Test 3 ANT 3141
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TEST 3 Chapter 7 Prehispanic South America (The Inca and their Predecessors) -At the time of Columbus’ departure from Spain, the largest empire in the world was Tawantinsuyu, the Inca empire. The empire was greater in size than any ﬁfteenth- or twentieth-century European state, covering 380,000 square miles. The Inca controlled the most extensive political domain that has ever existed in the Southern Hemisphere. Cuzco, the capital, governed 80 provinces. -The earliest experiments with food production preceded the transition to sedentary village life. -There were some important diﬀerences between prehispanic sequences in Mesoamerica and South America. -Most of the major South American centers were shorter-lived than those of Mesoamerica. -The South American region lacked a core region like the Basin of Mexico. -Power shifted between the Paciﬁc Coast and the rugged uplands. -Animal domestication was more important in South America. -Land transportation using pack animals was present in South America, while water transportation was more important in Mesoamerica. -Writing developed in Mesoamerica, while the Inca only had a numerical system using knots (quipu). Peruvian Highlands -The west coast of Peru has interesting features. -The waters oﬀ the coast are one of the world’s richest ﬁshing areas (maritime cultures). The shore is one of the world’s driest deserts, rarely receiving measurable quantities of rain. Streams carrying the snowmelt and rainfall from the Andes provide most of the surface water. -The desert coast of Peru was ﬁrst settled after 7000 B.C. by mobile groups who exploited various environmental zones. Shellﬁsh, along with deer, small mammals, and birds were hunted. Wild plants were collected in the coastal river valleys. -After 5000 B.C., groups became more sedentary in the coastal region. Increased reliance on marine and plant products occurred. Cultivated squash and tubers introduced from the highlands (ﬁrst cultivation took place in the highlands) were consumed. Permanent villages were established shortly after 4000 B.C. Maritime Hypothesis (p. 381)- Michael Mosely. Proposed that complex societies with monumental architecture emerged during the preceramic period on the paciﬁc coast of South America. Subsistence activities at these sites appear to have focused on marine resources. Mosely intended to refute the widely accepted belief that only agricultural economies can support the foundations of civilization. He called his argument the Maritime Hypothesis, noting the abundance of shellﬁsh middens and ﬁshing nets at many coastal settlements, particularly at several sites that were closer to the coast and somewhat earlier than El Paraiso. The Inca Empire -Inca attributed their place of origin to a place called Collasuyu. -The origin myth may stem from the belief in the sacred nature of Collasuyu’s Lake Titicaca, the largest lake in South America. -The inhabitants of these early communities had a mixed agrarian economy. -The early villagers subsisted on a range of domesticated species adapted to the torrential rains of the wet season, as well as an extended dry season. -The most important food sources were plants like potatoes, grains like quinoa, and domesticated animals, such as alpaca and llama. -One of the early villages on the southern shores of Lake Titicaca was Chiripa. The center of the site had a large mound constructed around 900 B.C. A series of subterranean houses was arranged around the mound. -Much of what is known about the Inca comes from written documents ﬁltered through European chroniclers. chroniclers. -In 1532, a group of Spaniards led by Francisco Pizzaro came into contact with populations that were part of a giant centralized domain called Tawantinsuyu. -The capital of the empire was Cuzco. -The highest-ranked leader was called Inca. Patrilineal inheritance. -At the time of Spanish contact, a rivalry existed between two brothers, which may have contributed to the loss of the empire to the Spanish. -According to legend, the rise of the Inca began with hostilities between Cuzco and the neighboring people of Chanca. The Chanca laid siege on Cuzco, however Cuzco’s defenders rallied to defeat the Chanca and drive them away from the Inca homeland. Cusi Inca Yupanqui was crowned Inca after the victory around A.D. 1440. He was renamed Pachakuti. Less than a century later, the empire stretched over 2,600 miles from north to south. The fall of the Inca Empire is due to the Spanish. Combination factors include: -disease: smallpox, measles, tuberculosis, Inca Huayna Capac (disease from animals to humans from Old World to New World via domestication of animals)* -internal conﬂict among Inca brothers Atahualpa and Huascar -spanish ambush and capture of Inca Atahualpa -warfare: 100,000 Inca warriors in one battle -enemies allied with Spanish -superior weaponry and cavalry of Spanish -greed of Spanish for Inca gold -last of Inca peoples defeated in 1572 Chapter 8 States and Empires in Asia and Africa -Underlying causes that underpin the emergence of hierarchical social formations vary greatly. -Such institutions emerge in conjunction with larger, denser populations where consensual methods of decision making do not work eﬀectively. Egalitarianism does not work, stratiﬁcation is necessary. -Institutions become self-serving so that those who are privileged remain so. -Increasing inequality in wealth and power is a hallmark of civilized societies. -By specially marking the oﬀspring of the privileged from birth, the number of heirs is limited. -The rise of hierarchical polities is generally linked with economic transitions in exchange and production. -In Eurasia and Africa, beasts of burden could distribute goods inexpensively, leading to the development of large-scale and specialized craft industries. -As societies increase in size and complexity, the mechanisms of exchange shift to tribute and marketing. -The sequences of transition are not uniform and the speciﬁc organization of diﬀerent states varies markedly. -People have been living in farming communities in Southwest Asia for nearly 10,000 years. -Settlements consisted of small, packed mud or clay structures that must be rebuilt every 50-75 years. -Over thousands of years, structures have been rebuilt on top of earlier ones, gradually leading to mounds of accumulated mud and clay. Thousands of these mounds, called tells, rise above the landscape in Southwest Asia. -Ancient irrigation canals also cover the landscape of the area. -The soils of the alluvial plain are deposited by the annual ﬂoods of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. The rivers provide water that makes irrigation possible in an area where rainfall is inadequate for farming. -Farmers today can cultivate a variety of crops. -No early agricultural villages have been found on the ﬂat plain between the rivers in Mesopotamia. -By 6,000 B.C., the ﬁrst farming villages were settled on the northern fringe of the Tigris and Euphrates ﬂoodplain. Euphrates ﬂoodplain. -Communities were generally composed of several houses, containing a few rooms. -By 5500 B.C., the Halaﬁan pottery style spread throughout a wide area of northern Mesopotamia, suggesting that the villages were linked. Shortly after the appearance of Halaﬁan ceramics in the north, the focus of Mesopotamian settlement shifted to the south, an area known as Sumer. -No sedentary villages prior to the sixth millennium B.C. have been recorded in Sumer. -By 5300 B.C., an economy based on ﬁsh, irrigation agriculture, and domestic cattle arose in Sumer. -The ‘Ubaid period (5300–4100 B.C.) begins the sequence and was marked by the establishment of the temple. -The ﬁrst villages in southern Mesopotamia were small, about 2.5–5 acres. -Little is known about early Egypt. What is known is that the civilization along the Nile River was diﬀerent in its long-term history from the