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Physiological Psychology Notes 1/29

by: Cali Hagen

Physiological Psychology Notes 1/29 Psych 325

Marketplace > University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point > Psychlogy > Psych 325 > Physiological Psychology Notes 1 29
Cali Hagen

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About this Document

End of chapter 1, chapter 2 through visualizing the brain
Physiological Psychology
Dr. Figgy
Psychology, physiological
75 ?




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This 6 page Bundle was uploaded by Cali Hagen on Tuesday February 9, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Psych 325 at University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point taught by Dr. Figgy in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Physiological Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point.


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Date Created: 02/09/16
1/29  Reductionist perspective – break things down to smaller parts to understand it better o Social level o Organ level o Neural system o Brain region o Circuit level o Cellular level o Synaptic level o Molecular level  Understanding brain disorders and treatments o 1/5 have a disorder o Stress, environment, better diagnosis o Neurological disorders  Alzheimer’s  Epilepsy  Stroke  Head/spinal cord disease  Developmental  Parkinson’s o Psychiatric  Alcohol and drug abuse  Severe anxiety  Severe depression  Schizophrenia o Twin studies   See if biological factors apply o Animal research  Ethical regions   Strict guidelines  Least invasive procedures/minimize pain and illness  Neuron o Collect and deliver info o 4 structures  Input zone – dendrites  Integration zone – cell body  Conduction zone – axon  Output zone – axon terminal   Glial cells o Support neural activity o 4 types  Astrocytes – regulate blood flow, form new synapses, and exchange nutrients  Microglia – remove debris from injured cells, “janitors”   Oligodendrocytes – form myelin sheath to cells in the CNS, speed up  communication  Schwan cells – myelin sheath outside the CNS o Respond to injury in the brain by edema (swelling) o Myelination – glia cells wrap axons with fatty sheath to insulate and speed  communication/conduction  o Can last up to 15 years o Nodes of Ranvier – gaps between the myelin sheath where the action potential is  regenerated  Axon is exposed o Multiple sclerosis – demyelinating disease  Slows communication  Body attacks myelin sheath  Communication o Presynaptic neuron (membrane) – axon terminal o Synaptic cleft – space between the pre­ and postsynaptic membrane  o Postsynaptic neuron (membrane) – dendrites or cell body o Dendrites receive information across synapses  Branched arborization = more connections  o Postsynaptic can be dendrites or cell body o Synaptic vesicles – carry neurotransmitters to the synaptic cleft  Activate with action potential o Receptors – proteins in the postsynaptic membrane that receive and react to the  neurotransmitters o Dendritic spines – increase surface area/connections  Up to 10,000 connections o Neural plasticity – structure that is rapidly altered by experience  Nervous system o Peripheral nervous system – outside the skull and spinal column  Autonomic nervous system  Sympathetic nervous system  o Fight/flight o Nerves originate in spinal cord o Sympathetic cord – run alongside spinal cord o Prepares body for action o Blood pressure, breathing, pupil dilation o Uses norepinephrine  Parasympathetic nervous system o Feeding/fornicate o Arise in cranial and sacral spinal cord o Calm down body o Uses acetylcholine   Enteric nervous system – controls digestion o Central nervous system – brain and spinal cord  2 hemispheres  Cerebral cortex – outermost layer of the cerebral hemispheres  Sulci – hills  Gyri – valleys   Controls higher order function o Language, perception, etc.  4 lobes  Temporal – auditory information, memory, emotion  Occipital – visual information  Parietal – sensation, perception, and some vision  Frontal – language, decision making, motor skills  Divisions  Sylvian fissure – boundary of temporal lobe  Central sulcus – divides frontal lobe from parietal  Postcentral gyrus – strip of cortex behind central sulcus, important for  touch  Precentral gyrus – in frontal lobe, important for motor control  Corpus collosum – bundle of axons that connects the 2 hemispheres o Brain tissue colors  White matter – consists mostly of axons with myelin sheath  Myelin sheath is mostly fat  Makes up large amount of corpus collosum  Grey matter – consists mostly of dendrites and cells bodies  Lack myelin sheath  Mostly in surface of the cortex  Divisions of Brain o Neural tube develops into 3 subdivisions  Forebrain  Basal ganglia – important for motor control o Includes 4 nuclei  Caudate nucleus  Putamen  Globus pallidus  Substantia nigra – midbrain  Limbic system – learning, memory, and emotion o Olfactory bulb – sense of smell o Fornix – learning o Cingulate gyrus – attention o Thalamus – bluster of nuclei that relay sensory information   Information passes through this first before going to  other parts of the brain  Doesn’t relay smell information o Mammillary body o Hippocampus – learning and