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Notes Chapters 1-7

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by: Shakayla Stewart

Notes Chapters 1-7 MKTG 3872

Shakayla Stewart

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These notes cover all 7 chapters excluding the epilogue
Persuading Decision Makers
Dr. Christine Kowalczyk
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"Eugh...this class is soo hard! I'm so glad that you'll be posting notes for this class"
Miguel Bartell

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This 9 page Bundle was uploaded by Shakayla Stewart on Wednesday February 10, 2016. The Bundle belongs to MKTG 3872 at East Carolina University taught by Dr. Christine Kowalczyk in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 122 views. For similar materials see Persuading Decision Makers in Marketing at East Carolina University.


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Eugh...this class is soo hard! I'm so glad that you'll be posting notes for this class

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Date Created: 02/10/16
Chapter 1: Introduction What is Persuasion?  Process to change a person’s attitude/behavior through written/spoken words  Conditioning  Is how we respond to triggers o Urge to complete actions that have, in the past been successfully paired with the  cue. Weapons of Influence  Mechanical process which powers influence  Exploitation of power  How this force is used  What are Weapons of Influence?  Click­ appropriate tape is activated  Whirr­ standard sequence of behaviors occur Expensive= good? Stereotypes  Rule of thumb to classify things according to a few key features   Respond mindlessly when 1 or another of these trigger features is present. o i.e. Branding Contrast Principle  Human perception that affects the way we see the difference between 2 things that are  presented 1 after another. Chapter 2: Reciprocation What is Reciprocation?  When someone does a favor, you feel obligated to give a favor in return Disclosure Reciprocity  We reveal more to those who have been open with us Social Exchange Theory  A social psychological and sociological perspective that explains social change and  stability as a process of negotiated exchanges between parties. o Social responsibility   Help those who really need it without regard to future exchanges Difference between Obligation and Indebtedness Obligation Indebtedness  Something that must do because of a   Something (as an amount of money/  law, rule, promise, etc. thanks) that is owed to someone or   Something that you must do because it something. is morally right Pervasive in Human Culture  Web of indebtedness o Division of labor o Exchange of goods and services o Evolution of experts  o Interdependencies between people  Pervasive in Human Culture   A small initial favor can produce a sense of obligation to agree to a larger return favor. Rejection­then­Retreat Strategy  Make a request (or offer) o One you know will likely never be accepted  Get rejected Make a more reasonable request/offer  Concession sparks a return concession  o Approval o Rebuttal Reciprocity and Contrast Principle  Larger­then­smaller request  o Smaller request looks even smaller to comparison to larger request  Side effects of Rejection­then­Retreat  Concessions in negotiation led to:  o Sense of responsibility o Greater satisfaction o Feeling responsible for getting a better deal led to more satisfaction with the  process 5 steps of Reciprocation 1.   Be the first to give something 2.   Give something that is obviously and exclusively for the benefit of the  Foolrecipient. 3.   Give something that has a real value to the recipient  4.   Put a personal face on your gift 5.   Keep on giving Chapter 3: Commitment and Consistency What is commitment?  A promise to do or give something What is Consistency?  Conformity in the application of something, typically that which is necessary for the sake of logic, accuracy, or fairness Self­Delusion Fool ourselves to keep our thoughts and beliefs consistent with what we have already  done/ decided. Rule of consistency and commitment Once we make a decision we will experience pressure from others and ourselves to  behave consistently with it. Implications for Consistency  Shortcut in life o Automatic response o Click, whirr  Consequences of action o Safe o “Foolish Fortress” Foot­In­Door  Compliance tactics getting a person to agree to a large request  by first setting  him/her up by agreeing to smaller request. Self­Perception  People develop their attitudes by observing their own behavior and concluding  what attitudes we must have towards ourselves Public Eye Public commitments are lasting commitments What is Low Balling? To trick or deceive (someone) by saying that the cost is lower than it actually is. Chapter 4: Social Proof Social Proof People will do things that they observe other people doing. Social Proof Shows… It is part of human nature to conform to group behavior, and the larger the group the more irresistible becomes the urge to conform. When does social proof Occur?  Unsure of selves  Situation is unclear or ambiguous   Uncertainty reigns Pluralistic Ignorance Each person decides that since nobody is concerned nothing is wrong. Uncertainty A state of having limited knowledge where it is impossible to exactly describe the existing state, a future outcome, or more than one possible outcome. The Werther Effect  Coined by American sociologist Dave Phillips in 1974.  Phenomenon that behaviors, whether self­preservative or destructive, are copied  between humans by ideas manifested in language (ex. Literature, music), in  addition to genetics.  Jonestown Mass Suicide in Jonestown, Guyana in 1978 prompted by Rev. Jim  Jones. Group Think  Psychological phenomenon that occurs within a group, where the desire for  harmony or conformity in the group results in an irrational or dysfunctional  decision­making outcome.  