ancient civilizations that developed in other parts of the world. Egyptian civilization centered on the Nile Valley. -The Nile ﬂows to the north from its source in equatorial Africa. Its ﬁnal 800 miles cut through Egypt before fanning out into an enormous delta. Lower Egypt to the north has rich cultivable ﬂoodplains that are extremely fertile. Annual temperatures are ideal for the cultivation of a wide range of crops. -No deﬁnite sedentary villages have been found in the Nile Valley prior to the sixth millennium B.C. -Soon after 5000 B.C., food production was established. -Most of what is known about predynastic Egypt comes from the south, where the earliest occupations are called Badarian. -Badarian settlements consisted of clusters of skin tents or small huts. -Many of the dead were buried carefully in pits in which grave goods were placed. -In the south, Amratian tradition (3800–3500 B.C.) materials are found directly above Badarian levels. This tradition is characterized by the appearance of more developed craft industries. Amratian metalworkers used copper to make various items. -The origins of Egyptian metallurgy have not deﬁnitively been determined. *Giza and dynastic egypt -After the uniﬁcation of Egypt, Narmer moved the capital from Hierakonpolis, in Upper Egypt, to Memphis, in Lower Egypt. -Memphis remained the political center for 1,500 years. -The symbol of the pharaoh was the double crown of Upper and Lower Egypt. -A series of pharaohs during the ﬁrst (3100–2890 B.C.) and second (2890–2686 B.C.) dynasties ruled under the double crown. -The Egyptian population was less urban than Southwest Asia and was ruled by many dynasties. -Apart from a few large cities, most Egyptians lived in self-suﬃcient villages. -A massive hereditary bureaucracy developed (inherited positions of power), devoting energy to tax collection, harvest yields, and the administration of irrigation. -Trade links were established to other parts of Africa. -Between the third dynasty in 2686 B.C. and the Persian conquest in 525 B.C., Egypt was ruled by at least 23 dynasties. -The third through the sixth dynasties are referred to as the Old Kingdom (2686–2181 B.C.), a time of grandiose pyramid construction. -The ﬁrst pyramid was a stepped stone structure constructed by Zoser. Step pyramids were soon followed by pyramids with smooth faces. Like all royal tombs until 1000 B.C., the pyramids were constructed in the desert on the west side of the Nile. -The development of civilization in China was largely indigenous. -Between 5000 and 3000 B.C., the Yellow River region of North China was settled by millet and pig farmers who resided in large villages of up to 100 houses. -During the Longshan period (3000–2205 B.C.), signiﬁcant changes took place in North Chinese social organization, including increases in social ranking. -For the ﬁrst time, Longshan settlements were walled, and the largest communities were much bigger than before. before. -Similar developments were also occurring in other parts of China. -The era following Longshan in North China is known as the San dai, or Three Dynasties. -The introduction of rice cultivation changed lifeways in Southeast Asia. -Southeast Asia was populated by hunter-gatherers until cultivated rice was introduced in the third millennium B.C. -When rice was introduced from south China, small agricultural villages were established throughout the area. -Rice rapidly became the staple crop across Southeast Asia. •The introduction of new technologies transformed some Southeast Asian societies. -Between 1500 and 1000 B.C., bronze casting was adopted. -After 500 B.C., iron was smelted to make weapons and agricultural tools. -Settlements began to grow in size, and more hierarchical forms of leadership emerged. -Before the end of the ﬁrst millennium B.C., Southeast Asians began to engage in maritime trade with oﬀshore islands, China, and the Indian subcontinent. •Some Southeast Asian societies became highly ranked kingdoms, focused on large centers that were presided over by an aristocratic class. -Ruling power was based in part on control of agricultural land, rice surpluses, and advantages in access to high-status imported goods. -Public displays of feasting were important aspects of maintaining power. -For hundreds of years, small competing polities were often in a state of ﬂux. •Just after A.D. 800, Angkor arose and became one of the largest and most centralized polities in Southeast Asia. -After A.D. 550 in the Mekong Valley region of Cambodia, a series of kings tried to establish control over large areas; none, however, was able to hold the kingdom together for long. -The formation of the large state in A.D. 802 is attributed to Jayavarman II. -He joined a series of smaller competing polities into a large state by ﬁrst defeating rival rules and then placing his followers in positions of authority. -He established a succession of Khmer dynasties whose reign at Angkor endured for more than 600 years. •The Sahara Desert has undergone several changes that have aﬀected human settlement in the region. -Prior to 10,000 B.C., the region was very dry and uninhabited. -Several millennia later, conditions improved and the Sahara consisted of shallow lakes and marshes linked by permanent streams where communities of foragers settled. -Livestock were added to the subsistence base in the ﬁfth millennium B.C. -The central and southern Sahara continued to be occupied by pastoralists until about 2500 B.C. •Around 2500 B.C., the Sahara became drier and people migrated south to the Sahel. -By 1000 B.C., pastoralists adopted or domesticated cereals. -Early West African staples include sorghum and millet. -Wild foods continued to be important. •Iron metallurgy was introduced into West Africa during the ﬁrst millennium B.C. -The great eﬃciency of iron tools led to the rapid spread of the technology throughout Africa. -The earliest identiﬁable iron-using society in West Africa is the Nok culture. •Egalitarian political formations were present in southern African for a longer period than in West Africa. -Prior to the third century A.D., the area was occupied by hunter-gatherers. -Farmers ﬁrst settled in south-central Africa, in what is now Zimbabwe, during the fourth century A.D. -They grew grain, raised goats and sheep, but continued to rely on hunted foods for meat. -People lived in small, permanent villages. •Ironworking and other technologies spread to the area around the third century A.D. -Small iron artifacts are found in every village. -Cattle became important both culturally and economically soon after their introduction. •Mapungubwe was an important early state in southern Africa. -The ﬁrst buildings were constructed on Mapungubwe Hill early in the twelfth century A.D. -There were houses and richly adorned burials. -Mapungubwe quickly became one of the largest towns in the region, controlling settlements up to 35 miles -Mapungubwe quickly became one of the largest towns in the region, controlling settlements up to 35 miles away. -The base of power for the city came from its intermediary role in coastal trade and wealth of gold and animal products from the surrounding areas. Chapter 9 The archaeology of the last 9,000 years in Europe reveals remarkable transition. Events ranged from the ﬁrst farmers to the Roman conquests. Included is the introduction of agriculture, innovation and use of metals, growth of regionalism and warfare, and the development of economically and politically powerful groups. •There is interest in this period today because many of the basic tenets of western civilization come from prehistoric Europe. -Languages, customs, traditions, and forms of government emerged in Europe during this period. -This period also allows the examination of the transition from small, simple bands of hunter-gatherers to large, complex states with thousands of citizens. •8th and 7th millennia (8000 - 6000 B.C.), domestication and various forms of technology transformed European populations. -Introduced from Southwest Asia, domesticated plants and animals arrived in Europe shortly before 7000 B.C. -Pottery and the use of mud-brick houses emerged by 6500 B.C. -Many of the changes emerged in the southeast and eventually spread north and west. • 6th millennium (6000 - 5000 B.C.), Large settlements, elaborate religious systems, copper mining, and extensive trade networks appeared during this time. -Agriculture continued to spread across Europe. •5th - 3rd millennia (5000 -2000 B.C.), many technological and societal changes. 