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HIST 199

by: Meghan Arsenault

HIST 199 HIST199

Meghan Arsenault
Bridgewater State University
GPA 3.6

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Poverty in the Workplace Notes
First-Year Seminar Poverty and Poor Relief
Brian Payne
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This 7 page Bundle was uploaded by Meghan Arsenault on Tuesday February 9, 2016. The Bundle belongs to HIST199 at Bridgewater State University taught by Brian Payne in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see First-Year Seminar Poverty and Poor Relief in History at Bridgewater State University.

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Date Created: 02/09/16
Poverty in the Workplace An Artisan Class Identity in America (September 9)  Economic Condition  Poverty: relative lack of material o Without access to necessities o Less than those who have  History of labor (most unequal we’ve ever been) o Artisan labor o Free labor o Wage labor  Artisan labor o Skilled work (works with hands) o Provide education/training  Master craftsman (owns shop/provides goods)  Journeyman (well trained in craft, no shop)  Apprentice (just entering job, busy work)  Guild: protect quality of craft  Provides clear access to occupation o Paternalism: master takes in Journeyman/Apprentice into home  Indentured Servants: contract labor (Ben Franklin)  Revolution o Republic: government for the people, by the people… o Common Wealth: individual will give up wants for the common wealth o Virtue: good values, essential, virtuous citizen o Independent: not having power over you o Equality: political, social, economic (white men only)  Democracy 1820’s  Market Revolution o Creation of market capitalism (Free Market/Individualism) o Frees individual from the common wealth o Paternalism goes away o Artisan Labor­­­Wage Labor The Emergence of Class in Early America (September 10)  Loss of artisan system o Response  Labor as property  Free labor o Context  Economic  Boom­Bust: bust doesn’t go below boom started  Political  Jacksonian Democracy  Labor as property o Figure out a way to assert their power o Thomas Jefferson: 100% of citizens need to be independent o If you own property, you can exist o Their work/daily labor=property  Knowledge of blacksmith=farmers land o Violation constitutional right to do what you do with your property  Right to rebel  Strike! Defense of constitutional rights  Unions: protection of the workers  General Trades Union (GTV)  Set a blueprint o Bread+Butter (more $/healthcare) o Roses (philosophical)  Self­consciousness  Free labor o Republican party: “free soil, free labor, free men” o Freedom of a laborer to sell their labor without restrictions o Empowering the individual  Classless society  Opportunity is endless­free soil  Higher income  Common interest The Great Railroad Strike 1877 (September 14)  Gilded Age: world looks stable on the outside, very bad on the inside  The Great Railroad Strike o Recession of 1873 o Fixed costs: constant costs during the operation o Drop employee wages  Brakeman/Engineers  Poverty o Baltimore & Ohio Railroad  Wildcat Strike: unorganized/unplanned  Workers who depend on railroad workers also left o Fall into another Civil War? o Pittsburg militia is now armed. Call up Philadelphia militia, but no trains to  transport them  Replace them  Control information  Wait it out  National military o First national strike  9/15 REVIEW: B­ The Homestead & Pullman Strikes (September 16)  1877 o National, across craft, unskilled/skilled  Homestead Strike 1880s o Skilled, localized o Raw pig iron into steel  Highly skilled, skilled union­­­­guild system  Did not work for wages  They determine $ for labor/pace of production  Carnegie all about through put (speed up process)  Impact labor on life v. production o Henry Frisk (ordered to break union)  Dictate price, time, distribution­­­­depression   Community is COMPLETELY made up of steel workers  Rally behind union  Can’t be easily replaced  Supported by community  Big savings account  Control over workplace  Builds wall around factory  Pinkerton Police Force v. workers  Strikers win battle!  Lose!  Run out of money  Lose support outside of Homestead due to violence  Pullman Strike 1890s o Immigrant based, unskilled, radical o Eugenie V. Debs o Create a utopia   Pullman, IL  Provide housing in his own community  Drastically increases the rent so high that the workers get  paid less than they have to pay in rent o Pullman workers go on strike, no one cares  Write letter to Debs (ARU) asking for support, Debs accepts  Sympathy Strike: going on strike to support someone (illegal)  Boycott: Debs will refuse to load Pullman cars on tracks  Affectively shut down railroad in entire country  Want railroad workers back, no one cares about Pullman workers o Strikers lose!  