Physiological Psychology Notes 1/29
Physiological Psychology Notes 1/29 Psych 325
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This 6 page Bundle was uploaded by Cali Hagen on Tuesday February 9, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Psych 325 at University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point taught by Dr. Figgy in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Physiological Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point.
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Date Created: 02/09/16
1/29 Reductionist perspective – break things down to smaller parts to understand it better o Social level o Organ level o Neural system o Brain region o Circuit level o Cellular level o Synaptic level o Molecular level Understanding brain disorders and treatments o 1/5 have a disorder o Stress, environment, better diagnosis o Neurological disorders Alzheimer’s Epilepsy Stroke Head/spinal cord disease Developmental Parkinson’s o Psychiatric Alcohol and drug abuse Severe anxiety Severe depression Schizophrenia o Twin studies See if biological factors apply o Animal research Ethical regions Strict guidelines Least invasive procedures/minimize pain and illness Neuron o Collect and deliver info o 4 structures Input zone – dendrites Integration zone – cell body Conduction zone – axon Output zone – axon terminal Glial cells o Support neural activity o 4 types Astrocytes – regulate blood flow, form new synapses, and exchange nutrients Microglia – remove debris from injured cells, “janitors” Oligodendrocytes – form myelin sheath to cells in the CNS, speed up communication Schwan cells – myelin sheath outside the CNS o Respond to injury in the brain by edema (swelling) o Myelination – glia cells wrap axons with fatty sheath to insulate and speed communication/conduction o Can last up to 15 years o Nodes of Ranvier – gaps between the myelin sheath where the action potential is regenerated Axon is exposed o Multiple sclerosis – demyelinating disease Slows communication Body attacks myelin sheath Communication o Presynaptic neuron (membrane) – axon terminal o Synaptic cleft – space between the pre and postsynaptic membrane o Postsynaptic neuron (membrane) – dendrites or cell body o Dendrites receive information across synapses Branched arborization = more connections o Postsynaptic can be dendrites or cell body o Synaptic vesicles – carry neurotransmitters to the synaptic cleft Activate with action potential o Receptors – proteins in the postsynaptic membrane that receive and react to the neurotransmitters o Dendritic spines – increase surface area/connections Up to 10,000 connections o Neural plasticity – structure that is rapidly altered by experience Nervous system o Peripheral nervous system – outside the skull and spinal column Autonomic nervous system Sympathetic nervous system o Fight/flight o Nerves originate in spinal cord o Sympathetic cord – run alongside spinal cord o Prepares body for action o Blood pressure, breathing, pupil dilation o Uses norepinephrine Parasympathetic nervous system o Feeding/fornicate o Arise in cranial and sacral spinal cord o Calm down body o Uses acetylcholine Enteric nervous system – controls digestion o Central nervous system – brain and spinal cord 2 hemispheres Cerebral cortex – outermost layer of the cerebral hemispheres Sulci – hills Gyri – valleys Controls higher order function o Language, perception, etc. 4 lobes Temporal – auditory information, memory, emotion Occipital – visual information Parietal – sensation, perception, and some vision Frontal – language, decision making, motor skills Divisions Sylvian fissure – boundary of temporal lobe Central sulcus – divides frontal lobe from parietal Postcentral gyrus – strip of cortex behind central sulcus, important for touch Precentral gyrus – in frontal lobe, important for motor control Corpus collosum – bundle of axons that connects the 2 hemispheres o Brain tissue colors White matter – consists mostly of axons with myelin sheath Myelin sheath is mostly fat Makes up large amount of corpus collosum Grey matter – consists mostly of dendrites and cells bodies Lack myelin sheath Mostly in surface of the cortex Divisions of Brain o Neural tube develops into 3 subdivisions Forebrain Basal ganglia – important for motor control o Includes 4 nuclei Caudate nucleus Putamen Globus pallidus Substantia nigra – midbrain Limbic system – learning, memory, and emotion o Olfactory bulb – sense of smell o Fornix – learning o Cingulate gyrus – attention o Thalamus – bluster of nuclei that relay sensory information Information passes through this first before going to other parts of the brain Doesn’t relay smell information o Mammillary body o Hippocampus – learning and memory o Amygdala – regulating emotion of fear and perception of odor/pheromones o Hypothalamus – contain nuclei with many functions Reproductive behavior Parental care Thirst Controls release of hormones