4th millennium (4000 - 3000 B.C.), agriculture had spread throughout the area. -Neolithic societies in western Europe began to erect large structures. -Conﬂict and warfare were growing increasingly common. -Major innovations, such as the introduction of bronze, new weapons, the wheel, draft animals, the plow and ox cart, and the horse and chariot, appeared. •The 2nd millennium (2000 - 1000 B.C.), Writing systems, craft specialization, taxation, and extensive trade networks emerged.-On Crete and in Greece, powerful polities emerged. -Elaborate tombs of elite individuals are found in England, the Czech Republic, Spain, and southern Scandinavia. •The 1st millennium (1000 - 0 B.C.) saw the emergence of the Iron Age. -The classical civilizations of Greece and Rome arose in the Mediteranean. -In Western Europe, Celtic and Germanic tribes were present. -Julius Caesar and his successors eventually overwhelmed the groups in western Europe. •The discovery and use of metals in the Old World was a relatively slow process. -A few small pieces of copper appeared in the Near East by 7000 B.C. -Melting and casting of copper began in southeastern Europe and the Near East shortly after 5000 -Melting and casting of copper began in southeastern Europe and the Near East shortly after 5000 B.C. -During the ﬁfth millennium B.C., copper mines were opened in Yugoslavia and various copper artifacts found their way throughout much of Europe. •Conﬂict and warfare characterized the Bronze Age of Europe. -The early Greeks gained power over Crete and came to dominate the Aegean between 1600 and 1100 B.C., a time known as the Mycenaean period. -A warrior class emerged at this time. -A military presence is visible in the Bronze Age citadels of southern Greece. -The citadels, of which the site of Mycenae is best known, were fortiﬁed palace towns, located on high, defensible points on the landscape. •Metals appeared later in the northern part of Europe than in the Aegean area. -Copper ﬁrst appeared north of the Alps around 4000 B.C. and bronze objects began to appear after 2000 B.C. -The Aegean acted like a magnet for valued raw materials from the rest of Europe. -The Bronze age in Denmark and southern Sweden was marked by the quality of ﬁne metal objects buried in many funerary mounds and caches. •Bronze Age barrows are found across southern Scandinavia. -In some instances, the barrows have survived, which allow a glimpse of the elite of Bronze Age society in northwestern Europe. -Individuals were buried dressed in their ﬁnest clothing and jewelry. •Iron making was discovered in Turkey shortly before 2000 B.C. -Due to high melting temperatures, sophisticated furnaces and smelting techniques are required for reducing the ore. -The technology was probably a well-guarded secret for some time in order to gain military advantage. -Iron was initially used to make stronger, more durable weapons and later for making more practical tools and equipment. •The Iron Age in western Europe can be divided into two phases. -The earlier Hallstatt phase (800-500 B.C.) was centered in Austria, southern Germany, and the Czech Rebublic. -Salt and iron mines in these regions led to economic boom times. -The later La Tène period was centralized in eastern France, Switzerland, southern Germany, and the Czech Republic. -The Iron Age, the time of the Celtic tribes, came to an end in most of western Europe around 50 B.C. with the Roman conquest. •A distinctive Celtic art style was practiced throughout western Europe during the pre-Roman Iron Age. -Weapons, tools, jewelry, and everyday equipment were ornamented with the distinctive style. -Both Iron Age phases are deﬁned primarily by styles of artistic depiction and decoration and by types of pottery. -The art style, along with certain religious practices and beliefs, was shared by several distinct societies in western Europe. TEST 3 SITES Chapter 7 *most of these sites are maritime cultures SITE El Paraíso (p. 377)- located on the coast of Peru. An early sedentary village. -located about 1.2 miles from the coast along a permanent stream. -This site contains eight or nine large stone structures that cover over 140 acres. These structures range in size from three rooms to massive complexes measuring up to 980 feet long and 325 feet wide. Social inequalities and stratiﬁcation probably existed here (we can tell because of the diﬀerent sized rooms and diﬀerent shaped buildings). -Preceramic sedentary settlements with monumental architecture were established around 3000 B.C. in several river valleys just inland from the coast. Caral is the largest of these centers. The settlement consists of a complex of six platform mounds, plazas, and residential buildings that cover 150 acres. -Early excavations at El Paraíso revealed that one of the stone structures consisted of a series of rectangular rooms, courts, and passageways. Walls were 5 to 8 feet in height. Walls were built of large stone blocks cemented together with clay. Stones were plentiful in the highland region. -Occupation ended by 1500 B.C. -The function of the site is not entirely known. Found multifunctional artifacts (both residential and ritual where other people are coming in to participate in ritualistic ceremonies). Artifacts suggest both religious and non-religious use. The area may have been used for making textiles. Large quantities of labor were required to construct the units. This indicates social inequality and leadership (you need supervisors/ diﬀerent levels of occupations within the process of construction of the buildings). -The diet of inhabitants of El Paraíso is uncertain. Residents may have depended largely on marine foods (at least 50% if not more). Cultivated plants have also been recovered at the site. Some indications are that plant foods provided a signiﬁcant portion of the diet. Evidence of squash seeds, tubers and beans. -Cotton Netting -Very arid conditions allowed for preservation of textiles (cotton netting, rope, and other materials) SITE Chavín de Huántar (p. 382)- an early Andean center. -After 1000 B.C., the balance of power shifted from the coast to larger centers in the Andean highlands. -Situated over 10,000 feet above sea level, near two rivers. -The Chavín Horizon style is present at the site. -There are important artistic similarities between the stone carvings at Chavín de Huántar and the decorative items of pottery, stone, and metal found at other sites in the highlands and on the coast. -Chavín carvings interweave ﬁgures that combine the natural features of people, snakes, jaguars, caymans, and birds with intricate geometric and curvilinear designs. -Major occupation at the site occurred between 850 and 200 B.C. -Ceremonial architecture reached its largest extent after 390 B.C. -The site included a complex of rectangular, stone masonry platforms. -The largest platform rises about 45 feet above the surrounding terrace. -The “Old Temple” was U-shaped and consisted of a main building and two wings that formed an open square. -Several thousand people lived at Chavín de Huántar. -Residential areas surrounded the ceremonial complex. -The size and scale of the site far surpassed any others in the area. -Chavín de Huántar became interconnected with large settlements in other highland areas and the coast. *No bronze work, worked with soft metals— gold and silver. No steel. Padded cotton