or a natural formation aka: cave) 13 ● Concern about being buried alive ○ Would go into the cave and sniff (if it didn’t smell they must be alive) Christians ● Very simple customs in the beginning ● Body washed, rubbed with alcohol, fragrant oils ● Would be wrapped in strips of cloth ● Boiled to get the bones ● Bones sent to family Cremation ● Takes 700 lbs of firewood to burn a body ● Forests being depleted → ban on cremation to save wood Leonardo da Vincivenous injection ● Did hundreds of anatomical drawings ● In the beginning he would pay models (costly) ● Probably has 3 dozen drawings of the right hand ● Decided to do something less costly → paid someone to grave rob a fresh body ○ Then needed to preserve the body for a few months ○ Injected alcohol in the veincirculatory/venus embalming ) ○ Proved that you could preserve a body for at least a few months by pushing out the old blood and replacing it with a preservative US19th century ● Family involved in the burial but then had to hire people because they couldn’t do all the jobs (ex. build the coffin) Embalming ● First took place during the American Civil War ● Done at the direction of president Lincoln ○ Understood that loved ones would want their people back ○ Used a hand pump to push the clotted blood and pushed in a solution filled with arsenic ○ This arsenic discolored the skin of the deceased ● Became a danger to preserve the body with arsenic b/c if it rained, the body would leak the arsenic and seep into the water and cause people problems ● By the 1900s the US government said you could no longer embalm with arsenic...now we use formaldehyde Today ● 50,000 licensed embalmer ● There are individual schools for mortuary science (closest to us is in PA) however some schools have schools within the school 14 Functions of the funeral ● For the individual ○ Increase the reality of the death of the family member ○ Cohesive validation for the mourners ○ Shows tribute to the dead (i.e. that they are respected) ○ Provides the grieving with something to do ○ Provides emotional support at the beginning of grief ● For society ○ Shows cohesiveness for the family ○ Humor: “I never see you except at funerals” ○ Acts as a mirror of expectations and values that we have for eachother ○ Our society values self control, self reliance, self discipline ○ At a funeral we value people who act this way ○ May reinforce social order ○ For famous people it becomes a public event (shown on the TV, internet, etc.) ○ Reaffirms religious and ethnic identity ○ Those who don’t have a religious belief end up with a religious service anyways (family’s say) ○ Finally, it serves as a right of passage ➢ Births, graduations, retirement, death ➢ Some people go into debt to get to a funeral (last chance to attend) Funeral directors At first thought it wasn’t for a woman b/c you have to move bodies around 1990s 3 large corporations (2 American, 1 Canadian) started buying up funeral homes Wanted to have all the same carpeting, furniture, etc Didn’t work, today most have been sold back to families Body removal ● Body picked up ● Normally they don’t have any advertising on the van that picks up the corpse ● 2 people needed for a removal ● Must be sure that the dead body is the person people are saying it is. Therefore someone must identify the body (ex. a family member) ● Funeral home takes over all the paperwork (i.e. death certificate) Preneed or at need ● Preeneed all the funeral arrangements have been made ahead of time (money has been set aside b/c you don’t want to burden family members or perhaps someone else knows you’re going to die and make all the arrangements) ● Need making arrangements at the death Cost Average cost of funerals : $10,000 + up to $6,000 for a plot of land (most expensive cost is the cascate) Since 1984, funeral homes have to give you an itemized list of everything they do (cost of flowers, hearse, embalming, etc) 15 Own a piece of land in a cemetery...have to pay someone to dig the grave (more $ if done on the weekend or holiday) Cemetery may require that you purchase a grave liner (cement slabs that hold the dirt back) or a vault so that the ground is level (for when the grass is cut) Gravestone, headstone, etc. Must pay for that and every letter that’s engraved onto it Floral tributes: many funeral homes have a florist Pay to have the hole covered and seeded again Embalming ● Body starts to break down within minutes ● Anaerobes (the ones that don’t need the oxygen) begin multiplying...they have the strongest odor ● Room: must have a secure lock, usually no windows or must be frosted over, good ventilation ● Takes about 2 hours ● Body kept at 38 degrees ● Today the person has a full waterproof outfit w/ latex gloves ● Formaldehyde they use is dangerous and have a high rate of ● Body put on table, sprayed w/ disinfectant, scrubbed with disinfectant soap, then washed hair, then take wads of cotton soaked in fenal and pushed into all the holes, dry cotton put in the ears. Prevents flies and maggots from entering or liquids from leaking out from below. ● Goal: to look as lifelike and at peace as possible ● Funeral directors say they want to createovely memory picture” ● Rigamortis after death the body stiffens, then it wears off (depends on temperature how long it takes to go into rigor and then how long it takes to go off) ● Hands: right over left, ball of cotton put under the top hand so it’s curved a little bit as it rests ● Head: turn 15 degrees to the right ● Breasts sew them or duct tape them together ● Eyes: plastic eyecaps put under your eyes...glued in place ● Mouth: Barbed things stuck in so that it doesn't gape open ● Lips: set your expression ● More disinfectant sprayed and cotton in the throat and the cheeks (so they don’t sink in) ● Embalming fluid: uses the jugular artery and vein: put a tube in each one. Pumps formaldehyde in and tries to bring skin color back to normal. Massage to get the formaldehyde throughout the body ● Jab abdomen with the fluid ● Put something up the nose, penis, etc to get out all the fluids ● Body then washed again (conditioner, cream, dissolves nose/ear hairs) Restorative art 1. Make up ➢ There is makeup made for dead bodies however you can bring in the deceased own makeup ➢ Everyone must get makeup 2. Dressing ➢ Put on plastic shirt and underwear ➢ Then can put on regular clothing (can bring deceased