Chapter 12 - The Rates and Mechanisms of Chemical Reactions
Chapter 12 - The Rates and Mechanisms of Chemical Reactions Chem 122
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Date Created: 02/09/16
Chapter 12 The Rates and Mechanisms of Chemical Reactions Reaction Rates A reaction rate increase in concentration of a product over time or the decrease in concentration of a reactant over time positive quantities change in molar concentration A reaction rate change in time AT B A gt B Relative Reaction Rates and Stoichiometry must specify the reactant or product on which the rate is based move coefficient on top of the other coefficients negative disappearing positive appearing types of rates 1 initial rate based on reactant 2 instantaneous rate rate for specific instance in time 3 average rate loss of one reactant over time E factors that effect reaction rate 1 temperature 2 concentration or pressure of reactants 3 catalysts 4 suface area solid reactant The Rate Law A AAX Arate 1 x is called the order depends only on reactant concentrations B determined experimentally and is always defined in terms of reactant concentrations C aA bB cC dD reaction is xth order in A reaction is yth order in B pom rate k AX B y 3 overall order x y order is not related to the stoichiometric coefficient 4 rate M time 5 k rate constant temperature dependent D determining the units of k 1 rate M time so units of k must work with to match units a rate kA0 k kmust have units of M t b rate kA1 k gt kmust have units of 1 t c rate kA2 k gt kmust have units of 1 M X t d rate kA3 k k must have units of 1 M2x t E changes in concentrations of A 1 zero order a double A rate of reaction does not change 2 first order a double A rate of reaction doubles 3 second order a double A rate of reaction quadruples 4 third order a double A rate of reaction increases 8 times Chapter 12 The Rates and Mechanisms of Chemical Reactions 2 IV Integrated Rate Laws zero order first order second order mph nmh kar MMNO 3th A11 A10 rate k A10 rate k A1 rate k A V First Order Reactions Halflife A halflife t1 2 time required for the concentration of a reactant to decrease to half of its initial concentration B t12 0693k Vl Arrhenius Equation A factors influencing rate constant 1 temperature 2 orientation 3 collision energy frequency B molecules must collide with 1 enough energy 2 high frequency 3 correct orientation to react C activation energy Ea minimum amount of energy required to initiate a chemical reaction D Arrhenius equation Ea RT Ea l 1 kAe on Ink1 R T1 T2 3 OR kAe mHMN a Ea is the activation energy J mol b R is the gas constant 8314 J K x mol c T is the absolute temperature K d A is the frequency factor E general rule reaction rates double for every 10 C increase in temperature Vll Reaction Mechanisms A reaction mechanism sequence of reaction steps that describes the pathway from reactants to products B ratedetermining step slowest step in the sequence of steps leading to product formation C the rate law for an elementary reaction follows directly from its molecularity because an elementary reaction is an individual molecular event 1 unimolecular reaction 0nly quot99039 a A gt products rate kA to nd these 2 bimolecular reaction With the SIOW a A B gt products rate kAB Step 3 termolecular reaction a A B C gt products rate kA2B Chapter 12 The Rates and Mechanisms of Chemical Reactions D catalyst substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without itself being consumed E as Ea decreases the reaction rate increases
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