Introduction to Psychology 9/16/15 - 10/14/15
Introduction to Psychology 9/16/15 - 10/14/15 Psyc 100
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Date Created: 02/10/16
Wednesday, September 16, 2015 Extention on assignments and quizzes Ch. 14 October 2 Structure of the Brain The Human brain has “older” and “newer” parts midbrain “older”: lower level structures, basic survival mechanisms “newer”: higher level structures, more advanced faculties cortex 3 Regions of the Brain 1. Hindbrain: “older” brain region, comprised of brainstem and cerebellum a. Lifesustaining, mostlyautomatic bodily processes b. Brainstem i. Set of neural sturctures at base of brain 1. Medulla: heartbeat, breathing, and swallowing 2. Pons: sleep, coordinating motor movements, posture, and control of facial muscles 3. Reticular Formation: regulates alertness, fightorflight response c. Cerebellum i. “little brain” extending from rear of brainstem 1. coordinates physical movement, posture, balance, and timing a. integrates sensory information to finetune movement i. EX: boxers act drunk when old 2. Midbrain: bridge between hindbrain and forebrain a. Thalamus: brains sensory switchboard (except for smell…) i. Receives signals from senses, relays them to the appropriate brain structures (and vice versa) b. Limbic System i. System of neural structures responsible for emotion, motivation, & memory 1. “the emotional brain”: (fighting, fleeing, feeding, sex, etc.) a. Amygdala: critical role in emotions (especially anger and fear) i. Kluver & Bucy (1939): What happens if we lesion the amygdala 1. Lesion: natural or experimental destruction of brain tissue a. Lesioning rhesus monkey’s amygdala makes it mellow, “unangerable” b. So what about the human Amygdala? i. Kennedy et al. (2009): amygdala danger lack typical response to violations of personal space b. Hypothalamus: regulates body, maintains homeostasis (balance) i. Hunger&thirst motivations ii. Body temperature, blood pressure & heart rate. iii. Sleep, circadian rhythms, & feelings of fatigue iv. Controls pituitary gland, and thus hormone production (links nervous & endocrine systems) 1. Olds & Milner (1954): hypothalamus as “pleasure center” / “reward center” a. Accidentally attached electrode to rat’s hypothalamus c. Hippocampus: stores new experiences/information in memory d. IMPORTANT: hippocampus does not contain memories itself i. (Memories are not stored in one place in the brain***) 1. Triggers processes that store memories throughout the brain a. H.M. i. Suffered from epilepsy (childhood bicycle accident?) ii. Age 27: hippocampi surgically removed to control seizures iii. Less and not as frequent or intense iv. After operation, unable to form new memories (anterograde amnesia) v. Shortterm memory intact, but unable to commit information to longterm memory vi. As opposed to retrograde amnesia: inability to retrieve old memories vii. Could not remember 3 4 days before operation some events in 11 years before operation were fuzzy, but… viii. Childhood memories intact (evidence for memory concolidation?) ix. Even after operation, able to form longterm procedural memories (how to do things) x. At some level remembered but didn’t know that he did remember Monday, September 28, 2015 STATES OF CONSCIOUSNESS LET’S GET SOME CONTEXT Neurons Brain & Nervous System Sensation Perception WHAT IS CONSCIOUSNESS? Early psychology all about consciousness! o Then came behaviorism (consciousness like a speedometer?) If speedometer breaks, car will still work (just won’t know the speed going) Then reemergence of mental processes… o Today’s psychological definition: a person’s awareness of his/her own existence, sensations, cognitions, and environment Much processing occurs unconsciously, but some also conscious… what’s the difference? o Sergent & Dehaene (2004): certain threshold of brain activity = consciousness? Consciousness emerges from individual brain events (musical chord analogy) Different parts of brain, depending what the person is aware of at a given time o Does NOT arise from perceptual area (occipital/temporal lobes) o Instead, several areas in parietal & frontal lobes (areas of decisionmaking and judgment) ***Consciousness is not