Physiological Notes 1/27
Physiological Notes 1/27 Psych 325
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This 3 page Bundle was uploaded by Cali Hagen on Tuesday February 9, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Psych 325 at University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point taught by Dr. Figgy in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Physiological Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point.
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Date Created: 02/09/16
1/27 History o Initially the heart was the in control of mental capabilities o Hippocrates Brain is in control o Early dissections and observations Brain injury gave further support o Galen Animal spirits passed along nerves Nerve cells to communicate o DaVinci Anatomical drawings Ventricular system Cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) 3 ventricles o Anatomists emphasized external surfaces of brain Brain was a gift from God Behind God in creation of Adam painting o 1633: Desecrate Wrote book on brain physiology Proposed spinal reflexes and neural pathways o Phrenologist map – map where certain functions were in the brain Bumps on skull matched to different behaviors No localization of function Phrenology – assigned separate functions to cortical areas o Paul Broca Language ability is restricted due to brain injury Broca area – production of language o New phrenology map Higher cognitive function = in thontal cortex o Biological psychology arose in the 20 century Important studies: Learning Memory Conditioning Perception Motivation Hebb Described neural connection Cell assemblies/ Hebbian synapses Terms o Biological psychology – study of biological bases of psychological processes and behavior o Neuroscience – study of the nervous system o Behavioral neuroscience – another name for biological psychology 5 perspectives o Describing – in terms of acts or processes or of results or functions Ex. Arm movements: what muscles are contracting or what it is being used for o Evolution – species can be compared to study evolution of brain and behavior Continuity of behavior/biological processes (conserved traits) Because of common ancestry Ex. Nurse young, neurotransmitters Differences (divergent traits) Adapt to environments Ex. Written language Developmental (ontogeny) – process of growing up/old Look at behaviors, functions and mechanisms change over time Mechanisms – each organism contain many neurons Neural activity o Electrical and chemical activity o Sequence o Where increase/decrease of activity in the brain Application – research can be applied to humans especially in diseases of the brain Treatments to diseases 3 approaches o Somatic interaction – alteration of a structure or function to see how behavior is altered Independent variable – factor that is being applied Dependent variable – what is measured in response to the independent variable Usually a behavior Ex. administering a hormone, stimulation of brain regions electrically, cut connections between parts o Correlation – measures how much a body measure varies with a behavioral measure, but cannot determine to what extent Ex. brain size and learning scores, hormone level and strength of mating behavior, enlarged cerebral ventricles and schizophrenic symptoms o Behavioral intervention – manipulate a behavior to see how structure or function is altered Independent/dependent variables Ex. male in presence of female, present visual stimulus, give training Neural plasticity – describe the ability of the brain to be changed by environment and by experience o Neurogenesis Throughout brain and lifetime o Dendritic spines in the brain can change shape in seconds Increase communication Experience changes Exercise can cause changes o Neuroplasticity is greater the younger you are o Social interactions Can result in brain changes Isolation = detrimental Cook: looked at amygdala reaction to social interaction in rats
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