armor. -Fairly spread out site, utilized the landscape to their advantage SITE Moche (p. 387)- on the North coast of Peru. Moche culture was established around A.D. 1, about 3.5 miles Moche (p. 387)- on the North coast of Peru. Moche culture was established around A.D. 1, about 3.5 miles from the ocean. -After the Chavín era, between 200 B.C and A.D. 400, mostly small local polities were present in the region. -At the time, Moche was the largest settlement on the north coast of Peru. -Unlike other centers at the time, Moche controlled not only the rest of the valley, but also adjacent coastal valleys. -Two major pyramids (huacas) dominate the site and are separated by a 1650-foot plaza. -Huaca del Sol is 130 feet above the plaza. The structure measures 1,100 by 525 feet and is one of the largest adobe structure ever built in the Americas. Had domestic refuse accumulated at the top. Residential structure for more than one person. -Huaca de la Luna is 100 feet high. Swept clean at the top. Probably ﬂat-topped plaza on a pyramid. Ritual/ceremonial pyramid. -The two pyramids were used diﬀerently. -The two huacas were built from adobe bricks that contained over 100 diﬀerent symbols on their tops. The symbols may have been the marks of the manufacturers of the bricks. -The pyramids required hundreds of millions of bricks, constructed in discrete, rectangular units. -The constructed segments may have been built by groups of associated laborers. The use of conscripted laborers was a means of tribute employed by the Inca over a thousand years later. -Moche inﬂuence was present in other areas. In the Virú and Santa Valleys, Moche pottery traditions quickly replaced local traditions. In these areas, a sizable monument following the Moche huaca style was erected. Moche inﬂuence ceased by A.D. 600. -Subsistence: Cotton, maize, potatoes, peanuts, and peppers were grown. Fishing and hunting of sea mammals occurred. -Complex canal systems were built to transport water, perhaps requiring labor-recruitment systems. -Large public food-storage complexes were built. -Moche society was highly stratiﬁed— Marked diﬀerences in the quantity and quality of grave goods were found. Variation in residential architecture also indicated diﬀerences in status. -Moche artisans are noted for their metalworking. Various techniques were employed, and they began to use turquoise mosaic inlay and simple casting as well. Animal masks were common. -Developed the lost wax casting technique. Used to create intricate designs. -Moche potters were also quite accomplished. They would paint intricate and geometric designs on pottery. -A wide array of ceramic vessels portrayed Moche mythology, ritual, and daily life. Many ﬁgures and professions were illustrated. Battles are frequently depicted. Erotic practices were displayed. SITE Sipán (p. 393)- Sipán has been subject to looting for years. One of the richest sites for archaeological artifacts and showed what was valuable for everyday life of people during the time of occupation. -Local farmers would supplement their incomes by removing and selling artifacts. -In late 1986, a royal tomb of a Moche ruler was uncovered was uncovered by locals who removed many of the valuable artifacts. -Researchers soon moved in to recover as much information as possible. -The smallest of Sipán’s three pyramids was built in six stages. The earliest stage began during the ﬁrst century A.D. Initially the pyramid was only a low rectangular platform with two steps. Each subsequent building enlarged the pyramid. The ﬁnal construction phase was completed around A.D. 300. -Sipán excavations uncovered three fabulous tombs. -They contained perhaps the richest burial ever found in the Western Hemisphere. In each tomb, the central ﬁgure was elaborately costumed in gold and silver ornaments, worked shell, gemstone, and metal. Findings allowed the question of whether the Moche actually engaged in such acts as the Sacriﬁce Ceremony to be answered. -The central ﬁgures in two of the largest tombs were identiﬁed as speciﬁc participants in the Sacriﬁce Ceremony. Other people would be sacriﬁced in order to accompany the deceased ruler in the afterlife. Buried all at the same time. -The Warrior Priest had paired backﬂaps, a crescent-shaped headdress piece, and other adornments. -A second principal ﬁgure was also found. (People of Peru are the ones who owned the artifacts) -A second principal ﬁgure was also found. (People of Peru are the ones who owned the artifacts) -The earliest tomb was not as rich in artifacts, suggesting that the Sacriﬁce Ceremony was less elaborate in earlier Moche times. -The excavations provide a clearer understanding of Moche social and economic organization. -Great wealth diﬀerences are apparent from the elaborate burial goods that would have required highly skilled artisans. -The burials show that at least some of the art depictions are of actual events. SITE Tiwanaku (p. 397)- A small settlement was founded in the last centuries of the ﬁrst millennium B.C., about 12 miles south of Lake Titicaca, on the site of Tiwanaku. The Inca associated their origins with these people. Inca mythology relates them to these people, but whether or not they are actually related is unknown. -The site was situated about 12,600 feet above sea level and were still able to utilize agriculture. -Monumental architecture arose during the ﬁrst centuries A.D., when the site rose to importance. -Tiwanaku grew to 1.5 square miles and a population of 25,000–40,000 people. -The city dominated the region for 600-800 years. -The core of Tiwanaku was a 50-acre area at the center of the site. -An enormous stone-faced, stepped platform mound measured 655 feet on each side and 50 feet high. -Some of the blocks used to construct the feature were 11 tons and had to be brought to Tiwanaku from quarries more than 60 miles away. -The civic-ceremonial core also included a complex of buildings, with a stone drainage system, that may have been a palace. -The Gateway of the Sun was the most famous stone sculpture at the site and was carved from a single huge stone block. ***Labor for these mounds was done as a form of tribute and tax. -Food production and trade occurred at Tiwanaku. -Camelid pastoralism and cultivation of grains and tubers were employed. -Land was reclaimed from waterlogged lands adjacent to Lake Titicaca. -Long-distance trade was maintained with economic colonies established in the Paciﬁc Coast zone and tropical forested zones to the east. Warm region crops were obtained through trade. Trade connections were maintained by large llama caravans. -Tiwanaku’s domination over the region diminished after A.D. 1000. -A number of smaller competing states emerged, each maintaining its own local sphere of inﬂuence until the middle of the ﬁfteenth century A.D. -The speciﬁc cause of Tiwanaku’s collapse has not been determined. SITE Chan Chan (p. 401)- founded at the mouth of the Moche Valley. -The extent of early settlement has not been determined. -The site grew rapidly in size and importance. -By the middle of the ﬁfteenth century, Chan Chan covered 8 square miles. -Chan Chan was the capital of the Chimú state with a range of over 600 miles. -The civic-ceremonial core of Chan Chan covered over 2 square miles. The central area was dominated by 10 rectilinear compounds, each surrounded by high adobe walls. -Many of these compounds, called ciudadelas, measured 600–1,900 feet on a side. -A large platform-court complex and ﬂat-topped mounds were also part of the central area. -The ciudadelas each had a single entrance though the north wall that opened onto a corridor leading to a broad court. -Each compound had many storerooms, smaller courts, and living quarters. -Burial platforms were also included. -The names of 10 Chimú kings have been found to correspond to the 10 ciudadelas. -Most of the residents of Chan Chan lived outside the compounds. -Outside labor was used for monumental