GEOL101 Notes up to 2/9
GEOL101 Notes up to 2/9 GEOL 101
Popular in Introductory Geology
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Geology
This 5 page Bundle was uploaded by Tansill Notetaker on Thursday February 11, 2016. The Bundle belongs to GEOL 101 at George Mason University taught by Mark Uhen in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see Introductory Geology in Geology at George Mason University.
Reviews for GEOL101 Notes up to 2/9
These are great! I definitely recommend anyone to follow this notetaker
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/11/16
GEOL101▯ ▯ 1/20▯ ▯ -Catastrophism: philosophical approach that assumes the earth has been affected in the past by sudden, short lived, violent events. like a catastrophe (volcanic eruption, earthquake, ﬂood)▯ -Uniformitarianism: the processes we see on the earth today, have occurred in the past and produce similar results (rivers dumping sediment, wind blowing sand)▯ -Earth’s Spheres: they all INTERACT▯ ▯ Atmosphere: gaseous envelope around planet▯ ▯ Lithosphere/Geosphere: solid rock portion▯ ▯ Biosphere: living things in/on earth▯ ▯ Hydrosphere: water▯ ▯ Cyrosphere: ice masses (comes and goes)▯ ▯ Anthrosphere: man made stuff▯ -Earth is a “system”= group of interacting parts that form a whole▯ -Carbon= dead plants stuffed into a form in the lithosphere and we take it out and burn it ▯ -Feedback Mechanisms▯ ▯ NEGATIVE: occur when the output of process acts to oppose changes to the input▯ ▯ ▯ (temperature dropping? body does stuff to raise it)▯ ▯ POSITIVE: occur when the output of process acts to enhance changes to the input▯ ▯ ▯ (earths surface temp rises, permafrost thaws, CO2 released into atmosphere)▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ **these get out of control▯ -Earths cycles:▯ ▯ solar energy; hydrologic cycle, precipitation, condensation, evaopration, deposition, ▯ ▯ weathering, erosion; rock cycle, melting, weathering, erosion:: these cycles interact▯ -Earth formed along with the rest of the system from a nebula, a hypothesis ▯ -Gravity is pulling everything together *and is always a good answer cause gravity causes a lot of stuff▯ -Earths structure has a crust, mantle, core (outer and inner), and inner core is solid (iron and nickel)▯ -asthenosphere▯ -lithosphere: upper mantle and the crust together and moves around▯ -2 kinds of crust: part under the ocean basin (oceanic crust) and the continental part (continental crust)▯ -3 main rock classes: all part of the rock cycle▯ ▯ Igneous: take molten rock and cool it▯ ▯ Sedimentary: take igneous rock and weather it, and the particles accumulate due to ▯ ▯ ▯ gravity, and they get packed together▯ ▯ Metamorphic: take either igneous or sedimentary and apply a great deal of heat and/or ▯ ▯ ▯ pressure it'll change those rocks and make metamorphic▯ -Plate tectonics: underlying paradigm (the WAY of looking at things) of modern geology; uniﬁes much of that data about the earth that was once thought to be unconnected; new theory, 1960s▯ ▯ -theory states that crust and uppermost mantle are broken up into a series of plates that ▯ ▯ ▯ move around the surface of the earth **very well accepted theory▯ ▯ -before plate tectonics, there was the idea of “continental drift” by Wegenrer in 1915, ▯ ▯ ▯ which was a notice of continental margins ﬁt together and proposed an idea of ▯ ▯ ▯ PANGEA▯ ▯ 2/1▯ ▯ Plate Tectonics▯ ▯ -the crust, and the uppermost mantle together are called the lithosphere, and are cut into chunks into what we call plates, which move around but we cant perceive that motion▯ -pangea=all land▯ -continental drift is NOT plate tectonics▯ -evidence for plate tectonics? ▯ ▯ fossils▯ ▯ matching geologic structure▯ ▯ matching glacial evidence▯ -problems with Wegener’s continental drift theory▯ ▯ wegener challenged the existing scientiﬁc paradigm, which was that the continents were ▯ ▯ ▯ stable▯ ▯ he had no believable mechanism by which the continents could move▯ ▯ he suggested continents plowed through the oceanic crust▯ -earth’s magnetic ﬁeld: as if a big magnet in the middle of the earth with a north and a south (which is why we can use compasses)▯ -geomagnetism and