merely perception. It is an experience that emerges from patterns of brain activity. We have begun to identify these patterns*** o EX: See chair and see dog = different thoughts THE TIMING OF CONSCIOUSNESS =consciousness of action lags slightly behind the brain events that evoke it (Libet, 1985, 2004) decision to move becomes conscious ~ 20 ms before movement, but… Ask question, know question, raise hand = brain activity of conscious decision to make hand – 2ms of conscious in air that says “okay, lets move our hand motor cortex activity begins ~ 500 ms The brain gets the ball rolling before we are ever consciously aware of our decision… How it feels: consciousnessbrain activitybehavior What actually happens: brain activityconsciousnessbehavior Are decisions every truly “consciousness”? Is consciousness simply awareness of what our brain is already doing? Does freewill exist? IF WE DON’T HAVE FREE WILL< WHY DO WE BELIVE IN IT SO STRONGLY? Wegner (2002): 2 things need to happen for us to assume that Event A caused Event B 1. Event A comes immediately before Event B 2. It makes sense that Event A could cause Event B a. BOOM tree fall over OK, SO WHAT DOES THIS HAVE TO DO WITH FREE WILL? People experience a thought (Event A), then immediately observe themselves doing a behavior (Event B) ARE THERE TIMES WHEN WE THINK WE CONTROL THINGS< BUT WE CLEARLY DON’T? Magical thinking: belief that you can influence events at a distance with no obvious explanation of how e.g. bowling e.g. rooting for sports teams (needs to wear jersey or in their chair and special food orders or else team will lose) Thinking about an event just before it happens gives us a sense of authorship of that event EX: Team losing so changed seats team winning = seat changing influenced team win THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN HAVING FREE WILL AND BELIEVING IN FREE WILL Believing in free will matters! internal sense of control Baumeister (2009): tell people there is no such thing as free will cheating refusal to help, social irresponsibility WHY DO WE SLEEP? restorative theory: helps body recover from wear and tear (energy) evolutionary theory: keeps people out of trouble at night (poor night vision susceptible to predators, falling off a cliff, etc.) cognitive theory: helps consolidate memories (lock in, more permnant, easier to find) RHYTHM OF SLEEP circadian rhythm: regular bodily rhythms that occur within a 24 hour cycle (“the biological clock”) blood pressure, pulse rate, body temperature, sugar level, hormone levels, metabolism, etc. EX: nature/nurture – social, cultural, environment (Sleep urges vs needs) HOW DOES THE CIRCADIAN RHYTHM WORK? hypothalamus reminder: regulated bodily functions (hunger, thirst, temperature, blood pressure, heart rate Wakes us up, makes us sleep (light sensitive like sunlight) hypothalamus pineal gland: endocrine gland that secretes melatonin melatonin: hormone that makes people feel sleepy “the hormone of darkness” – shut lights off earlier to feel Circadian rhythm sensitive to external cues of dark and light… but also cultural cues to time (e.g. clocks, TV shows) People deprived of such cues end up living a 24.9 hour day. same with blind people STAGES OF SLEEP brain does not “turn off” during sleep sleep not a single state, but several different stages (accidental EEG discovery) alpha waves: relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state. STAGE 1 SLEEP lasts ~5 minutes, transition from wakefulness to sleep theta wave: Stage 1 waves (less regular, lower frequency) (close to alfa) flashing lights/geometric patterns, experience falling/floating sensation, feel body jerk violently and suddeypnic jerk) easily awakened from stage 1 would likely report that you weren’t asleep at all STAGE 2 SLEEP lasts ~20 minutes sleep spindlebrief bursts of rapid, rhythmic brain acomplexes(single highamplitude waves, spikes in waves) fairly easily awakened, would now likely report being asleep 1 9/30 STAGE 3 & 4 SLEEP delta waves: slow, highamplitude waves associated with deep sleep decreases in heart rate, blood pressure, breathing rate, and body temperature at all lowest point of the day during stage 4 (restorative) stages 3 & 4: 30 minutes