construction. -The population at Chan Chan was relatively small, perhaps 25,000 people. -Labor investments were made in agricultural intensiﬁcation. -Labor investments were made in agricultural intensiﬁcation. -A hydraulic system was constructed to bring water to the site along with an intervalley canal designed to bring water to the Moche Valley, about 40 miles away. -The Chimú may have practiced split inheritance, where a successor to the throne received the oﬃce of leader, but the land and other personal wealth was transferred to the corporate group of the junior kinsmen. The inheritance pattern may have required each ruler to raise his own revenues. -Between 1462 and 1470, the Chimú were in competition with Inca. By the end of the decade, the conﬂict ended and the Chimú kingdom was incorporated into the Inca empire. The Inca were able to link their lands and road systems to those controlled by the Chimú. After the Inca conquest, Chimú artifacts were found to be more widely spread. SITE Cuzco and Machu Picchu (p. 405)- Cuzco was established by Manco Capac, the ﬁrst Inca ruler, in a mountain valley about 11,500 feet above sea level. -The site was already one of the largest in the Lake Titicaca region by A.D. 1000. -Cuzco was rebuilt after the victory of Chanca. -A fortress with massive masonry walls was built on a steep hill above the central area. -The Temple of the Sun was built by Pachakuti at the center of the site. -Cuzco contained smaller temples, public buildings, and elite residences. -The structures were typically built of cut stone, no mortar. -Cuzco was not a typical Inca city. The principal function of the city was administrative, with many of its inhabitants involved in civic-ceremonial activities. Most of the commoner population lived in smaller communities in the surrounding valley. Their residences were built of stone and adobe. -A network of storehouses and religious shrines were placed in the immediate vicinity of Cuzco. -The market of Cuzco was small and outside the center of the city. This is in keeping with the administrative nature of the site. -The Inca empire had a central role in the collection and redistribution of goods. -Compared to the Aztec, private trade and marketing occurred at a very low level in the Inca empire. -Machu Picchu is the most famous archaeological site in Peru. The ruins lie on a saddle between two mountain peaks. Despite the site’s grandeur, little is known about the ruin. Burials of men and women are present, suggesting the site was not a military fortress. Access to the site was limited. -The ceremonial core of Machu Picchu could be entered only through a stone gateway. -According to Spanish legal documents, Machu Picchu was the property of the descendants of Pachakuti. -An intihuatana, a large stone pillar thought to have a ceremonial function, was found at Machu Picchu. -Some researchers have proposed that the intihuatana was used by Inca priests as a sundial. Others have proposed that the pillar had no obvious astronomical function. -Some features at Machu Picchu did have astronomical functions. SITE Nazca Lines- geoglyphs of animals, humans, plants and geometric shapes drawn over acres of land. Desert ﬂoor created by removal of rocks and exposure of lighter soil underneath. Evidence of oﬀerings throughout the features suggests ritual landscape usage. Visible from low hills, not necessary to be highly elevated in order to see it. Believed to be a ritual practice, drawn so that the gods could see the images but were also done for the people. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------- Chapter 8 giza, xianyang, angkor, great zimbabwe—these are sites she said she would focus on for this chapter but she hasn’t lectured on them yet. the ones i put a star next to down below are sites she said she would focus on as well. SITE SITE Eridu- southern Mesopotamia. Possible temple site. Irrigation farming and food surplus. Elaborate pottery. -Although most of the structures at Eridu were houses, a signiﬁcant nonresidential structure was also present. This building may have been an early temple with a possible altar facing the entrance, suggesting that the organizational capacity for the construction of minor public architecture was present. -The origins and antecedents of the temple institution have important implications for understanding the development of cultural elements in Sumer. -Communities were based on irrigation farming and the economy produced enough food to support the growing population and a surplus that supported craft producers and decision makers. -Eridu could have had a population of several thousand people. -The temple at Eridu was rebuilt and expanded numerous times. -The most elaborate residential dwellings were situated immediately around the temple. -The development of the temple institution and spread of canal irrigation were key features of the ‘Ubaid period. This period was identiﬁed by a widespread monochrome pottery decorated with geometric designs. Most of the ceramics appear to have been made on a slow-turning potter’s wheel, in use for the ﬁrst time. -Pronounced social diﬀerentiation appeared only at the very end of the ‘Ubaid period. -Few luxury items are found at ‘Ubaid sites. -Eridu remained an important place for more than 1,000 years following the end of the ‘Ubaid period. SITE *Uruk- Mesopotamia. Major city. Clay tokens. Writing. Pre-historic site that began small (Uruk period characterization). Stepped pyramids and stepped architecture. More fanciful and more decor than previous sites like Abu Hureyra. During the Uruk (4100–3100 B.C) and Early Dynastic (3100–2370 B.C.) periods, urban settlements and the earliest states were ﬁrst established in Sumeria. Uruk is a city and then grew to become it’s own period due to large technological, agricultural, political and economic advancements. -Uruk became a major city of more than 10,000 people, covering 250 acres by 3100 B.C. -Residential architecture was made of whitewashed mud brick. -Use of clay tablets for writing emerged. -The Anu Ziggurat was the earliest monumental architecture at Uruk. A ziggurat is a monumental architecture. -The structure is composed of a series of building levels, the earliest going back to ‘Ubaid times. -The stepped pyramid is named for the primary god (Anu) in the Sumerian pantheon, dedicated to him. -The White Temple was built on top of the Anu Ziggurat. -The Anu complex is estimated to have taken 7500 man-years to build, indicating the presence of political power to control a large, organized labor force. -As temples became more elaborate, the individuals associated with them were separated from the general population.* -Economic specialization was evident, as well as various levels of social classes. -During Uruk times, pottery was largely unpainted. -Widespread use of the potter’s wheel developed during Uruk times. This increases the uniformity of the pottery, and well as the amount of pottery made. Prior to this, pottery was made using cords or a block of clay with hand manipulation to shape the pottery. Undecorated utilitarian vessels were made in great volume using the wheel or molds (allowing for production of mass quantities of pottery—which was good for the size of the population at the site—and for uniformity in the style of pottery). -Trade developed along major waterways. Ships sailed up the rivers from the Persian Gulf, carrying food and raw materials. Copper was imported into lower Mesopotamia around 3500 B.C. Coppersmiths were present in Mesopotamian cities by 3000 B.C. -Metal took on an important role in agriculture and warfare. -The wheel was introduced (diﬀerent from the potter’s wheel) during the fourth millennium B.C., and wheeled vehicles gained widespread use. wheeled vehicles gained widespread use. -The invention of the plow was an important development in the fourth millennium B.C. This increased agricultural yield. Major crops were wheat, barley, ﬂax, and dates (we begin to see domestication of fruit and fruit trees, not just typical farming veggies and animals). Prior to the plow, digging sticks were used for agriculture. -Cattle and ﬁsh were important food sources. -The world’s earliest known written documents come from Uruk. The writing was done on clay tablets. Prior to the tablets, they used clay tokens. -Made on clay, the tablets date to 3400 B.C. The principal function of the writing appears to be economic, since the clay tablets record lists of commodities and business transactions as a permanent record. Over 1,500 symbols have been identiﬁed. **In summation, the ﬁrst means of writing were for business transactions.