clothing however the funeral home will try to sell you theirs. Funeral home is also easier to put on the person. I.e. velcro, etc) ➢ Socks ➢ Plead for you not to put shoes on them b/c very hard ➢ Jewelery (but not buried with it) 16 ➢ Hair: beauticians who want parttime work. Like to work from a photograph 3. Casketing ➢ Funeral home will help you with death notice/obituary and will submit them so that the newspaper knows that they are real ➢ Will suggest ushers to help with the funeral ➢ Pallbearers (carries casket) ➢ Viewing : could be the day before or the hour before the funeral ➢ Service : funeral directors can get you music, help you organize the bearing, procession of cars to the cemetery. Hole must be 6 ft down so that no animals can get in ➢ Normally will be a few chairs for the most immediate family, everyone else stands. Cascate over the hole. Graveside service: member of the clergy says something. ➢ Now they want you to leave. B/c once the cascate is in the hole, some people get hysterical and jump into the hole Burial Pods Put into the ground in a fetal position and buried with a tree...nitrogen released and helps the tree grow Phases of the funeral 1. Removal (see above) 2. Viewing ➢ Guestbook, look at casket, speak to other people there, most want to get out of there as fast as they can ➢ Funeral home or funeral parlor...want to create the image that as a business they are doing everything they can to do what the family once did in the...home or parlor 3. Service rite 4. Procession ➢ Usually police escort 5. Cremarial ➢ Going into the ground ➢ Families want the person to look the same as they have in the past (despite whatever damage was done from death) Questions ● Does the funeral provide closure? Less and less today. ● Is it appropropriate to spend so much money? ● Funeral directors say it confirms reality of the death Memorial societies ● Began in the US in 1939 ● Felt funeral directors were exploiting people (they really were) ● Organization you join for a small amount of money ● Fill out forms about what you want when you die 17 CREMATION Becoming more frequently used in the US Rate: 35% Must be in a ridgid container before cremation (no metal) Has hand grips where you can get a hold of the box Funeral homes have in their garages the crematorium or separate businesses that have just a crematorium Temperature from 1,400 1,800 degrees (left w/ bone fragments and ash) Must get rid of bone fragments in a cremulator (looks like a food processor) and grinds them to ash Can bring your own box or one that they try and sell you Carbon monoxide released into the air when burned (not environmentally friendly) What to do with the ashes? Skattering in a place of importance Burry (must be 6 feet down) Columbarium : usually a building designated just for ashes. Up and down walls are spaces to put your loved ones ashes Love Gem: makes your loved ones into a diamond. Give over ash, they turn the carbon from the ash into diamonds. Temperature must be 2,700 degrees. Mix ashes with water. Mixes with cement. This is then put over a dome that looks like a igloo with large holes. Loved one will be there for 6 weeks as it hardens. 6 weeks later you go out on a boat as they lower dome to the bottom of an ocean (this is the beginning of a coral reef) b/c creatures go in and out of the holes and begin to make life. Cremains“bake and shake” THE CEMETERY Graveyard, burial ground, starting in the 19th century we began calling it cemetery (first one is Cambridge MA!) Arlington NATIONAL cemetery means it is for military personnel 1. Ground burial a. New Orleans you can’t do a ground burial b/c it is 5 ft below sea level 2. Mausoleum a. Represent wealth b. There are shelves so when other family members die, they can be added c. For people of GREAT GREAT wealth, they have something bigger than a house 3. Tombstone, headstone, grave marker a. Originated to hold down the spirits of the dead b. Name, DOB, date of death, might be symbol 4. Epitaphsinscription (optional) a. RIP, beloved mother/son/daughter/husband/brother/etc. ALTERNATIVE BURIALS Burial at sea Navy, marines, couldn't get the ship back to shore in the right period of time Put sand/rocks in it so it sinks 18 In a few cases w/ famous admirals, the crew would agree to give up some of their rum and would put the admiral in the rum to preserve him until they got back Cryonics Means “to freeze” First proposed in 1964 but not carried out until 1967 Purpose is to at some future time, reanimate it and cure whatever caused the death Cannot freeze a body before a death occurs (that’s murder!) First thing to do, start chilling it, then put an anticoagulant into the circulatory system, then profuse the body with glycerol (used in lotions and minimizes the formation of ice crystals), wrapped in heavy duty aluminum foil, put into a sleeping back (must be able to close over the head), large storage tank will hold 6 bodies which are hung like a bat (feet at top, head at bottom), next to them is a tank of liquid nitrogen (at the top is room for 6 heads, these people don’t have enough $ for the whole body to freeze. They believe they can put the head on a clone at a later time) Funeral directors think this is science fiction They have reanimated a dog but it didn’t last for that long $2,800 for head, more for body Burial in space (orbit) Caelestis (celestial...the heavens): this company is in Texas and for $4,800 they will take 2 ash samples and sends the ashes into space Put into a titanium capsule with ID number and name, etc Spare vial of ashes is there in case the rocket explodes the first time Go up 400 miles above the earth, can’t guarantee how long you’ll stay in orbit, when you come back to earth you just burn up Mummify Available through one business: summum mummification services in Salt Lake City Utah $56,000 + shipment back and forth They embalm, wrap, seal, and put you into a modern day sarcophagus Alkaline Hydrolysis Resummation (rebirth) You have a stainless steel pressure cooker which is filled with lye (alkali) Pressure cooker goes up to 300 degrees at 60 lbs per square inch After 3 hours you’re left with the bones which are very soft (drain fat down the sewer) They are then put in a cremulator (looks like a food processor) comes out looking like a very fine ash Body donation Organs Skin 19
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'