RAPID EYE MOVEMENT (REM) SLEEP order of sleep stages: 1>2>3>4>3>2EM>2>3>4>3>2REM in REM, EEG shows marked brain activity, similar to that stage 1 sleep (where you are nearly awake!) Rapid & irregular breathing & heart rate, quick eye movements behind closed lids stage where you are most lik ly to have dreams that you remember REM dreams: emotional, storylike, rich and vivid earlier stage dream fleeting images, less sotrylike visual, auditory cortices more active during REM Sleep cycle repeats about every 90 minutes, 45x per night stages 34 get shorter and shorter, eventually disappear REM gets longer; 2025% of full night’s sleep is REM REM REBOUND longer, more frequent REM stages following sleep deprivation brain keeps track of amount of REM sleep→ seeks it out of it needs more WHY DO WE DREAM? first psychologists dream theory proposed by Sigmund Freud(“royal road to the unconscious”) dreams allow us to express and fulfill unconscious desires. 2 9/30 FREUDIAN DREAM INTERPRETATION 2 levels of dream interpretation: manifest contenobvious, memorable content of a dream latent contesymbolic content and meaning ”Sometimes a cigar is just a cigar…” MODERN EXPLANATIONS OF DREAMS activationsynthesis the dreams = a product of random bursts of neural activity especially during REM (high brain activity activate auditory and visual areas→ brain attempts to make sense of the information dreams may help consolidate memories better performance on leaned tasks after REM sleep EX: Cram night before, not morning of dreams may strengthen neural pathways by providing periodic stimulation (especially during REM) easier and easier and faster and faster when practiced 3 9/30 SLEEP DISORDERS insomnia: repeated difficulty falling asleep, staying asleep, or waking up too early up to ⅓ of people experience e.g. Xanax, Valium, Lunesta, Ambien, alcohol ***Sleeping pills can sometimes be problematic solution to sleep difficulties*** suppress REM sleep, addictive, tolerance develops shouldn’t mix with drinking = problems TREATING INSOMNIA: WITHOUT MEDICATION restrict sleeping hours to same schedule every night even on weekends and days off! stimulus control: create association between bed and sleep by using bed for sleep only (ok, and sex…) can’t fall asleep because associates other things with bed give body cues to sleep hot shower shortly before bed dimmer light levels at home later in evening no exercise or caffeine in late eventing (exercise earlier in day helps) narcolepsy: ncontrollable “sleep attacks” (520 minutes) slip into REM within 10 minutes like hitting a wall not even feeling tired difficult to live with ~70% experience cataplexy: loss of muscle control, slurred speech, impaired vision triggered by intense emotions (excitement, fear, anger, embarrassment, laughter, etc.) deficit hypocretin: neurotransmitter that keeps us alert. sleep apnea: person temporarily stops breathing during sleep (loud snoring) airway muscles relax during sleep decreased oxygen wakes sleeper (400+ times per night ?!?) typically no memory of waking, breathing problems usually diagnosed by others, or chronic fatigue (even steady schedule and always fatigued) more common in people overweight TREATING SLEEP APNEA most common treatment: CPAP machine Continuous ositiveAirwayPressure stream of compressed air keeps breathing airway open, allows breathing night terrors vivid & frightening experiences while sleeping (stages 3 + 4) wake up gasping, sometimes screaming suddenly sit up, sweating & breathing heavily usually impossible to wake up or console, typically no memory of waking usually impossible to wake up or console, typically no memory of waking distinct from nightmares nightmare = bad dreams most common among 37 YO (56% of children?) more common in boys usually passing can occur among men/women of any age usually more chronic for adults treated with therapy, antidepressants in adults What is Learning? learning: relatively perminant change in thought/behavior due to experience at the heart of adaptability (“learing breeds hope”) Conditioning conditioning = the process of learning asssociations (mental pairing between events) Classical Conditioning stimulus A becomes associated with stimulus B if stimulus