** Only the elite were taught how to read this material (the ﬁrst people utilizing this system were the business men/merchants/traders, then eventually scribes and priests) Peasants don’t really get to learn the writing system in order to keep the balance of the status quo and within the elite system. -By the Early Dynastic period (about 3000 B.C.), metal tools were becoming more eﬃcient. Smiths began to alloy copper with tin to create bronze, which is harder and more durable than copper. The development of bronze is linked to an increase in warfare since it is able to withstand assaults. It gets added to weaponry and armor. Armies were equipped with wheeled chariots and wagons. -Rulers started to control subjects through military strength, religious sanction, and taxation. -During the Early Dynastic, Sumer was divided into 10-15 city-states, which were largely politically autonomous. -Uruk grew to 1,000 acres and may have contained 50,000 people. -Great defensive walls were constructed around major urban centers, including Uruk. -After its peak around 2700 B.C., Uruk’s supremacy was challenged by other early cities and its political importance declined. -Ur became Uruk’s economic and military rival. -Ur is renowned for its Royal Cemetery, where more than 2,500 burials were unearthed. -By the end of the Early Dynastic period, bureaucratic organization and social stratiﬁcation were highly developed. -The history of the third and second millennia B.C. is extremely complicated, with political realignments, military conquests, and dynastic replacements occurring frequently. SITE *Harappa and Mohenjo-daro- Indus Valley/Harappan Tradition, in what is now Pakistan. -The earliest known sites in the area date to the late ﬁfth and early fourth millennia B.C. -These sites were scattered across the plains in major agricultural areas or along important trade routes. -The early Indus Valley settlements consisted of small, mud-brick houses. -The size of settlements varied, and a few included monumental construction. -Plow-based agriculture and craft technologies were present. -Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro are part of the Indus Valley civilization, also known as the Harappan tradition. -Fifteen hundred Harappan sites have been reported; Harappa and Mohenjo-daro are the best-known urban centers. -The two sites are surprisingly similar. -Both cover approximately 370-620 acres and contained populations of 40,000-80,000 people. -Both were built with massive mud-brick walls and platforms that raised the towns above the surrounding ﬂoodplains. -Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro consisted of several mounded sectors. -The sites have a high rectangular mound on the west and other large mounds. -Some of the most important public buildings associated with the Harappan tradition are located on the western mound at Mohenjo-Daro. 1. The “granary” was 11,000 square feet and may have been constructed over brick supports so that air could circulate under the stored grain. This was more than likely done to prevent rot when moisture occurs from changing temperatures during the day. moisture occurs from changing temperatures during the day. 2. The Great Bath may have been used for ceremonial ritual bathing. -Mohenjo-Daro’s other sectors were divided into blocks by streets. Hundreds of houses made of baked mud bricks lined the streets. Some houses had two stories. More spacious dwellings were laid out around central courtyards. -At Mohenjo-Daro and other major urban centers of the Indus Valley, there were designated living and working quarters for various craft specialists. -There were signiﬁcant diﬀerences between Indus Valley and Mesopotamian civilizations. 1. Although the Indus Valley covered a larger area, it had a smaller number of major centers. Whereas Mesopotamia had many city-states, the similarities between Harappa and Mohenjo- daro suggest that Indus centers were closely linked economically and culturally. (fewer numbers of large cities) 2. Indus civilization may have had a more equitable distribution of wealth. 3. Indus material culture was simple compared to that of Mesopotamia. 4. The Indus elite engaged in fewer lavish public displays and built no rich tombs, elaborate palaces, or fancy temples. 5. Indus settlements were closer to natural resources than Sumerian sites. -A system of writing diﬀerent from early Mesopotamian script developed in the Indus Valley. -Over 4,000 seals with Indus script have been found. Seals were used to mark ownership. A seal is melted wax with a symbol/stamp pressed/printed into it. -Since many animals are depicted on the seals, these animals may be totems representing speciﬁc kin groups. -The Indus civilization began to decline around 1900 B.C. Archaeologists now believe that this may have been due to decentralization. -Many elements of Harappan civilization still remain in Hindu traditions today. SITE Hierakonpolis- best-known Amratian center. center of a very large pottery industry. -Most of the inhabitants lived in rectangular, semisubterranean houses of mud brick and thatch. -Near the site was a large cemetery with part of the burial area reserved for elaborate tombs that varied in size and contents. -At least 15 Amratian kilns have been identiﬁed, the largest of which covered over one quarter of an acre. -Two types of pottery were made: one for everyday use and the other for grave oﬀerings. -The large kilns must have produced a surplus, beyond local needs. -Craft activities were carried out on an even larger scale during the subsequent Gerzean period (3500–3100 B.C.). These included pottery production, metallurgy, and the manufacture of stone bowls. -Trade with Southwest Asia intensiﬁed in volume. -Gerzean remains have been found in Upper and Lower Egypt, perhaps indicating greater integration between the two areas. -However, diﬀerences in ceramic styles and burial customs continued to distinguish Upper and Lower Egypt. -In artistic representations, key individuals are depicted wearing diﬀerent crowns, suggesting that several diﬀerent polities may have developed along the Nile. -Social and economic inequalities increased during Gerzean times. This is evident from tomb size, grave design, and burial inclusions. -Written records and stone monuments indicate that warfare increased at this time. -Around 3100 B.C., Narmer, Egypt’s ﬁrst pharaoh, uniﬁed the region into one kingdom and founded a dynasty (3100–2890 B.C.) and a political structure that lasted for nearly 3,000 years. -The uniﬁcation of Upper and Lower Egypt was depicted on a carved stone palette found at Hierakonpolis. -The Egyptian state was far larger and more complex than any city-state in Mesopotamia. -The royal court centralized wealth and power. -The uniﬁcation of Egypt was closely timed with the earliest hieroglyphic writing, which is very diﬀerent from Southwest Asia writing. -Widespread adoption of irrigation occurred for domestication of crops, which allowed for large surpluses. surpluses. SITE *Giza- major site of the Old Kingdom. -The Pyramid of Khufu there stands 500 feet high and covers 13 acres. This pyramid was constructed from over two million stone blocks weighing an average of over one ton each. Construction involved thirteen