ArtHistroyII.pdf ART 1023
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This 18 page Bundle was uploaded by Meredith Morris on Tuesday February 9, 2016. The Bundle belongs to ART 1023 at Mississippi State University taught by Benjamin Harvey in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 144 views. For similar materials see History of Art 2 in History at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 02/09/16
A. 1400 – Italy. Tuscany area (Florence/Sienna) Vasari’s idea of the renaissance: - He believed that the renaissance was a reaction to the dominant medieval style of art (which he calls “Greek” or “byzantine”). - That was primarily a Florentine achievement, with the best artists coming from, or near, the city of Florence, who are: Giotto, Masaccio, Donatello, Leonardo, and Michelangelo. - The competition between the artists encouraged excellence - It was characterized by a new “openness” to (1) nature, as artists looked to the natural world for inspiration and guidance; and (2) the art of antiquity (Greece or Rome). 1. Nicola Pisano, Pulpit of Pisa Cathedral Baptistery, 1259-60, marble a. The annunciation and the Nativity Panel (2 Mary’s) b. Birth, re-birth, new life > Baptism (theory) Patrons would specifically discuss and lay out what the artist was to make. Comparisons (1 & 2) 2. Roman Sarcophagus, Phaedra and Hippolytus Myth, 2 ndCentury A.D., Pisa 3. Giotto, Madonna Enthroned, circa 1310, tempera on wood a. Designed to go behind the high altar b. 6-8 people could be involved in the making c. Tempera – egg yolk (often referred to as egg tempera) Giotto became more well known for his narrative paintings 4. Giotto, Arena Chapel/ Scrovegni Chapel, Padua (northeast corner of Italy), 1305-1306, fresco a. Fresco - mixing pigments with water then painting directly into wet plaster (makes it more durable) b. Christ narrative c. “Arena Chapel” refers to location “Scrovegni Chapel” refers to patron who commissioned it d. Speculation that Giotto was the architect as well Blue was more expensive than other paint colors (ultramarine blue-made in Afghanistan) e. Back 2 panels – feast of the annunciation f. Top register (right to left) – Joachim and Anna (Mary’s parents) to Mary g. Middle 2 registers – life of Christ h. Bottom register – tromper l’oeil (trick the eye-French) – painted to look like marble 5. Giotto, Lamination (Arena Chapel), 1305-1306, fresco a. Background landscape draws eye to Christ b. Representation of angels grieving in the sky Virtue Figure, Figure of Justice, grisaille monochromatic painting meant to look like a sculpture. Above the annunciation, God the Father is painted on a separate panel, painted as an icon, sending Gabriel to appear to Mary. The Last Judgment, Heaven and Hell, Scrovegni presenting the chapel to 3 Mary’s to avoid Hell (located above the door). The Pope asked for a drawing from Giotto to judge his work and Giotto sends back a perfect freehanded circle (didn’t have time to compose and new work and this showed his skill). 6. Duccio, Maestá Altarpiece (Virgin and Child Enthroned with Saints), 1308-13011, tempera on wood a. Behind the high altar 7. Duccio, Maestá Altarpiece (Betrayal of Jesus), 1309-13011, tempera on wood 8. Duccio, Maestá Altarpiece (Entry into Jerusalem), 1309-13011, tempura on wood a. Zacchaeus shown in the sycamore tree 9. Simone Martini and Lippo Memmi (brother-in-law, speculation), Annunciation, 1333, tempera and gold leaf on wood a. Lettering is punched into the gold leaf (leading from mouth to mouth, the Angel Gabriel telling Mary she will bare the Son of God) i. White lilies – a symbol of Mary (purity) ii. Angel Gabriel holding an olive branch (symbolizes peace – Jesus is the Prince of Peace/ he comes in peace) b. The Holy Trinity (triangular composition) c. Compositional tension d. Mary dressed in blue (making a sour expression) 10. Ambrogio Lorenzetti, Effects of Good Government in the City and the Country, fresco, 1338-1339 a. The Nove (9 in Italian) b. Aimed to remind politicians of how they were supposed to behave c. Shows the effects of bad government B. 15 Century Northern Europe Major sources of Artistic Patronage During the Renaissance 1. Religious Groups (Cathedrals, monasteries, churches, confraternies, the papacy, etc…) 2. Political Groups (ruling elites, courts, governing bodies, etc…) 3. Trade Groups (guilds) 4. Private Money (wealthy individuals and prominent