A causes an automatic, reflexive behavioral response… ...in time, stimulus B produces that same behavior by itself Ivan Pavlov (18491936) Russian physiologist (digestive processes) dogs salivated at sight of food dish, sight of person who brought food, etc. turned attention to studying learning (prebehaviourist?) Basic Principles of Classical Conditioning conditioned = learned, unconditioned = automatic unconditioned stimulus (US): stimulus (food) that automatically elicits a response unconditioned response (UR): automatic, reflexive response to the US (salivation due to the food) before conditioning, neutral stimultone) = no response during conditions, US (food) paired with conditioned stimulus (CS): originally neutral stimulus (tone)> gains significance through pairings with US conditioned response (CR): learned response (salivation due to the tone) to the CS Gneralization & Discrimination stimulus generalization: tendency for CR (salivation) to be elicited by stimuli that are similar to the CS (tone), but not identical closer it is to original CS→ more CR very adaptive Generalization and Discrimination stimulus discrimination: ability to distinguish among similar stimuli, respond only to acutal CS also very adaptive Reminders About Classical Conditioning association between 2 paired stimuli (A&B) if A (unconditioned stimulus) causes automatic behavior (unconditional response)... eventually B (conditioned stimulus) will cause the same behavior (conditioned response) Unconditioned response = birdseed. unconditioned stimulus = birds going to the birdseed Flush and hot → toilet flush =conditioned 1. Conditioning Attitudes a. attitude: positive/negative evaluation of something (like/dislike) 1. Olson & Fazio (2001): The Pokemon Study 2. Stream of words, images, Pokemon characters 3. target character→ press button a. 2 other character appeared (with positive/negative words/images i. Bulbasaur and ice cream ii. Chipmunk and cockroaches 2. Conditioning Emotions a. conditioned emotional response : emotional response elicited by a CS i. can lead to phobias? b. Watson & Rayner, 1920: “Little Albert” i. little albert 1. 11 MO infant allowed to play with white rat ( no fear of rat, did fear loud noises) a. Can we condition fear? i. Loud Noice: US ii. Crying for Noise: UR iii. White Rat: CS iv. Crying for rat: CR 1. Loud noise is coming now when rat is seen that’s why scared. 2. Soon Developed a phobia of rats a. Began crying, withdrawing when rat was presented i. Begin to generalize not liking white and fluffy 1. rabits, Santa Clause 3. onditioning Biology ● biological preparedness : builtin readiness to easily pair certain CS, CR ○ Less learning need to condition fear for things like: Snakes, heights, scorpians (harder with chairs) ● A specific type of biological preparedness ○ taste aversion : classically conditioned avoidance of a certain food/taste that made you sick. ● Discovery of Taste Aversion Garcia & Koelling (1966): studied effects of radiation on rats drank less water in radiation chamber (plastic bottles) than in home cage ( glass bottles) rats given sugar water IV:drinking water followed o radiation/mild radiation/strong radiation. then given choice to drink sweet water, regular water sicker you get the more you avoid the water 4. Medical Uses of Classical Conditioning ● e.g. conditioning the immune system ○ Ader & Cohen (1975) : How long does taste aversion last in rats? ■ paired sugar water withcyclophosphamide ● drug from organtransplant surgery→ suppress immune system ○ side effect = nausea ○ taste aversion, thextinction… ■ but then the rats all started dying! ( BUT WHY???) ○ taste of sweetened wateassociated witsuppressed immune system ■ even in the absence of immune suppressing drug ○ pairing weet sherbe and drenaline → boost immune system ! 