million man-days of labor (animal labor was also included in construction). -Two other large pyramids were constructed by Khufu’s successors. The famous Great Sphinx is located close to the pyramids. -Pyramids built after this dynasty were relatively small. -Pharaohs were central to the Egyptian state during the early dynasties and were considered divine. These rulers controlled economic exchange, served at the top of the bureaucracy, and acted as the heads of the state religion. -Towards the end of the Old Kingdom, royal power declined and the Old Kingdom collapsed. A period of decentralization followed and provinces became competitive and fought with each other (possibly due to internal conﬂict within bureaucracy). -Around 2000 B.C., Upper and Lower Egypt were reunited, marking the beginning of the Middle Kingdom. -The rulers paciﬁed southern Egypt and overthrew the dynasty in power to the north. -The capital was brought back to Memphis. -During the ﬁrst half of the second millennium B.C., central authority weakened again. -In 1000 B.C., a third era of uniﬁcation began, called the New Kingdom. -The kings established far-reaching domains of control, and the centralized government depended on large amounts of external tribute for its maintenance and support. -During the New Kingdom, kings were considered quasi-divine (not seen as gods themselves but are linked to the gods). -They adopted new burial customs; their mummies were buried in rock-cut tombs in the Valley of the Kings. -The administrative centralization and stability that characterized the New Kingdom ended around 1000 B.C. -Strong provincial leaders and local army commanders increased their regional power. -A period of foreign intervention followed. -The Nile Valley was ruled by the Assyrians, Persians, and Alexander the Great. SITE An-yang- The Xia dynasty (2205–1766 B.C.) is the ﬁrst hereditary dynasty in recorded Chinese history. -Scapulimancy, the practice of interpreting cracking patterns on heated bones, was practiced. -Bronzeworking became an increasingly important activity. Warfare and ritual were important as well. -Palatial house foundations found at Erlitou were associated with ritual burials. -The decline of the Xia dynasty roughly corresponded with the rise of the Shang dynasty (1755–1122 B.C.). -Towards the end of the Shang dynasty, the capital was moved north to An-yang. An-yang was a large ceremonial and administrative center with monumental architecture surrounded by craft areas. -Residential areas surrounded the center of the site. -An-yang consisted of three groups of buildings, the largest of which was about 200 feet long. -Chinese writing developed during Shang times. By the late Shang era, Chinese written language had developed to include over 3,000 symbols. Chinese writing was related closely to the political, military, and ritual activities of the upper class and had little to do with mercantile matters. -Late Shang society was highly stratiﬁed. -Kings were at the top of the hierarchy and were considered divine. The king and his court received grain and other forms of tribute, that they used to support a lavish lifestyle. Elaborate burials of kings occurred. -The lower class consisted of farmers and craftworkers. At the bottom of the lower class were the war captives, who were kept as slaves or served as sacriﬁcial victims for rituals and temple dedications. -Shang civilization is famous for its bronze work. Bronze was used to make food and drinking vessels, weapons, chariot and cavalry ﬁttings, and musical instruments. Large ceremonial vessels were vessels, weapons, chariot and cavalry ﬁttings, and musical instruments. Large ceremonial vessels were also made. Indications are that the origins of bronzeworking was indigenous. -Basic subsistence patterns changed little from earlier times. Millet, supplemented with rice and wheat, was the main crop in North China. -Stone hoes, harvesting knives, and wooden digging sticks remained the primary cultivation implements. -Irrigation may have occurred. •Changes in labor practices constituted the most dramatic shift in the Shang economy. -More people were engaged in farming, raising production per unit of land. -The importance of agricultural labor may have encouraged rural families to grow, leading to large-scale population growth. •The borders of the Shang state are not known, but late Shang rulers had at least some control over a fairly large area in northern China. -Inﬂuence varied according to distance from the capital. -Shang rulers traveled widely and were assisted by a complex hierarchy of nobles. -Local lords were responsible for collecting taxes and supplying men for public projects. -Armies as large as 30,000 soldiers were assembled to ﬁght “barbarians.” -The Shang dynasty was overthrown by people living on its western periphery in the vicinity of Xianyang. SITE *Xianyang- society based on rice and rice farming (heavy on rice production and increased the spread of rice) •The Chinese state had developed by Shang times, with major centers that had ceremonial cores. -The last capital of the Shang period was at An-yang. -Another important site was Ao, which covered about 1.3 square miles and had a central precinct that was enclosed by a huge earthen wall 30 feet high. -Ao had hundreds of skilled craftworkers and the area contained more than a dozen kilns. •The Zhou dynasty (1122 to the third century B.C.) marks the beginnings of imperial China and its traditions. -The society was highly stratiﬁed at its center. -Away from the core, areas were divided into partially independent provinces, and administration was enacted by lords who had great control over their domains. -During the Three Dynasties, the Chinese state was built on a hierarchical network of large lineages. •Changes in Chinese populations and technology occurred during the Zhou dynasty. -Great cities were built, the largest of which had over a quarter of a million people. -Large irrigation works were constructed, and wet-rice irrigation became increasingly important. -Iron casting was practiced and iron agricultural tools were in use. -Changes in agricultural technology enabled rapid increases in population density. •The latter half of the Zhou period was characterized by political change and upheaval. -By the third century B.C., the descendants of western Zhou kings ruled an increasingly small area outside their original homeland. -The Zhou polity weakened and other states rose in inﬂuence. -Eventually the Zhou was eclipsed by the Qin polity, along with ﬁve other contemporary states. •Shihuangdi uniﬁed China into a single imperial kingdom in 221 B.C. -He inherited the throne of the Qin kingdom at the age of thirteen. -Shihuangdi frequently engaged in battle, eventually conquering six other major kingdoms. -He declared himself China’s ﬁrst emperor. -The Chinese empire was ruled from the capital city of Xianyang. -Shihuangdi forced over 100,000 royal and wealthy families from throughout the empire to move to the city from their local areas, which weakened their power. Luxurious palaces that were replicas of royal residences in their homelands were built in Xianyang, making them ﬁgureheads for their regions. The move also concentrated economic and political power in a single capital. -He built the Great Wall along China’s northern periphery by joining walls that had been constructed by earlier feudal states. Some have suggested that the wall was constructed for defensive purposes. Others have proposed that the wall was a means of preventing China’s heavily-taxed peasants from escaping taxes and conscription. Overall, the wall was a monument demonstrating Shihuangdi’s power and control over Xianyang. The 1,500-mile wall was built by 700,000 conscripts. -Other actions helped Shihuangdi solidify his political power and centralize authority. -He established China’s ﬁrst army, which may have contained more than a million people. -He established