memory o Amygdala – regulating emotion of fear and perception of  odor/pheromones o Hypothalamus – contain nuclei with many functions  Reproductive behavior  Parental care  Thirst  Controls release of hormones from pituitary gland   Midbrain  Substantia nigra – part of the basal ganglia o Produces dopamine which is essential for movement  Superior colliculus – process visual information  Inferior colliculus – processes auditory information o Superior + interior = tectum  Red nucleus – communicates with motor neurons in the spinal cord  Hindbrain  Cerebellum – involved in motor coordination and learning  o Consists of 3 layers  Granule cell layer – cells send axons to form parallel  fibers in the outermost or molecular layer  Pons – attached to the cerebellum o Contains motor and sensory nuclei  o Receives information from ears o Cerebellum + pons = one subdivision  Medulla – marks the transition from brain to spinal cord o Important for life sustaining functions o Breathing o Maintaining heart rate o Second subdivision  Brain stem – refers to the midbrain, pons, and medulla o Cerebral cortex  6 layers  Isocortex/cortex  Layers distinguished by  Type of neuron  Pattern of dendrites  Pyramidal cells – most prominent neurons in cortex  Pyramid­shaped cell body most concentrated in layer III and V  Can be found in other layers too  Apical dendrite extends to the outermost layer of cortex  Basal dendrites spread horizontally from cell body  o Structures to protect the brain  Meninges – brain and spinal cord are surrounded by three protective membranes  Dura mater – tough outermost sheet, has a rubbery texture  Pia mater – delicate inner layer, very thin, sites on surface of the brain  Arachnoid membrane – the in­between layer, filled with and produces  cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) o Acts as shock absorber o Has spider web­like appearance  Ventricular System o Hollow areas in the brain o Filled with CSF  Shock absorber  Provides exchange medium between blood and brain o Lateral ventricle – extends into all four lobes and is lined with the choroid plexus  Start in forebrain  Choroid plexus produces CSF  Usually enlarged for people with schizophrenia o Third ventricle – at the midline/lower portion of the brain o Fourth ventricle – closer to the mid and hindbrain structures o Flow of CSF  Lateral ventricle  Third ventricle  Fourth ventricle  Flows down the spinal cord or absorbed back into the circulatory system  Circles back through  Visualizing the brain o Changes in the brain as a whole  CAT scan (Computerized axial tomography)  A measure of x­ray absorption around the head   Maps tissue density  Visualize initial damage of brain  MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)  Detects subtler problems such as demyelination  More details/structures visible  Gives higher resolution images in 3 steps: o Strong magnets cause protons in brain tissue to line up in parallel o Pull of radio waves knock protons over o Protons reconfigure themselves, emitting radio waves that differ  by tissue density  PET scan (positron emission tomography)  Gives images of brain activity  Helpful for diagnostic purposes  Uses radioactive chemicals injected into the blood stream o Radioactively labeled glucose  Identifies which brain regions contribute to specific functions  Emits radioactivity when being used (when glucose is being used as  energy)  fMRI (functional MRI)  detects small changes in brain metabolism, like oxygen use in active  brain areas  can show how networks of brain structures collaborate  can tell how aging is changing their brain  do either physical or cognitive activity o looking at particular structures  Golgi stain – fill whole cells  only stains some neurons  assess or count structures of neurons  fluorescent dye – molecule injections give similar result   can see the neuron structure  nissle stain – outline all cell bodies  only the cell bodies  good technique for counting neurons in particular nucleus of the brain  (region)  autoradiography – shows the distribution of radioactive chemicals in tissues  brain sections are viewed under the microscope  produce dark spots where radioactive drug was detected  Immunocytochemistry – detect a protein in tissue   Use antibodies to bind to particular proteins  Amplify signal  Use chemical treatments to make antibodies visible (chromagen) o Changes color of tissue wherever the protein is  In Situ Hybridization – uses complementary radioactive probes to find neurons  with a specific mRNA sequences  Identify where genes in tissue are turned on and off  Immediate early genes (IEGs) – such as c­fos are expressed when cells first  become active  C­fos expressed when particular cells become active  See what brain regions were active when performing the task  Use antibodies to tag c­fos protein o Tracing pathways in the brain  Anterograde labeling – uses radioactive molecules taken up by the cell bodies  and then transported to the axon tips  Can see what additional neurons it is projecting to   Uses autoradiography  Retrograde labeling – uses horseradish peroxidase (HRP)  Taken up in the axon terminals and transported to cell bodies  Transportation is backwards hence retrograde


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