5. Classical Conditioning & Therapy systematic desensitization: therapy technique for phobias/fears→ associate relaxation with presence of feared object/situation gradually exposing person to feared stimulus over and over until not Operant Conditioning ● conditioning in which behavior is associated with consequences ○ rewards and punishment Thorndike’s Puzzle Box ○ Edward Thorndike→ uzzle box ■ Once cats figure out to push lever for escape, they do so faster & faster… ○ Law of Effec: rewarded behaviors→ more likely to be repeated ■ More they learn (get out and get food if I act this way) B.F. Skinner (19041990) Most influential (and controversial?) of the behaviorists Developed principles of operant conditiokinner Box (aka. operant chamber) Lever/button to reward with food Floor is an electric grid How does operant conditioning work? shaping: gradual process of reinforcing organism for behavior that gets closer and closer to the desired behaviosuccessive approximations) Reinforcement something that comes after a behaviincreasesikelihood of performing behavior again ”best” reinforcers depend on the organism, circumstance, etc. 2 Types of Reinforcement: Positive vs. Negative ***Positive means you add something. Negative means you take something away.*** ● positive reinforcementdesired reinforcer given after a behavior (increases future behavior) Skinner Box Examples: food pellet, electrical stimulation of hypothalamic Human examples: ● Negative reinforcemen: unpleasant stimulus removed following desired behaviors (increase future behavior) skinner box ex: removal of shock (strengthening behavior by taking something painful away) human example: taking aspirin for headache. fastening seat belt to stop dinging noise, addicts using drug. Levels of Reinforcement ● primary reinforcer: “natural” reinforces ( don’t need to be learned → aid survival ○ water food, sleep, air, sex,etc. ● secondary reinforcer stimulus that is paired with primary reinforcer→ becomes reinforcer itself ○ money, grades, praise, animal clickers, etc. Timing of Reinforcement more immediate = more learning more delay = less learning e.g. speeding tickets more likely to stop if pulled over than in mail The Struggle For SelfControl preference for immediate reinforcement but often need to delay gratification… Mischel et al. (19: 4 year olds given choimall amount of candy noor large amount later choosing to wait→ social competence, higher achievement in adolescence, better SAT scores. Schedules of Reinforcement continuous reinforcement→ fast lasting partial reinforcemen→ slower learning, but slower extinction 4 schedules of partial reinforcement interval schedules time atio schedules → # of desired behaviors Interval Schedules 1. fixed interval schedul reinforcement for desired behafter a certain interval of time i. Skinner box example: reward for lever press after 5 min.> don’t reward behavior until another 5 min. passes ii. human example: typical student’s study schedule, paychecks b. Behavior slows down after renforcement, picks up right before reinforcement (scalloped pattern) ● (Skinner: FI schedule = “lazy”) 2. Variable interval schedul reinforcement given for behavior after changing interval of time a. Skinner box example: lever press rewarded after 2 min., then 8 min., then 5 min., etc… b. Human example : pop quizzes (students continually study rather than cramming) i. Slow but steady behavior 3. fixed ratio schedul: reinforcement after set number of behaviors a. Skinner box example: food pellet after every 10th lever press b. human examples : worker paid for every 10 products made, frequent flyer programs i. stepwise pattern of behavior 4. Variable Ratio Schedule:reinforcement after a variable number of responses a. Skinner box example: food pellet after 6 lever presses, then 14, then 2, etc. b. human examples: slot machines, commision sales highest rate of responding most resistant to extinction (don’t know when you’ll be reinforced) Punishment unpleasant event that occurs as a consequence of an undesired behavior decreasesthe likelihood of the behavior in the future Types of Punishment ● positive punishment: undesired behavior leads to introduction of an unpleasant stimulus (spanking, electric shock) ● negative punishment: removal of a pleasant stimulus following undesired behavior (take away cell phone) The Biggest Problem with Punishment ● ***tells you what not to do, rather than what to do*** Punishment alone much less effective than punishment + reinforcement (but reinforcement is good) Quick review!!! operant conditioning Classical conditioning→ association between 2 external stimuli behavior = automatic operant condition between behavior and consequence behavior = conscious, intentional InClass Psych Notes 10/14 Why Do We Forget? 