Notes for the 3rd The Brain a User's Guide Test
Notes for the 3rd The Brain a User's Guide Test The Brain a User's Guide
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This 12 page Bundle was uploaded by Mackenzie Martin on Tuesday February 9, 2016. The Bundle belongs to The Brain a User's Guide at New York University taught by Efrain Azmitia in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 92 views. For similar materials see The Brain a User's Guide in Natural Sciences and Mathematics at New York University.
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Date Created: 02/09/16
▪ Rhythm moving and dynamic ▪ body slows down and speeds up over 24 hours- diurnal ⁃ menstrual cycle- hormonal ⁃ gravitational pull of the moon affects hormones ▪ coritsol- rhythms can go away with stress ▪ body normally feels a lot of steroid in the morning and it slows down as you go to sleep ▪ hormones can regulate thousands of genes ▪ not something we control ▪ body just does it and we follow rhythm ▪ certain times you’re in phase with hormones and certain times you’re out of phase with hormones ▪ sleep- a time where people thought sleep was a waste of time ▪ turns out it is unhealthy to get less than 7 hours of sleep ▪ soldier recruits who got no sleep could still hit a bulls eye- sleep not necessary to hold a riﬂe and shoot ▪ sleep not needed to drive a tank ▪ sleep affected to decide if a person was a friend or an enemy ▪ slept less than 7 hours people make a lot more mistakes ⁃ judgement calls ⁃ need sleep to have frontal cortex working optimally ⁃ people sleep less than anyone work on wall street and trade stocks- don’t know hot to make great decisions ▪ certain people can fall asleep immediately- sleep deprived shouldn’t take 0-5 mins ▪ 5-10 mins not great body still going too quickly ▪ should take 10-20 ▪ best time to sleep is 10pm to 1am ▪ what happens during sleep? ▪ your brain has the ability to intake receptors ▪ sometimes it takes 4,5,6 hours to get receptors across ▪ usually done when a person is sleeping ▪ things like trophic hormones and growth hormones released during sleep ▪ child grows 1/4 inch in a single night ▪ need 8.5-9 hours of sleep if you’re a teenager ▪ 25% of kids get worse grades because they fall asleep in class ▪ pineal gland secretes melatonin later at night for teens than babies and adults ▪ not good to take melatonin when younger turns off body’s melatonin and then you have to take it ▪ 41% of people have accidents because they fell asleep ▪ people under the age of 25 are more likely to be involved ▪ driving has nothing to do with cognitive ability ▪ anxiety- abnormally long sleep interruptions ▪ reduced latency to get into rem sleep ▪ shallow sleep ▪ awakenings ▪ brain changes ▪ slow wave sleep ▪ rapid eye movement- dreaming ▪ monoanergic neurons active throughout brain- turn off during rem and slow during slow wave sleep ▪ eye movement- rhythmic slows down and rem is like you’re awake ▪ rem sleep- paralyzed- can’t move even if dream wills you to move ▪ most people get kidknapped by aliens during it wtf ▪ sleep- you can divide slow wave sleep into 4 different parts ⁃ stage 1- kind of asleep- if someone wakes you you say you weren’t asleep ⁃ stage 2- going into a deep restful sleep ⁃ stage 3- delta waves ⁃ stage 4- deep delta sleep sympathetic nervous system heart pressure everything goes down - hard to get out of and after 90 mins you cycle again ⁃ 3 or 4 dreams a night when you wake up you wake from a dream cycling every 90 mins ▪ children have 2 stages of stage 4 sleep and elderly have none ⁃ kids sleep very soundly ⁃ saws secretion of growth hormone and it’s the most restful and beneﬁcial ▪ young adults- have some stage 4 sleep- about an hour and a half- lose it when you get old ▪ what happens in the brain? ▪ primary sensory areas thalamus hypothalamus ⁃ these connections always active ▪ any stage of sleep you can still use sensory connection ▪ prefrontal cotex- where conscious is ⁃ these areas tend to deactivate in non rem sleep ⁃ lose conscousness ⁃ memory areas and emotion areas drop down in sleep ⁃ monoamine systems are out during sleep ⁃ rem sleep turns hypothalamus on but you’re missing ne and dm transmitters ⁃ rely on lymbic cortex to activate hypothalamus ▪ paralysis comes from circuit within the brain that goes