latitude▯ -when rocks cool from a melt, theres little particles that are magnetic and they align in the earth’s magnetic ﬁeld. this particles can tell you when the rock cooled, wheres north, and your latitude▯ -the pole didn't move, but the continents did▯ -the earth’s magnetic ﬁeld reverses polarity once in a while. we call today’s orientation “normal” because its normal for us, and the opposite we call “reverse”▯ -during WWII, they created magnetometers to detect metal from submarines▯ -they discovered the ocean ﬂoor has stripes, or normal and reverse polarity in layers▯ -process of sea ﬂoor spreading apart and making new sea ﬂoor is called seaﬂoor spreading▯ -gravity is pulling the lithospheric plates▯ -there are 7 tectonic plates▯ -2 types of crust▯ ▯ OCEANIC: super thin, much more dense, composed of basalt, recycled▯ ▯ CONTINENTAL: way bigger, much less dense, NOT recycled, composed of granite▯ -3 plate boundary types▯ ▯ DIVERGENT: move apart▯ ▯ CONVERGENT: come together▯ ▯ TRANSFORM: slide past one another▯ -ocean basins have a limited life span▯ ▯ -Divergent Boundaries: continental rifting: red sea is a baby ocean basin and that will grow into a larger ocean (*one piece of continent turns into 2), gravity pulls the water down from current oceans (if it is not below sea level, there is no water, so there can be ocean basins with no water)▯ -Convergent Boundaries: there are many, but for now ocean-continental will push the ocean under the continent and can make a volcano (oceanic-continent will always push the oceanic down) and the oceanic trench is the divot between the ocean and continental crusts▯ ▯ continent-ocean▯ ▯ ocean-ocean▯ ▯ continent-continent▯ Transform Boundaries: 2 plates sliding past, mostly in the ocean, but san andres fault in California is Continental. the plates stick, tension builds, and then they slide real fast and cause a problem (earthquakes)▯ -hotspots: a phenomenon where theres a point source of hot magma in the mantle. the hot stuff rises and it punches through the oceanic crust, and it makes islands▯ -the engine behind these movements is the mantle moving and gravity pulling the plates▯ ▯ Minerals▯ ▯ -properties of minerals▯ ▯ naturally occurring▯ ▯ solid substance at earth surface temperatures▯ ▯ orderly crystalline structure▯ ▯ well-deﬁned chemical composition▯ ▯ generally inorganic (organic= chains of carbon, so not that)▯ -water is NOT a mineral▯ -compositional variation: example; olivine ▯ -minerals are composed of elements: elements are substances that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by physical or chemical means. elements are differentiated by their atomic number, which is the number of protons in the nucleus▯ -atomic structure: the nucleus is composted of protons and neutrons. the number of protons deﬁnes the element. full electron shells have 2 or 8 electrons. those that arent full, the to react to form compounds.▯ ▯ ▯ 2/3▯ ▯ -isotopes= atoms with the same numbers of protons but different numbers of neutrons (same element, but it is an isotope of that element cause they have different masses)▯ -ionic bonds▯ ▯ cation: loses an electron▯ ▯ anion: gains an electron▯ -covalent bonds SHARE electrons▯ ▯ a special kind of covalent bond is called a metallic bond, all ions share the same ▯▯ ▯ electrons and a lot of metals use this helping electricity move through it very quickly▯ -mineral formation: crystalization: taking out water (hotspots, making molten rock, and crystalize out into different minerals and rock)▯ -deposition of crystals happens over and over to make bands on minerals▯ -you can shine X-rays through the mineral to ﬁnd the patterns that identify the mineral▯ -crystal structure▯ -polymorphs: minerals with the same chemical composition but different crystal structures▯ -properties of minerals▯ ▯ luster: what it looks like fresh, displaying a metallic luster (shiny looks like metal)▯ ▯ optical quality: whether its translucent or not, double refraction▯ ▯ color, streak: color itself isn't a great property, streak is good (color of powdered mineral)▯ ▯ crystal habit: the shape of the crystals▯ ▯ tenacity: breakability/bendability of a mineral▯ ▯ hardness: if