3 Reasons: 1. Encoding failure 2. Storage decay a. Ebbinghaus’ forgetting curve i. Foreign Language remembering 1. Sticks around sticks around for long term 3. Retrieval Failure Why Would We Fail At Retrieval? Repression: banishing anxietyprovoking thoughts to unconscious (Freudian Concept) little scientific evidence of repression possibly false memories? Want To Have A False Memory? e.g. speading activation example e.g. Loftus (1993): gathered info about childhood events (parents & siblings) read about events, including 1 false memory (being lost in shopping mall) remembered event! (stronger memory + more detail with repeated testing) Loftus would make them do it over and over + start to put together more detail (didn’t believe her that it didn’t happen) MEMORY CONSTRUCTION & FALSE MEMORIES memory is NOT a perfect representation of what happened memory = stored info + assumptions + what we currently know encoding: memory construction retrieval: memory reconstruction can lead to inaccurate memories (e.g. eyewitness testimony: not so reliable) Eyewitness Testimony Loftus & Palmer (1974): participants watched video of car accident “How fast were the cars going when they hit each other?” “How fast were the cars going when they smashed into each other?” (higher speed estimate.) 1 10/14 Language language: spoken, written, or signed words & the way we combine them to communicate ***Language is generative: We don’t just find sentences stored in our memory and use them.*** The Structure of Language Phonemes: smallest sound units in a language (870 around the world, 40ish in English Consonant phonemes carry more info than vowel phonemes “Maw se ubreklyadv qpin jefvexwe?” “Con wi endurstend thes sintinci?” RAT – RRAATUH Morphemes: smallest language units that have meaning combined to form more complex words previewed: previewed (3 morphemes) Grammar: 2 systems of rules that goven language structure 1. Syntax: rules for word order a. “Kicked the girl ball the red” vs. “The girl kicked the red ball” 2. Sympantics: rules for deriving meaning from morphemes, words, sentences a. “ed” = past b. “s” = plural c. independent of syntax i. (“Colorless green ideas sleep furiously.”) Pragmatics: indirect implications of language (vs. outright assertion) EX: do you know what time it is? (yes) meant for them to tell u time key to metaphor, jokes Pragmatics & Humor Brownell et al. (1990): told jokes to patients with damage to the right hemisphere choose appropriate punch line A woman is taking a shower. All of a sudden, her doorbell rings. She yells, “Who’s there” and a man answers “blind man”. Well, she’s a charitable lady, so she runs out of the shower naked and opens the door.” Where should I put these blinds lady? (damage right hem ppl just pick random) 2 10/14 Language Development: Nature vs. Nurture nature (nativism): vocabulary, grammr acquisition too fast & novel to be simple learned Noam Chomsky language set up similarly – part of us language acquisition device (LAD): innate brain mechanism that allegedly contains grammatical rules common to all languages allows language acquisition. nurture (empiricism): language learned through conditioning (Skinner) associations beteen seeing objects & hearing words imitation of models & reinforcement Nurture & Language Development adults adjust speech to clarify language childdirected speech (motherese): speech with short sentences, clear pauses, careful enunciation, exaggerated tone, highpitched voice Boca’s area language production left frontal lobe Broca’s aphasia: problems producing language due to brain damage long pauses, leaving out functional words (and, if, but), etc. Wernicke’s are Language comprehension left temporal lobe Wernicke’s aphasia: problems comprehending language due to brain damage difficulty understanding other, “empty speech” Critical Period: narrow window of time when learning a skill (language) is possible/easiest/ideal Genie the Feral Child acquired some comprehension, vocabulary grammar more difficult 3 10/14
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