from pituitary gland Midbrain Substantia nigra – part of the basal ganglia o Produces dopamine which is essential for movement Superior colliculus – process visual information Inferior colliculus – processes auditory information o Superior + interior = tectum Red nucleus – communicates with motor neurons in the spinal cord Hindbrain Cerebellum – involved in motor coordination and learning o Consists of 3 layers Granule cell layer – cells send axons to form parallel fibers in the outermost or molecular layer Pons – attached to the cerebellum o Contains motor and sensory nuclei o Receives information from ears o Cerebellum + pons = one subdivision Medulla – marks the transition from brain to spinal cord o Important for life sustaining functions o Breathing o Maintaining heart rate o Second subdivision Brain stem – refers to the midbrain, pons, and medulla o Cerebral cortex 6 layers Isocortex/cortex Layers distinguished by Type of neuron Pattern of dendrites Pyramidal cells – most prominent neurons in cortex Pyramidshaped cell body most concentrated in layer III and V Can be found in other layers too Apical dendrite extends to the outermost layer of cortex Basal dendrites spread horizontally from cell body o Structures to protect the brain Meninges – brain and spinal cord are surrounded by three protective membranes Dura mater – tough outermost sheet, has a rubbery texture Pia mater – delicate inner layer, very thin, sites on surface of the brain Arachnoid membrane – the inbetween layer, filled with and produces cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) o Acts as shock absorber o Has spider weblike appearance Ventricular System o Hollow areas in the brain o Filled with CSF Shock absorber Provides exchange medium between blood and brain o Lateral ventricle – extends into all four lobes and is lined with the choroid plexus Start in forebrain Choroid plexus produces CSF Usually enlarged for people with schizophrenia o Third ventricle – at the midline/lower portion of the brain o Fourth ventricle – closer to the mid and hindbrain structures o Flow of CSF Lateral ventricle Third ventricle Fourth ventricle Flows down the spinal cord or absorbed back into the circulatory system Circles back through Visualizing the brain o Changes in the brain as a whole CAT scan (Computerized axial tomography) A measure of xray absorption around the head Maps tissue density Visualize initial damage of brain MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) Detects subtler problems such as demyelination More details/structures visible Gives higher resolution images in 3 steps: o Strong magnets cause protons in brain tissue to line up in parallel o Pull of radio waves knock protons over o Protons reconfigure themselves, emitting radio waves that differ by tissue density PET scan (positron emission tomography) Gives images of brain activity Helpful for diagnostic purposes Uses radioactive chemicals injected into the blood stream o Radioactively labeled glucose Identifies which brain regions contribute to specific functions Emits radioactivity when being used (when glucose is being used as energy) fMRI (functional MRI) detects small changes in brain metabolism, like oxygen use in active brain areas can show how networks of brain structures collaborate can tell how aging is changing their brain do either physical or cognitive activity o looking at particular structures Golgi stain – fill whole cells only stains some neurons assess or count structures of neurons fluorescent dye – molecule injections give similar result can see the neuron structure nissle stain – outline all cell bodies only the cell bodies good technique for counting neurons in particular nucleus of the brain (region) autoradiography – shows the distribution of radioactive chemicals in tissues brain sections are viewed under the microscope produce dark spots where radioactive drug was detected Immunocytochemistry – detect a protein in tissue Use antibodies to bind to particular proteins Amplify signal Use chemical treatments to make antibodies visible (chromagen) o Changes color of tissue wherever the protein is In Situ Hybridization – uses complementary radioactive probes to find neurons with a specific mRNA sequences Identify where genes in tissue are turned on and off Immediate early genes (IEGs) – such as cfos are expressed when cells first become active Cfos expressed when particular cells become active See what brain regions were active when performing the task Use antibodies to tag cfos protein o Tracing pathways in the brain Anterograde labeling – uses radioactive molecules taken up by the cell bodies and then transported to the axon tips Can see what additional neurons it is projecting to Uses autoradiography Retrograde labeling – uses horseradish peroxidase (HRP) Taken up in the axon terminals and transported to cell bodies Transportation is backwards hence retrograde
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