familes) 1. Campin (Master of Flémalle), Mérode Altarpiece (open), circa 1425-1428, oil on wood a. Oil became favored over tempera th i. Wasn’t used much until the early 15 century ii. Easier to work with (blends together better, dries slower, allows artist to control layers and make glazes…) b. Can fold (open images vs. closed image) i. When to close it vs. when to open it (debated) c. Right to left – Joseph, Mary and Gabriel,??? i. Time is linear, biblical time is circular (imagining events happening in modern times during specific times of the year that remind us of the events) d. Lilies, vessel (symbolizes the purity of Mary) e. Movement of the book’s pages and of smoke from the candle suggests the Angel Gabriel making wind or blowing) f. 3 lilies – only 2 flowers shown as blossomed, 3 bud suggests the not yet or impending completion of the Trinity within Mary (Mary pregnant with Jesus) i. Can be found in the medieval part of The Metropolitan Museum in New York 2. Jan Van Eyck, The Ghent Altarpiece, 1432, tempera and oil on wood a. Closed or open b. Subdued exterior, more colorful interior c. Nude Adam and Eve, light source is appropriate for if it was inside the chapel d. Cain and Abel found in the corners e. Bottom layer (middle) – sacrificial lamb of God (center) f. Left side – knights g. Right side – pilgrims= prudence, hermits= temperance h. Display of Van Eyck’s understanding of oil paint i. He used overlapping to create perspective/ atmospheric perspective (warmer colors in front vs. cooler colors in back) i. Utrecht Cathedral 3. Jan Van Eyck, Giovanni Arnolfini and his Wife, 1434, tempera and oil on wood a. Double portrait suggests their union b. Vow to each other c. 2 ft. 8 in. high, 1 ft. across d. Shows wealth in portrait e. Pregnant (speculation) or style of fashion f. Dog at their feet g. Chandelier – lit candle over the living vs. no candles over the deceased (speculation) h. Mirror behind the Arnolfini i. Two people shown in front (witnesses, painter? – speculation) ii. Images in circles around the mirror show the Passion and Crucifixion of Christ iii. Mirror could equal vanity (sin) and the artist added in Christ pictures to make up for it 4. Rogier Van der Weyden, Deposition, circa 1435, oil on wood a. Christ being taken down from the cross b. Originally had 2 wing panels on each side of the top c. (Aluvian) held in a church/ chapel d. Decorated motifs in the top corners e. Gold leaf background f. Mary fainting > regaining consciousness = (Christ) coming back to life g. Skull and bones on the bottom symbolizes death/ bones of Adam 5. Claus Sluter, The Well of Moses, Asnieres Stone (limestone) with traces of paint, 1395 – 1405 a. Mary Magdelyn b. The coming of Christ c. In – the – round C. Florence 1. Ghiberti, Sacrifice of Isaac, 1401 – 2, gilded bronze relief a. Doors b. One panel of many for a door c. Took over 2 decades to complete 2. Donatello, Saint Mark, 1411 – 13, marble a. Donatello was a part of the gild of lined drapers b. Mastery of conroposto (weight shift) c. Sculpture d. Evangelist symbol (winged lion) 3. Donatello, David, bronze, late 1420s to the 1460s a. 5 ft. tall b. First freestanding nude bronze sculpture since Antiquity c. David and Goliath Single point linear perspective makes 2 dimensional surfaces look 3 dimensional 4. Masaccio, Holy Trinity, c. 1424 – 27, fresco a. Painted in our perspectiv 5. Piero della Francesca, Flagellation of Christ, circa 1455 – 65, oil and tempera on wood a. Flagellation of Christ is on the left half 6. Mantegna, Interior of the Newlywed’s Room (camera degli sposi), 1465 – 1474, fresco a. Wife – Barbara 7. Botticelli, Birth of Venus, circa 1482, tempera on canvas a. Liberties taken with anatomy b. Born from the foam of the Mediterranean c. Being blown from the sea to the island d. “Modest” Venus pose e. Implied left to right movement f. Symmetrical g. Commissioned by the Medici family h. Resembles the annunciation D. Architectural Monuments in Florence 1. Brunelleschi, Dome of Florence Cathedral, 1420 – 1436 a. Brunelleschi figured out the engineering b. 8 panels c. Brunelleschi was extremely hands – on d. Dome was self – supporting as it was built 2. Leon Battista Alberti, Plazzo Rucellai, c 1446 – 51 a. Resembles the town hall b. Facade just ends (family wanted to buy out the connecting buildings and block but no one would sell)
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