through the thalamus and the visual cortex ⁃ goes through the cortex and down the pons and inhibits motor movement ⁃ inhibits voluntary movement during sleep ⁃ sleep paralysis or sleep walking it’s released- they can move in response to their dreams- the inhibition is removed ▪ when people wake up and want to move but can’t they can feel their weight but have PGO activity going on keeping them in paralysis ▪ recurring dreams- something trying to be resolved ▪ dream recall- people remembering their dreams only 70% ⁃ most people dream and don’t recall it- people who can’t recall their dreams can create a condition so that they can recall their dreams- stay in bed and think and try to recall without opening your eyes or taking appraisal of where you are- don’t allow new connections to come in ▪ vivid dreams are where you can control your dream- you can control which direction your dreams can go ▪ people who have a problem they’re working on- they dream about the problem without the extraneous input they are working on- brain can focus more on the problem this way ▪ serotonin brain levels- amount is correlated with the amount of sunlight we are getting ▪ decreased sunlight associated with depression aggression and suicide ▪ what melatonin is- sleep drug- secreted by pineal gland- made directly from serotonin ⁃ direct relation to sleep ability ▪ gland in the middle of the brain secretes melatonin ▪ renee decart- machine did a lot of work on brain activity- he felt that the pineal gland was the spirtiual center of soul of brain ▪ hormone only secreted when there is no light- melatonin ▪ people get tired when lights are dim- lethargy ▪ in certain countries with severe no light- serotonin decrease- more likely of depression alcoholism and suicide- important for metabolism ▪ seasonal affective disorder- you tend to feel depressed- found in people in northern climates ▪ when spring comes the days are longer so the depression lifts ▪ amount of sun exposure you’re getting ▪ need very little direct sun light- 5 mins a day ▪ best way to get rid of seasonal affective disorder is go skiing or south and reset the brain ▪ the amount of deep sleep people get is affected by the moon activity ▪ all genes in the brain change as estrogen in the brain ﬂuctuates throughout the month ▪ annual rhythms- people don’t think about- amount of light? ▪ study 12 months a year- don’t slow down at any time- supposed to always function at the same level ▪ ^that’s not true ▪ times where body needs rest vs. times where you’re ready for activity ▪ look at simple things like temp or rainfall- the temp changes throughout the year ⁃ everything that’s living is affected ⁃ amount of sun ⁃ equinox- same amount of light in the day ⁃ shortest day of the year dec 21st ⁃ june 21st longest day of the year ▪ plant life is affected by the amount of sun ▪ when you look at things in the winter time you think they’re dead ▪ it’s as if nothing is growing ▪ in spring things start coming up and we accept the fact that everything around us has an annual rhythm ▪ WE DO TOO ▪ weight gain of cows- cows put on most weight oct nov dec least amount in summer ▪ humans have the exact same weight curve ▪ lose weight less weight gain in summer gain it in the fall ⁃ biological systems drive this ▪ breeding ▪ we breed much more during the spring months feb april may ▪ bear is similar to humans ▪ during hybernation the animals lose their dendrites and they come out when they wake back up ▪ suicide rates in portugal peak right after the winter ▪ it peaks in the winter don’t have motiveation ▪ most vulnerable period for suicide is right coming out of depression and you have the energy to do it ▪ suicides peak after depressed period ▪ SSRI most vulnerable period is ﬁrst 2-3 weeks ⁃ dogs most concerned patients will hurt themselves ▪ not the month it’s the sunlight ▪ socially we have christmas and a feast to overcome a biologically bases depression ▪ einstein didn’t do anything for 3-4 weeks over the summer- come into the fall rejuvenated ▪ need to take into account we are animals ▪ October 28th ▪ Phobia ▪ stress- challenge to our internal homeostasis ▪ something we view as a negative force acting on us ▪ what it does is it secrets a certain hormone- stress hormone ▪ anything challenging the internal environment is stress ▪ stress causes problems in sleep ▪ eating disorders, anger- response to feeling anxious ⁃ use of alcohol ⁃ how men cope ▪ causes release of ACTH- can’t avoid it but want to be able to cope with it ▪ release cortosol ▪ drop bp ▪ all stresses act on the brain and cause a release of protein from the hypothalamus ▪ protein goes to pituitary ▪ the protein is the acth and cortisol ▪ pituitary signals to the rest of the body that something is happening ▪ adrenal gland on kidneys secretes cortisol ⁃ made of cholesterol it’s a steroid ⁃ it gets your body ready to meet the stress ▪ cortisol gets body ready to combat stress ▪ it feeds back- stress turns on the amygdala- stimulates the brain ▪ hypocampus turns stress ready stuff off and calms the brain down ▪ one responds to the stress and the other uses cortisol to calm the brain down ▪ what cholesterol looks like- body needs amount of cholesterol to make steroids- cortisol looks like cholesteral ▪ cortisol is a hormone made in adrenal gland that looks like cholesterol ▪ how does your bod get ready? ▪ need energy aka glucose ▪ sometimes they take glucose away and put it in storage ▪ cortisol tells liver to break down glycogen into glucose ▪ glucose goes to muscles to give you the energy to function ▪ it turns that system off- system that stores glucose ▪ cortisol makes glucose available for activity ▪ inﬂux of energy set up to do something ▪ steroids also do something else- leads to diseases and probs ⁃ steroids can actually get into the nucleus of certain cells in the brain and regulate genes ⁃ they can shift how neurons are built and how they interact with each other in the long term ⁃ turning genes on and off ⁃ they turn hundreds of thousands of genes on and off ⁃ major shift in how they all function ▪ took adrenal glands out of animals and inject steroids- a lot of areas of the brain associated with stress ⁃ found steroid sensitive cells ⁃ most of it in parts of the brain deal with stress ⁃ steroids change the way the cells deal with stress ⁃ if they make connections or too many connections ▪ the cells light up because they have so much radioactivity- cells in other structures don’t light up ⁃ steroids selectively change parts of your brain and how you deal with stress ⁃ these changes have long term consequences ⁃ Ca 1 neurons light up and not 2 or 3- turn off and on genes in neuron that are part of particular pathways ▪ 0 minutes- expose cell to radioactive steroids ▪ in 30 mins the steroid moves from the cytoplasm and gets in nucleus and thats where it turns on and off genes- time frame is an hour ▪ 5-10 mins effects glucose- activation you need to immediately respond to stress ▪ thousands of different genes are turned on off simply by changing steroid ▪ receptor in cell for steroid ▪ neurons that change are part of the global systems ▪ systems that affect moods ▪ stress is mental ▪ anxiety is mental ▪ limbic cognitive stress ▪ physiological stress ⁃ increase heart rate ⁃ short of breath ⁃ dry mouth ▪ musicians take drugs that act on peripheral side of stress- beta blockers ⁃ mentally sharp and heightened but physialogically they’re in control ▪ anxiety stresses our reverberating circuits ▪ not a point to point system ▪ once you feel anxiety it feeds into itself and goes in circles ▪ it’s cyclical ▪ the ﬁrst person to notice this in the brain ▪ a limbus lobe ▪ broca’s “limbus” lobe- fed on itself looks circular ⁃ something funny about how the brain is structured ⁃ it goes around ▪ dr. in we noticed soldiers with various injuries in limbus structure all showed same rage and depression- lesions in these areas have to do with emotions ⁃ papez circuit- gave rise to the limbic system ⁃ what gets your brain going in terms of anxiety and emotions ▪ have to raise your anxiety level to a certain point or else you perform ﬂat ⁃ anxiety is useful ▪ motivational disorder- body needs to be ready to function with glucose ▪ too much steroids can cause the hippocampus to stop functioning- too anxious ▪ anxiety disorder ▪ stress disorder ▪ disorder- when it begins to interfere with your ability to lead a normal life- have friends can sleep do work ▪ the line varies from person to person ▪ anxiety disorders- irrational fear need to escape something bad is happening ⁃ can be as high as 20% of people ▪ phobias- 8% of people- only