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Lecture Notes for the 2nd The Brain a User's Guide Exam

by: Mackenzie Martin

Lecture Notes for the 2nd The Brain a User's Guide Exam The Brain a User's Guide

Marketplace > New York University > Natural Sciences and Mathematics > The Brain a User's Guide > Lecture Notes for the 2nd The Brain a User s Guide Exam
Mackenzie Martin

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The Brain a User's Guide
Efrain Azmitia
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This 3 page Bundle was uploaded by Mackenzie Martin on Tuesday February 9, 2016. The Bundle belongs to The Brain a User's Guide at New York University taught by Efrain Azmitia in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 50 views. For similar materials see The Brain a User's Guide in Natural Sciences and Mathematics at New York University.

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Date Created: 02/09/16
▪ 9/28 ▪ chemical sensation oldest and most common sense system ▪ taste ⁃ umami- savory ⁃ fructose sucrose- doesn’t need to be a sugar compound to be sweet ⁃ lemonade from chemicals that has no lemon or sugars ▪ sucrose- natural ▪ sucralose- splenda- if you replace oh groups with Cl has the same sweet taste but your body can’t use it to make energy ⁃ body then looks for nutritional value that sucrose would’ve used ▪ aspartame- in equal- a series of amino acids give a sweet taste-forms of dementia can’t take neutrasweet because the body has too much phenylalanine ⁃ increased likelihood of depression ▪ umami- spice MSG- glutamate chemical that brain uses for excitatory signals- people can develop a hyperactive or seizures responses- restaurants say “no msg added to food” ⁃ taking glutamate which is a nuerotransmitter and it excites you- feeling of being full ▪ aromas and taste detection- you can learn to detect flavors and taste by experience ⁃ smell something and not know what it is then work at it and learn ⁃ learn to appreciate wine ▪ most tongue receptors in the tongue ▪ where on the tongue are different flavors organized? ⁃ mapped receptors and the tongue diagram is wrong ⁃ 5 basic tastes are found in all areas of the tongue ⁃ bumps on tongue- papillae- has hundreds of taste buds- each taste bud has 50-100 cells ⁃ taste cells only 1% of the surface ⁃ curved so that taste can cover them and go in ⁃ cells detect particular flavor and one particular neuron is affected ▪ mechanisms of taste transduction- salt sensitive taste cells ⁃ PH 7 neutral- glass of water .0001 hydrogen ⁃ sour is hydrogen and acidity and has a low pH ⁃ saltiness- remove acid from solution ⁃ taste saltiness more if it’s ice cold ⁃ wine at room temp- if it’s too cold or warm you taste certain things too much ▪ human pheromones aka attraction ▪ dog can detect 10x smells ▪ if you’re constantly exposed to a cell you can kill the neurons that smell that smell ▪ pheromones- associated with sex- silk worms can activate other silk worms up to 30 miles away ▪ baby can identify it’s mom through smell ▪ 9/30 ▪ crying ▪ too much light coming in constricts pupil- also constricts when you look down ▪ Bella Donna- drug causes inhibition of cholinergic nerve ▪ wavelength is small and tight ⁃ wavelength is length ⁃ amplitude is volume ⁃ red is low energy blue is high energy ⁃ cones in the eye only see one color ▪ photons come in eye- if it hits part of the eye there’s reflection ⁃ white surface photons will bounce off ⁃ black surface- they get absorbed ▪ refraction- bending of light waves ▪ diopter- focal length- diopter of 1 means you can focus on something a meter away ⁃ can you sing your finger tips clearly ⁃ diopter increases with age- grandma holds things far away to read ▪ cataracts driving on the right side of the road ▪ saccades- a point in the eye with tiny receptors- when you focus your eye you move your eye to focus so the light hits the fovea ▪ slide 27 retinofugal pathways ▪ when the visual hemifield corresponds to which eye and retina ▪ big part of vision is tracking- follow his finger without thinking about it ▪ attentiveness is selective concentration ▪ 10/5 ▪ if you see lightening and the sound is quick then that means it’s close] ▪ speed of sound is faster than water ▪ animals can hear better than us ▪ high notes high vibration ▪ sensory cell releases chemical that activates a neuron- carried into inner ear and goes into brain ▪ can move your ears ▪ can tell where source is by moving ears- owls ▪ humans have to move their heads ▪ volume power- 100dB rock concert ▪ 85 dB is safe for 8 hours and that’s the noise in nyc ⁃ after it’s been hitting ear drum so long you lose ability to hear and pick up on small voices ▪ sodium glutamate- released and used to hear ▪ spiral ganglion- central auditory processes ▪ chocliar nucleus has 2 divisions- reaches various parts in the brain stem ▪ same side ▪ level of superior colliculus goes to two sides so that there is a proper timing mechanism ▪ olfaction- smell is associated with memory- direct attention to cortex ▪ auditory system takes many synapses and stops to the cortex ⁃ auditory is a very old system- animals concerned with the ability to localize sound ▪ sound can tell what part of the room he is in with our eyes closed- “sound localization” ▪ much easier to localize sound when it’s off to the side ▪ sound coming from right and left reach olive at different times and we can localize which hears it first and the chocliar nucleolus helps identify which is heard first ▪ isn’t a smooth bowl- have ridges- the ridges set up spring boards and barriers for sound ⁃ sound bypasses all ridges if it goes straight ⁃ if it comes from side it bounces around and the sound wave is delayed ▪ music used for tranquility- get emotions up ▪ music therapy ▪ children raised with music have more developed cortex and can connect both sides of the brain much better ▪ people can sense when they’re going up or down by semicircular canal ▪ fluid goes to one area if you spin and the fluid doesn’t stop moving so you’re dizzy ▪ drink too much the room spins- alcohol activates endolin? ▪ 10/7 ▪ homeostasis- the same state ▪ greeks thought we had a lot of systems in the body- thought there was some fluid that permeated the whole body ⁃ believed to be healthy there needed to be balance ▪ claude bernard- scientific explanation for homeostasis ⁃ believed internal part of the body is a necessary condition for free life ▪ homeostatic systems- cognitive component and biological component- eat when not hungry- overheat and don’t rest ⁃ temp, thirst, hunger ▪ body temp- can shiver if cold peripheral nervous system ⁃ sympathetic and parasympathetic- engaged after meal to slow you down ▪ osmotic thirst- blocks water from cells- osmoreceptors detect changes in water amount in systems ▪ oxytocin- autism- lactade to babies ▪ vitamins make the global systems- slide 17- you need to eat them because the body doesn’t make them by itself- what you eat is important for how your brain functions ▪ unmylinated pain fibers ▪ tryptophan- regulate serotonin levels


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