Pissed off too many people  Wants Debs arrested in hopes strike will die  Try to find a way to get rid of him  Orders mail cars to be the last Mail­­­Pullman­­­/­­­Coach­­­Coal­­­Engine  Debs says “unclip cars”, encouraging workers to do something  illegal, so Debs is the only one to be arrested  Too much invested in 1 leader The Basic Tenants of the Knights of Labor (September 21)  Without unions, you lack power to negotiate wages without a union  Bargaining with a collective union ups your power  Knights of Labor 1869­­­established o Inclusive unionism o Bringing in all occupations across nation o Secret organization (Holy Order)—old name o Philadelphia garment workers o 1877 Railroad Strike­­­took off o Terrance Powderly  “Why did we lose?”  Lack of umbrella organization that could improve communication  Strikers didn’t know what the others were doing  Actively unionized workers )outside person comes in and asks questions)  ­­­undercover  Closed Shop: made people sign cards   No one without a card can work at the shop  Emphasized the employers are trying to drive ethnic groups apart and  create hostility  Make workers drop hostility and realize they are part of a new American  Working Class  Bankers, lawyers, liquor dealers, doctors could not join  People who did not produce  “Parasites of Society” o 30,000 members 1880 o 1885: Southwest Railroad­­­Jay Gould­­­wins! o 750,000 members 8­12% o 65,000 women o 60,000 African Americans o 1888­­­largely gone?!  Haymarket, Chicago IL  Central square, traditional post  12 hour work day  Police directly owe wages in employers  Called into fight when needed  Marxism  Anarchists  Elimination of class  Violent overthrow of existing state  Class is antagonistic­­­George Marx  1884/1885 Driven by Marxists  Claim too many groups were let in  Lost control o Haymarket  Bomb blows up  People are shooting  People and police die th  Conservative media 19  century­­­argue it was anarchists and Marxists  Police got caught in cross fire  When bomb went off, police started shooting  8 anarchist on trial  Guilty  Sentences to death  2 die, 2 die in jail, others set free  Lessons Learned o Inclusive labor wasn’t going to work  Marxists, anarchists are European  Begin to exclude immigrants  Least skilled workers were most radical  African Americans o Inclusion­­­Exclusions Unionism  Inability to control media/information after the Haymarket problem The Basic Tenants of the American Federation of Labor (September 23)  Skilled craft workers  All men  Family income: women were only in the workplace because the men in the family could  not support the family income  Workplace with extra labor (shrink labor pool, increase wages)  Skilled craft workers, African Americans, immigrants­­­eliminated  Umbrella organization: AFL o Craft union o Craft union o Craft union o The AFL can restrict people from craft  Samuel Gompers: leader of AFL o  Cigar Rollers Union o Employer would pay 1 person to sit and read the newspaper out loud all day long  Very informed  o President of AFL for about 40 years o “pure and simple unionism”  Skilled workers must remain separated from the unskilled workers  Not to be engaged in political action o Power of the workers are more local o The managers brain is under the workman’s cap o Work to Rule: demonstrate the power of skilled workers in the workplace  Problems o Not many members  o 4­5% of all workers o Umbrella is less effective in dealing with problems in the national scope Factory Discipline with the 1920s and the Growth of Unskilled Labor (September 28)  Assembly line th  Poverty in Early 20  Century o New system (assembly line) radically drops earning power of the workers o Cost of goods go down o More Americans are able to purchase these goods o Which one was dropping faster?  Potential to save $ has plummeted  Assembly Line  o Technology  Replaces skilled workers  Large number of unskilled workers per factory  Electricity: harness the power  Now run a factory for long hours  Campbell soup, Borden milk, Hines pickles  Rapid increase in number of employees per company  Rapid concentration of production o Scientific Management  Taylor(ism)  Repetition—break down process to 1 small step and teach it to  someone who will repeat it  1926­1930: 18 strikes a year  5 million­3.6 million in  a union o Workers Response  Unionism & Strikes  Yellow Dog Contracts  Business Unionism  Welfare Capitalism  People learn English through work  Fordism (dehumanized)  No pride of work/ loyalty to company  $5/day (no promotions, no change)  Common worker now understands their place, solely based on how much $$ they make


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