a disorder when it interferes with your functioning ▪ social anxiety disorder- scared you’ll be judged and people will look at you funny ⁃ what usually happens- you avoid it- stop going to parties and joining clubs ▪ eating disorder- preoccupation with food .6% of US ▪ 1% bulimia ▪ 2.8% bing eating ▪ generalize anxiety- anxious about everything constantly worried- no one thing ⁃ can’t control worry ⁃ part of your personality ⁃ sleep disturbance ⁃ irritable ⁃ restlessness e u g i t a⁃f ▪ obsessive compulsive disorder- totally focus on one thing ⁃ constant repitition of non rewarding behavior ⁃ rituals doing same thing over and over ⁃ SSRI anti depressant meds ⁃ most people who are ocd wash their hands a lot- washers ⁃ checker ⁃ collecters- newspapers from the last 40 years ▪ disorder caused by an imbalance of global systems- docs have to balance chemicals ▪ student stress level ▪ panic attack happen quickly ▪ ptsd last months or years November 2nd ▪ sex hormones ▪ all our hormones and the actions they have come in from the diet- cholesterol ▪ estrogen testosterone progesterone- almost all identical- testosterone can be converted to estrogen ▪ men have signiﬁcant levels of estrogen- progesterone looks like testosterone- has a mental carboxyl group ▪ organizational stuff- irreversible- early exposure to testosterone ▪ the genes can be male or female- however when the hormones come on board the appearance and behavior can all change ▪ adolescents- a lot of testosterone comes on board ▪ activation effect on hormones- temporary and age related ▪ primary sexual differentiation- x female sperm can be x or y- then become a zygote ▪ xy makes a gene which is a testes determination factor ▪ at 6 years old gonads change and they get testes if male and female is default setting if gene isn’t activated ▪ secondary organs in the fetus- mullerian and wolﬁng ducts form in both male and female ▪ in the male the testosterone makes mullerian removal ▪ male duct wolfﬁan female duct mullerian ▪ the brain itself then produces factors that secrete testosterone or estrogen ▪ gonadotrophic releasing hormone releases the same peptide in males and females ▪ will have different effects in female and male- acts on sperm or ovaries with regulation of egg ▪ feedback loop turns on the LH and FSH ▪ testosterone and estrogen have effect on production of sperm or egg cells- and appearance ▪ growth of muscle tissue genitals facial hair ▪ estrogen boobs pubic and axilliar hair ▪ estrogen- in the ovaries- follicular ovulation luteal- menstrual cycle driven by LH ▪ ovaries secreted during fallopian tube then yellow luteal phase and progesterone spikes ▪ progesterone is the hormone of pregnancy- some effects on brain of calming the mother down ▪ menopause- age related change- starts at age 35 ▪ sharp drop in progesterone and estrogen ▪ by the age of 55 and 60 they’re at extremely low levels- consequences to the brain because of it ▪ testosterone has an age effect ▪ it peaks at 20 and 25 then it drops- not as big of drop as estrogen ▪ androgen- hormones that make male characteristics- increase in size and muscle mass ▪ testosterone is secreted- LH produces increase in testosterone FSH increases sperm cells ▪ estrogen and testosterone mark where people are in terms of their age ▪ if you take estrogen or testosterone and make it radioactive and inject it into an animal, there are certain cells that will concentrate hormones in cell and you’ll see pronounced changes in maturation and shape of these cells ▪ receptrors for estrogen are nuclear or cell surface ▪ nuclear is sensational ▪ target lymbic areas- animal stress activating and relating cells ▪ regions that are activated by systems amygdala hypothalamus frontal cortex hippocampus ▪ progesterone- peaks in pregnancy at about 9 weeks ▪ lots of evidence that the female brain is better than the male brain ▪ women have more grey matter- in the grey matter is where all the neurons and synapses and dendrites and glial cells are ▪ laterality- differences between 2 sides of the brain- women are more emotional and musical right side ▪ men have more left side ▪ whit matter where ﬁbers are going through ▪ male brain has more ﬂuid and female brain has more brain matter ▪ functional connections- amount of synapses in the brain- females have higher level ▪ men have better spacial ability- map reading ﬁnding places ▪ women have better verbal skills short term memory perceptual speed emotional intelligence(laterality), motor control- thread a needle ▪ men are stronger ▪ stern accept more women than men ▪ why? ▪ girls always get better grades but men score 25 points higher on the SAT than women ⁃ SAT questions are mostly made by men ▪ cognition- 1 min to write words that end with e- women will have more words than men ▪ spacial reasoning- men are better ▪ when women have low estrogen levels on their cycle they do better than when it’s elevated on spacial reasoning ▪ mental health- boys are more autistic ADHD and dyslexia ▪ men are more likely to die in accidents ▪ girls are more likely to have depression anxiety and eating disorders ▪ women are more likely to attempt suicide ▪ men are 3x likelier to succeed at suicide ▪ male alcoholism ▪ female somatic immune and pain disorders ▪ all due to presence of sex hormones ▪ estradiol can inﬂuence morphology of cells they act on ⁃ a lot more neurons acting with estrogen ▪ estradiol treatment has effect on hippocampal neuronal dendrites ▪ estrogen creates dramatic increase in spines ▪ the idea that the female brain is more ready to make synaptic contact ▪ actual changes in estrogen- during a monthly cycle there is low estrogen when women are depressed and gain weight and have a poor immune system ▪ estrogen increase better immunity and mood and more anorexia ▪ women are more likely to have autoimmune disease ▪ postpartum depression ▪ women most likely to have depressive disorders in 40s ▪ as you approach menopause they get greater ▪ loss of estrogen ▪ within 2 days of pregnancy levels drop down ▪ increase in an enzyme that gets rid of serotonin ▪ 2-5 days postpartum ▪ evolutionary change ▪ oxytocin- related to estrogen- it makes better bonding between female and male ▪ prairie voles have more oxytocin and meadow voles are promiscuous and have less oxytocin ▪ baboons are aggressive and attack and are in isolation ▪ hamadryas baboon form groups- higher serotonin ▪ homosexuality ▪ sexual orientation developed during prenatal development ▪ low testosterone during pregnancy male responds to female and males ▪ you need testosterone to change developmental characteristic ▪ lower testosterone gay men ▪ estimated that 3% of american population is gay ▪ controversial study in california- there are certain areas in the hypothalamus that are more pronounced in one gender than other- bigger interstitial nuclei in males ▪ homosexuals have the brain appearance of females ▪ the behavior being shown is how the brain is organized ▪ concept of gender is that there is a predisposition- bell shaped curve how much testosterone you’re exposed to ▪ david lost his penis during cicrumcision ⁃ they made him surgically a girl ⁃ brenda stood and peed wouldn’t wear dresses and felt something wrong ⁃ at age 14 brenda was told she was david ⁃ had her body changed back to a male and became bruce and lived a normal life ▪ androgen insensitive system- male has xy and secretes testosterone but the testosterone receptors are missing ▪ the fetus then developes of a woman- ﬁne featured and feminized woman ⁃ greys anatomy woman has testes inside ▪ November 3rd ▪ full series of reﬂexes can occur without any control from the brain itself ▪ paralyzed people can have an erection or a sexual act without any input from the brain itself ▪ activate nerve endings inputs coming in ▪ purely biological act ▪ temporal means not structural ▪ neurons themselves are structurally changing ▪ it is reversible not like if you’re uterus is exposed to testosterone and theres a change throughout life ▪ testosterone plays a huge role in men ▪ women- more estrogen more sexual interest ▪ testosterone plays a key role in women too ▪ men have estrogen in their system ▪ testosterone can have biological effects ▪ the enzyme- small difference between testosterone and estrodial- enzyme in the brain that can change them ▪ some men will have lower testosterone higher estrogen- some women have more testosterone and less estrogen- bell shaped curve ▪ differences between two sexes ▪ steroids get into the nucleus- binding factors- just like cortisol they can change the reading of hundreds of thousands of genes ▪ steroids have effects on the