Definition; Individuals use others’ actions to decide on proper behavior for  ourselves, especially when we view others as similar to ourselves. o Ex. “Share a Coke” Campaign Saying No Spot fake  Be aggressive in counteract  Don’t purchase product  Contact company to discontinue deceptive ad Be cautious with trust  Objective facts?  Prior experiences?  Own judgments? Chapter 5: Liking Principle of liking More likely to say yes to a request if you feel a connection to the person making it. Forms of Liking Physical attractiveness Similarity Compliments  Contact and Cooperation Conditioning and Association Trust Physical Attractiveness Good looks suggest other favorable traits… Talent, Kindness, Honesty, Intelligence. Halo Effect A cognitive bias in which an observer’s overall positive impression of a person,  company, brand, or product dominates the way it is viewed by others. Similarity We like people who are similar to us, in terms of interests, opinions, personality, background, lifestyle.  Ex. Mirror and Match in Selling Compliments We love to receive praise, and tend to like those who give it.  Ex. Joe Girard (World’s Greatest Car Salesman) Contact and Cooperation We feel a sense of familiarity or conformity when working with others to fulfill a common goal.  Ex. Good cop/Bad cop Conditioning and Association How we connect people or events, positive or negative, together. Trust Assured reliance on the character, ability, strength, or truth of someone or something. Benefits of Liking Principle can linger o Long­term benefits o Customer retention o Conversions later Liking can help any business o Warm up to employees o Obtain brand advocates o Encourage loyalty Saying No Concentrate on effect NOT cause   React when feel liking practitioner more than we should under circumstances  Don’t restrain liking influence 6 ways to Make people Like you 1.   Take genuine interest in other’s interests 2.   Smile  3.   Reign with names 4.   Be an active listener 5.   Discuss what matters to them 6.   Make other person feel important­and do it sincerely Chapter 6: Authority Milgram Conclusion Humans possess an “extreme willingness … to go to almost any lengths on the command of an authority. Obedience The act or practice of obeying; dutiful or submissive compliance. Definition of Authority  The power to give orders or make decisions  The confident quality of someone who knows a lot about something or who is respected or obeyed by other people. Systems of Authority Helps Society  Resource production  Trade  Defense  Expansion  Social Control Rule of Authority Decision Heuristic  Shortcut for decision making   Click whirr Titles A name that describes someone’s position or job. o Dr. o Professor o Ph. D. o President o Chairman o Boss Trappings Outward signs, features, or objects associated with a particular situation, or role  Guns and badges for security personnel  Prestigious letterhead for executives  Expensive cars or watches for successful entrepreneurs 4 Basic Elements of Credibility Expertise Trustworthiness Similarity Physical Attractiveness Credibility: the quality of being believed or accepted as true, real, or honest. Definition of … The capacity or ability to direct or influence the behavior of others or the course of events. Power vs. Authority Power Authority The ability of a person or a group to The right given to a manager to achieve influence the beliefs, events, and actions the objectives of the organization. of other people.  Power san be legitimate or official   Get the things done through  power. others.  Power comes from a higher   Take decisions. authority.  Give orders to the subordinates.  Get obedience from them. Authority is about who you are as a person, your character, and the influence you’ve built with people … power can erode relationships.  5 Elements of Power 1.   Legitimate – Formal right to make demands and to expect compliance and  obedience from others. 2.   Reward – One person’s ability to compensate another for compliance. 3.   Expert – Person’s superior skill and knowledge 4.   Referent – Person’s perceived attractiveness, worthiness, and right to respect  from others. 5.   Coercive – Person can punish others for noncompliance.  Saying No Remove the element of surprise. Ask 2 questions 1. Is this authority truly an expert? a. Credentials b. Relevancy to topic 2. How truthful can we expect the expert to be? a. Sincerity b. Truth on minor issue Chapter 7: Scarcity Scarcity Opportunities seem more valuable when their availability is limited. Principle of Scarcity Perceived scarcity will generate demand  More attractive when availability is limited  Lose the opportunity to acquire on favorable terms Rarity (of a thing) not found in large numbers and consequently of interest or value.  Not occurring very often  Known as vintage Pricing The size of risk someone is going/willing to take. Precious Mistake Additional value placed on an object because the flaw makes it more rare Psychological Reactance  Weakness for shortcuts  Availability of item can serve as a shortcut heuristic cue to its quality. Reactance Theory   Humans respond to diminish personal controls  Want to retain freedom Age Seeking Inndependence  Terrible twos  Teenage years o Romeo and Juliet effect Commodity Theory Analysis of Persuasion Information which appears to be scarce/exclusive is considered to be more valuable. Saying No 2 Steps: 1. Calm rise of emotion 2. Why want item under consideration?  Owning it?  Utility function?  Scarce?  Plentiful Stephen Covey Recommends Abundance Abundance Mindset Scarcity Mindset  Believe there are enough resources   If someone else wins/is successful in a and successes to share with others. situation, that means you lose.  Celebrate the success of others rather   Mot consider the possibility of all  than feel threatened by it. parties winning (in some way/another) in a given situation. 


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