China’s ﬁrst army, which may have contained more than a million people. -He destroyed the feudal structure to weaken regional autonomy. -Confucian philosophy was prohibited since it was seen as a threat. -The Chinese legal system was increasingly codiﬁed, and Chinese character writing was standardized. -Shihuangdi began building his tomb as soon as he became emperor. The project took 36 years and was worked on by 700,000 laborers. The architects of the tomb conceived of it as a miniature universe. The burial tomb, called Mount Li, was at one time 150 feet tall, and the total complex covered 500 acres. -A little less than a mile from Mount Li lies a three-acre gallery of terracotta soldiers. This symbolized the past practice of kings being buried with living warriors, women, servants, and horses. Eight thousand ﬁgures have been exposed, along with wooden chariots and horses. The soldiers are arranged in battle formation. A rich artifact assemblage accompanies the army. -Shihuangdi died on a journey to the eastern provinces and was succeeded by his youngest son. -His oldest son was given a fake order to commit suicide so that the younger son could succeed as emperor. -Qin rule was succeeded by the Han dynasty, which lasted for 400 years (206 B.C. – A.D. 220). -During the Han dynasty, China became even more densely settled with an estimated population of over ﬁfty million. SITE *Angkor- maritime society, major port region. huge religious ritual site. has the largest temple constructed during its time— angkor wat. •The introduction of rice cultivation changed lifeways in Southeast Asia. -Southeast Asia was populated by hunter-gatherers until cultivated rice was introduced in the third millennium B.C. -When rice was introduced from south China, small agricultural villages were established throughout the area. -Rice rapidly became the staple crop across Southeast Asia. •The introduction of new technologies transformed some Southeast Asian societies. -Between 1500 and 1000 B.C., bronze casting was adopted. -After 500 B.C., iron was smelted to make weapons and agricultural tools. -Settlements began to grow in size, and more hierarchical forms of leadership emerged. -Before the end of the ﬁrst millennium B.C., Southeast Asians began to engage in maritime trade with oﬀshore islands, China, and the Indian subcontinent. •Some Southeast Asian societies became highly ranked kingdoms, focused on large centers that were presided over by an aristocratic class. -Ruling power was based in part on control of agricultural land, rice surpluses, and advantages in access to high- status imported goods. -Public displays of feasting were important aspects of maintaining power. -For hundreds of years, small competing polities were often in a state of ﬂux. •Just after A.D. 800, Angkor arose and became one of the largest and most centralized polities in Southeast Asia. -After A.D. 550 in the Mekong Valley region of Cambodia, a series of kings tried to establish control over large areas; none, however, was able to hold the kingdom together for long. -The formation of the large state in A.D. 802 is attributed to Jayavarman II. -He joined a series of smaller competing polities into a large state by ﬁrst defeating rival rules and then placing his followers in positions of authority. -He established a succession of Khmer dynasties whose reign at Angkor endured for more than 600 years. •Angkor is the modern name for a large complex of monuments, temples, and other structures that was the political and ceremonial center of the Khmer civilization. -There are more than 100 temples at the site that were constructed by a series of Khmer dynasties between the 9th and 15th centuries A.D. -At its height in the 12th century, the site may have had between 500,000 and 1 million residents. -Each new king at Angkor built a massive religious structure to commemorate his reign; at death it became his mausoleum. •Angkor Wat is the largest and most elaborate temple at Angkor. -The structure was constructed by Suryavarman II soon after he became king in A.D. 1113. -The walled complex measures 5,000 x 4,000 feet and incorporates a large moat that is 660 feet wide. -The walls of the complex are covered with scenes in bas-relief that depict the king and his court, processions, and battle scenes. •Construction of temples and other public works required large pools of labor. -Local labor was tied to the temples. -Local labor was tied to the temples. -The labor provided temples with goods and labor for rituals and for maintaining the ruling elite. -Khmer civilization had no currency. -Through taxation, the royal courts received and distributed huge amounts of goods, including rice and other forms of subsistence. -A bureaucracy controlled most aspects of Khmer life. •The economy of Angkor and other Southeast Asian states was based on surplus rice agriculture. -Some have argued that the huge water reservoirs at Angkor were for irrigating the rice ﬁelds. -Others note that plenty of groundwater existed and that the reservoirs were for controlling drainage and ﬂooding. •Angkor was the victim of various invasions. -During the 12th century, Angkor was sacked by a rival. -The Khmer rebuilt the center, erecting a large ceremonial center surrounded by an 8-mile long wall. -Angkor was abandoned in A.D. 1431 after it was sacked by the Thai following a long siege. SITE Jenné-jeno- •The Sahara Desert has undergone several changes that have aﬀected human settlement in the region. -Prior to 10,000 B.C., the region was very dry and uninhabited. -Several millennia later, conditions improved and the Sahara consisted of shallow lakes and marshes linked by permanent streams where communities of foragers settled. -Livestock were added to the subsistence base in the ﬁfth millennium B.C. -The central and southern Sahara continued to be occupied by pastoralists until about 2500 B.C. •Around 2500 B.C., the Sahara became drier and people migrated south to the Sahel. -By 1000 B.C., pastoralists adopted or domesticated cereals. -Early West African staples include sorghum and millet. -Wild foods continued to be important. •Iron metallurgy was introduced into West Africa during the ﬁrst millennium B.C. -The great eﬃciency of iron tools led to the rapid spread of the technology throughout Africa. -The earliest identiﬁable iron-using society in West Africa is the Nok culture. •Jenné-jeno is located in the Inland Niger Delta in southwestern Mali along the middle course of the Niger River. -The site consists of a mound of successive settlements 2,600 feet long and 20-26 feet high. -Initial settlement dates to 200 B.C. -The early inhabitants were mixed agriculturalists who constructed circular houses of straw coated with mud. -Domesticated rice in the area dates to the ﬁrst century A.D. •Exchange and craftworks occurred at Jenné-jeno. -Craft skills were evident in the earliest materials recovered at the site. -Signiﬁcant quantities of well-manufactured ceramics were present. -Villagers traded their agricultural, ﬁsh, and animal products for iron ore and grindstones from at least 30 miles away. •Camel transport had an important eﬀect on the economy. -Camel domestication ﬁrst occurred in Arabia and spread to the Sahara by early in the ﬁrst millennium A.D. -Camel transport provided a means of regular long-distance trade across the desert. -Jenné-jeno developed into an important market center. •The city reached its height after A.D. 800. -Jenné-jeno expanded to 80 acres and a city wall was constructed. -Brick architecture replaced the earlier mud technology. -Evidence of blacksmiths and coppersmiths is present. -The rulers of Jenné-jeno presided over an area of ﬂoodplain extending 100 miles downstream. •Jenné-jeno began to decline after A.D. 1150 and was abandoned by 1400. -Defensive concerns and the spread of Islam may have been factors. -The modern city of Jenné was established nea
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