something is higher on the scale, it will scratch lower ones▯ ▯ cleavage, fracture: the way a mineral breaks (breaks where there are weak bonds in the crystalized structure (cleavage breaks into planes, can be 1 or multiple) (fractures are ir▯ regular breaks with no patterns)▯ -silicates: silicon, oxygen, tetrahedral shape▯ ▯ tetrahedral, chains, double chains, sheets, three dimensional framework▯ ▯ *olivine has single tetrahedral shapes▯ ▯ -light colored silicates: feldspars (tan, white, light green) distinguishable between feldspars by their cleavage; muscovite and clays; dark silicates (olivine) (pyroxenes and amphiboles) (biotite) (garnet)▯ ▯ *whats making rocks darker is a presence of Fe and Mg▯ ▯ *lighter minerals have Ca▯ -non-silicate minerals: carbonates: CaLO3: reacts with acid: marine environment organisms make their skeletons our of calcite fun fact; (halite, gypsum and both are dissolvable in seawater) (hematite, chalcopyrite, sulfur)▯ -rock: a consolidated mixture of minerals. 3 major groups▯ ▯ Igneous: cooled rock from melt▯ ▯ Sedimentary: rock formed from material derived from preexisting rocks▯ ▯ Metamorphic: rocks produced from preexisting rocks by application of heat and/or ▯ ▯ ▯ pressure▯ -these 3 types form the rock cycle▯ -Igneous Rocks▯ ▯ formed from a melt: crystalized from magma▯ ▯ ▯ -liquid=lava, extrusive (molten material coming out of earth) volcanic, cooled at ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ surface▯ ▯ ▯ -liquid=magma, intrusive (does not get pushed out), plutonic, cooled at depth▯ -magma has 3 components▯ ▯ gas fraction: volatiles▯ ▯ liquid fraction: melt▯ ▯ solid fraction: silicate minerals crystalizing from melt▯ ▯ ▯ 2/8/15▯ ▯ **EXAM WEDNESDAY▯ -classifying igneous rock: mostly use TEXTURE and COMPOSITION▯ ▯ texture: there are ﬁne grain and coarse grain crystal igneous rocks▯ ▯ composition: FELSIC to MAFIC▯ -texture: overall appearance of a rock based on the size, shape, and arrangement of the component grains▯ ▯ size of the crystals▯ ▯ relative sizes of crystals▯ ▯ presence or absence of gas bubbles▯ ▯ complete lack of crystals▯ -Intrusive: takes longer to cool; big crystals▯ -Extrusive: takes less time to cool; small crystals▯ -crystals have to grow, and have more time for them to grow if they are intrusive▯ -Porphyritic: cooling underground, then came to the top thats why it has both large and small crystals, making it extrusive because that is the last thing that happened▯ -glassy: no crystals at all, vessicular; includes bubble chambers, pegmatite; huge grains▯ -Pyroclastic: special rock texture that incorporates chunks of rock▯ -light and dark colored rocks have different compositions▯ -Igneous Rock Chart**▯ -granite; potassium feldspar and quartz▯ -diorite; amphibole and plagioclase feldspar▯ -gabbro; plagioclase feldspar, pyroxene▯ -rholite: taking granite and putting it in a blender▯ -magma origin: depth (pressure), and temperature ▯ -geothermal: earths temperature▯ -water increases melting!!!! you get meting at lower temperatures with water▯ -subduction takes a lithospheric plate down, and takes water with it and can cause water to occur▯ -decompression melting (its under less pressure)▯ -melting at subduction zones; not melting the plate as its going down, were melting the mantle▯ ▯ water goes down, partially melts the mantle▯ -Bowens Reaction Series diagram****▯ -magma evolution: magma having a maﬁc composition erupts ﬂuid basaltic lavas, cooling of the magmas body, explosive eruption of silica rich magma▯ -granitic magmas▯ ▯ -sedimentary rocks: rocks that are rock formed from material derived from preexisting rocks▯ -takign an igneous rock, smashing it into pieces, and making a new rock ▯ -3 classes of sedimentary▯ ▯ detrial: rocks formed from the accumulation of transported solid particles derived from ▯ ▯ ▯ mechanical weathering▯ ▯ chemical: rocks formed from soluble material produced by chemical weathering▯ ▯ organic: rocks formed from organic material (coal)▯ -described by TEXTURE and COMPOSITION▯ -detrital: texture, particle size (gravel->sand->silt->clay)▯ -sorting: sphericity and roundness▯ -
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'