dendrites themselves- lipids can bind to membranes themselves- they’re hydrophobic- immediate effect in minutes or secs ▪ transmitter release- a lot block release ▪ estrogen is a strong female hormone- through adolescence and puberty there’s effects on breasts and heart- female body depends on estrogen ▪ during puberty estrogen levels go up breasts develop- menopause ▪ things on memory and spacial learning- changes circuitry and whole body ▪ estrogen is required for sexual act itself in the sense that women become women- animals become more responsive in the presence of estrogen ⁃ female act to be sexually active- add estrogen she arches back and presents genitals to the male ⁃ castrate a male early on and add estrogen it’ll show genitalia and arch back ⁃ if you do it with testosterone instead of estrogen it will mount other rats ⁃ “rordosis?” behavior ▪ if you take a female rat put her in her home cage and remove her ovaries and put a male there she will attack him ⁃ area in hypothalamus concentrates estrogen ⁃ if you give estrogen to rats the neurons will grow into the pleasure centers ⁃ then take male rat she will show rordosis behavior ⁃ take male rat out and let the estrogen leave her system and she’ll attack him again ▪ how do we decide if a stimulus is desirable- measure electrical activity from the scalp ▪ ask a person if they ﬁnd a photo desirable or not and it’ll take 4/10 of a sec ▪ determine if you ﬁnd it desirable or not ▪ 3 faces of a man- all different ▪ women were asked which of the 3 faces is best looking ▪ if the woman is ovulating she will like the more masculine face ▪ when not ovulating like less masculine face ▪ women dress better and wear more makeup at certain times in the cycle ▪ desirable or not desirable starts in the visual cortex ▪ certain parts of the brain light up ▪ if you have some sort of abnormality in the temporal lobe it can produce an orgasm just from temporal lobe stimulation ▪ someone had a brain tumor in temporal lobe and she was sexual af ▪ men have the same kind of- body inﬂuenced from hormones from birth ▪ during adolescence things change ▪ men and testosterone- sexual desire and aggression both involved ▪ testosterone changes the way the brain is circuited and the way it thinks ▪ how much testosterone you have- look at the length of our ring ﬁnger- if it’s longer than your index ﬁnger it means you have high testosterone ▪ alcoholism ▪ autism ▪ bond trading ▪ ^higher testosterone ▪ testosterone peaks during age 15 and 25 ▪ opera singers in germany- people with base voice have high testosterone and high sexual activity when younger ▪ tenors have higher testosterone and more sex when older ▪ testosterone is focused in amygdala ▪ areas that target sex hormones ▪ primitive limbic system functioning ▪ the human brain always builds on what was there before- sexual response by spinal chord it would keep it then add limbic system and cortical system on top ▪ some men are hypoactive with sexual desire ▪ frontal cortex part of brain- high world cognition and executive function ▪ showed them photographs of hot women- these men wouldn’t get aroused ▪ in hypoactive they had more frontal lobe activity than a normal male ▪ hypoactive turned it off and wouldn’t let limbic system be active ▪ cortical functioning regulates lower levels of the limbic system ▪ sexual dimorphism in men- buy testosterone one tv so u can put it on ur bod ▪ testosterone leads to drop in testosterone- PCPA more aggressive and hyperactive ▪ drugs that increase seratonin- love drugsssss- the exact opposite of violence and aggression ▪ PCPA increases sexual activity and volcano ▪ ecstasy increases sexual activity but not violence ▪ 12% of men admit to raping a woman ▪ 40% of women report to being sexually assaulted ▪ a lot of women don’t call their experience rape ▪ more likely to drink before alcohol ▪ locker room talk- she was really easy ▪ male lingo ▪ approval of rape ▪ alcohol- major factor in rape ▪ affective aggression- stress and feel threatened someone pushes you and u push them back- used for show ⁃ male vocalization screaming yelling ▪ predatory aggression-scary af, limbic system- usually against a different species for food- lion chases dear- very quiet stalk- totally calm very dangerous ▪
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