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Music 121 - Week 1, 2 and 3 notes

by: Brooke Hutto

Music 121 - Week 1, 2 and 3 notes MUS 121

Marketplace > University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa > Language > MUS 121 > Music 121 Week 1 2 and 3 notes
Brooke Hutto
GPA 3.2

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About this Document

These notes cover what is going to be on the Quiz that is due 2/11 and also what will be on the Midterm
Jacob Adams
Music, Introduction to Listening
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This 6 page Bundle was uploaded by Brooke Hutto on Tuesday February 9, 2016. The Bundle belongs to MUS 121 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Jacob Adams in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 86 views. For similar materials see in Language at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 02/09/16
MUS121: • Sound: the result of vibrations in the air set in motion by the activation of a sounding body • Tone: definite and specific sounds in music • Pitch: the specific highness or lowness of a tone • Interval: the distance between two pitches • Octave: a specific type of interval between notes of the same name • Scale: a succession of pitches contained within an octave • Dynamics: the loudness and softness of music • Timbre: the distinctive tone quality of an instrument • Rhythm: the ordered flow of music through time • Beat: the recurrent pulsation in music • Meter: the organizations of beats into regular groups Triple meter: a meter that consists of three beats per measure o o Duple meter: a meter that has two beats per measure • Tempo: the speed, or pace of music • Melody: a series of pitches that add up to a recognizable whole • Phrase: a shorter distinct section of a melody • Theme: in a longer composition such as a Symphony, a melody can be a key recurring structural element, or “theme” • Harmony: a group of notes sounding at the same time • Chord: a collection of three or more notes played simultaneously st rd th • Triad: the simplest consonant chord, made up of the 1 , 3 , and 5 scale degrees • Consonance: a combination of chords considered to be stable and without tension • Dissonance: a combination of notes considered unstable and tense • Key: the tonal center of the piece • Major key/scale: starting on C on the piano, play each white key in succession until you arrive at the next C • Minor key/scale: has a number of lowered notes. Minor keys may have a sad or hollow character • Texture: the combination of the vertical (harmony) and horizontal (melody) elements of music • Monophony: “one sound” • Polyphony: a type of music where two or more melodies are played simultaneously • Homophony: a single melodic line with harmonic accompaniment underneath • Form: the organization of musical ideas in time • Variation: a technique of altering a melody to create variety within a composition Musical Instruments and Ensembles String • Played by either plucking or bowing the strings ▯1 o Early plucked string instruments had a sound that decayed quickly o The bow was invented to allow stringed instruments to have a long, sustained sound • Bowed Stringed Instruments o Violin (the highest) Viola (upper middle voice) o o Cello (lower middle voice) o Double Bass (lowest voice) • Woodwind Instruments o Produce sound when air is blown through the body of the instrument o Some woodwind instruments have a reed Athin piece of bamboo cane that vibrates when the player blows through ▪ it to produce sound o Flute: sound is produced through blowing across a hold in the head joint of the instrument Piccolo: the highest-pitched instrument in the orchestra o o Single reed ▪ Single reed woodwind instruments have a single piece of a cane that vibrates against a mouthpiece attached to the instrument • Clarinet • Saxophone o Double reed ▪ Produce sound throught two reeds tied together which vibrate against each other • Oboe • English horn • Bassoon • Contrabassoon • Brass Produce sound through a mouthpiece into which they buzz their lips o ▪ Trumpet ▪ French horn ▪ Euphonium Trombone ▪ ▪ Tuba • Percussion Two main types: those with definite pitch and those with indefinite pitch o ▯2 ▪ Definite: pitched percussion ▪ Indefinite: unpitched percussion • The Standard Orchestra: o Woodwinds: 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons o Brass: 4 french horns, 2 trumpets, 3 trombones, 1 tuba Percussion: highly variable, always timpani o o Strings: violin 1, violin2, viola, cello, bass • Chamber Ensembles Chamber music: a general term for small groups of instruments in which each o musician plays his or her own part with no conductor ▪ String quartet (2 violins, viola, cello) ▪ Piano trio (violin, cello, piano) Woodwind quintet (flute, oboe, clarinet, horn, bassoon) ▪ ▪ Brass quintet (2 trumpets, horn, trombone, tuba) The Baroque Era • 1600-1750 • Beginning of the “common practice” period of European art music • Doctrine of theAffections: usually one mood per work • Virtuosity (extreme ability) required to perform • Basso continuo o Bass line + instrument that can play chords • 10-35 musicians • arts were employed as symbols of royal wealth and power • aristocracy held enormous power Concerto • Comes from the Latin concertare, meaning to fight or contend o Solo concerto: features a single solo instrument with orchestral accompaniment o Concerto grosso: features a small group of soloists (concertino) and orchestra accompaniment • “Spring” from The Four Seasons o composer: Vivaldi o early example of program music o recurring instrumental sections: ritornello • Concerto Grosso o Concertino (soloists) o Ripieno (accompaniment) ▯3 Vocal Genre: Opera • Invented 1600 by Florentine Camerata • Libretto: text or script of the opera • Highly trained voice: virtuoso o Vibrato: small pitch fluctuations for ornament and expression Sub-Genre: Recitative • Speech-like • No repetition • Non-metric • Solo+ instruments Sub-Genre: Aria • Virtuosity: shows singer’s ability • emotion • Melodic/tuneful • Repetition • Metric • Larger group Vocal Genre: Oratorio • Based on biblical story • Unstaged • Performed in church/theater • 1-4 hours • sacred subject matter • recitatives are used to connect parts of an oratio • no acting, scenery, or costumes • the Messiah by G.F. Handel is one of the most highly regarded oratios in the baroque period TERMS TO KNOW • Melisma: several notes sung to one syllable of text • Word Painting: melody written to represent the literal meaning of the sung text • Church Cantata: the type of musical composition that contained chorales and that was used in Lutheran religious services in the early 1700’s • Arcangelo Corelli: Italian violinist, composer o Lived in Bologna, then Rome • 2 best composers in Baroque period: o bach ▪ death marks end of baroque period ▪ part of a family of musicians and composers last position was director of music of a church in Leipzig ▪ ▯4 o handel • sonata: consisting of several movements Dances: • allemande: moderate • courante: fast • gigue: fast • sarabande: slow and solemn Basso Continuo • effect of emphasizing bass part • usually played with keyboard and bass (1 each) • improvises chords following written numbers above bass part • figured bass numbers that indicated the basic chords in the accompaniment o STAGES OF BAROQUE PERIOD: • early: composers favored homophonic texture over polyphonic texture • middle: baroque style spread to every corner of Europe • late: instrumental music became as important as vocal music Baroque Suites • different sections of a baroque suite are all written in the same key • instrumental music • contains set of movements that are inspired by dances Opera: drama sung to orchestra accompaniment • J.S. Bach did not create one of these Chorales: • commonly adopted from Catholic hymns and folk songs • intended to be easy to sing and remember • steady rhythm • contained: o vocal soloists chorus o o organ THREE PRINCIPALE WAYS OF VARYING SUBJECT OFAFUGUE • subject of inversion • subject retrograde • subject in dimunition The music director at the court of an aristocrat: ▯5 • received relatively high pay • was expected to produce new compositions for a wide variety of events ▯6


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