Comm 89 Final Study Guide
Comm 89 Final Study Guide
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Date Created: 03/18/14
Comm 89 Final Study Guide Major Premise interpersonal relationships are systems of interaction Pragmatics effects of context source receiver on message and their meaning Five Axioms Axiom 1 One cannot not communicate Axiom 2 Every communication has a content and relational aspect Messages have Content Function content of the message amp Relational Function meaning based on relational content Axiom 3 Punctuation de nes relationship Ongoing stream of interaction in a relationship Example nagging wife and withdrawing husband Axiom 4 Humans communicate both digitally and analogically Digital Communication the actual words and sentence structure that are being spoken Analogic Communication body language and nonverbal comm Axiom 5 Symmetry and Complementarity in Communication Symmetrical interaction statements of a certain type are matched by other statements of the same type Complementary interaction characterized by maximizing differences Types of Messages Oneup assert control Cameron go close the door Onedown acquiescecomply yes mam Oneacross neutral here s the plan for today not meant to control others Strengths heuristic scope Main Premise We communicate with others in order to optimize our well being Costs elements of relational life with negative value Rewards elements of relational life with positive value Worth Rewards Costs Outcome whether people continue in a relationship or terminate it Otherwise known as Theory of Interdependence Assumptions People view life as a marketplace Human nature 0 Humans seek rewards and avoid punishments o Humans are rational beings o The standards that humans use to evaluate costs and rewards vary over time and from person to person Nature of relationships 0 Relationships are interdependent o Relational life is a process Ex Prisoners Dilemma game Evaluation of a Relationship Comparison Level a standard for what a person thinks he or she should get in a relationship 0 Shaped by past experiences advice and media 0 Based on subjective notions Comparison Level for Alternatives how people evaluate a relationship based on what their altematives to the relationship are 0 How this particular relationship matches up to prospective others Exchange Pattems Behavioral sequences a series of actions designed to achieve their goal Power the degree of dependence a person has on another for outcomes Fate control the ability to affect a partner s outcomes Behavior control the power to change another s behavior Given matrix the constraints on your choices due to the environment andor your own skill level Effective matrix the transformations you are able to make to your given matrix by leaming a new skill or example Dispositiorzal matrix the beliefs you have about relationships Exchange Structures Direct Exchange an exchange where two people reciprocate costs and rewards Generalized exchange an exchange where reciprocation involves the social network and isn t confined to 2 individuals 0 Indirect reciprocity Productive Exchange both partners incur costs and benefits simultaneously 0 Ex Group projects Scope fails to explain the importance of group solidarity Utility Testability not testable costs and rewards are not clearly def1ned they are subjective Heurism highly heuristic Main Premise reciprocal selfdisclosure leads to intimacy amp selfdisclosure depends on principle of social exchange Context Relational development VALUE DRIVEN Assumptions of SPT Relationships progress from nonimtimate to intimate Relational development is generally systematic and predictable Relational development includes depenetration and dissolution o Depenetrate slow deterioration of a relationship 0 Transgressions a violation of relational rules practices and expectations Selfdisclosure is at the core of relationship development 0 Purposeful process of revealing information about oneself o strangeronthetrain phenomenon revealing personal information to strangers in public places The Onion Analogy Public image outer layer of a person what is available to others Reciprocity the process whereby one person s openness leads to the other s openness Breadth number of topics discussed in a relationship Breadth time amt of time spent discussing these various topics Depth degree of intimacy guiding topic discussion Relational Costs and Rewards If relationship provides more rewards than costs they are more likely to stay in the relationship RewardCost ratio balance between positive and negative relationship experiences Rewards and costs have a greater impact early on in the relationship Relationships with a reservoir of positive rewardcost experiences are better equipped to handle con ict effectively Stages of Social Penetration 1 Orientation a Reveal small parts of self often in public 2 Exploratory Affective Exchange emergence of an individuals personality most people don t surpass this stage a Spontaneous comm increases some private aspects become public nonverbal comm increases 3 Affective Exchange spontaneous comm use of personal idioms best friends plus romantic relationships a Spontaneous comfortable comm personal idioms used positive and negative exhcanges 4 Stable Exchange efficient comm establishment of a personal system of comm a Coretocore comm complete openness and spontaneity highly intimate few relationships ever enter Example The Breakfast Club Scope limited Heuristic Main Premise Groups can make better decisions by using a set communication procedure VALUE DRIVEN Requisite functions of decision making requirements for positive group decision making Analysis of the problem Goal setting Establish criteria for solution Identi cation of altematives Evaluation of positive and negative consequences evaluate solutions with regard to criteria Communication in Fulfilling the Functions Verbal interaction is important but can lead to loss of info through channel noise Actual Group Productivity Potential Productivity Losses due to processes Groups can get distracted by other thoughts not relevant to the task at hand 3 Types of Communication in DecisionMaking Groups Promotive interaction that moves the group along the goal path Disruptive interaction that diverts or frustrates group members ability to achieve the 4 task functions Counteractive interaction that members use to get the group back on track Research Methods Define effective Lab experiments Field observation Code behavior Theorist Irving Janis 1982 Major Premise when group members share a common fate they tend toward conformity and are subject to errors in judgment Context Group Decisionmaking VALUE DRIVEN Key Concepts Groupthink Assumptions and Process 0 Cohesiveness the glue that binds group members When cohesiveness increases for a while satisfaction and productivity goes up but after a while curvilinear Unified decisionmaking 0 Ideas accepted uncritically Complexity 0 Ideas expressed and suppressed 0 Politics EX Enron Watergate Pearl Harbor Korean War Antecedent Conditions of Groupthink Cohesive Group Insulated Directive Leader Lack of Structure for decision making Pressure No good solution Homogeneity The Challenger crew Symptoms of Groupthink Overestimation of group 0 Illusion of invulnerability o Belief in inherent morality ClosedMindedness o Stereotype outgroups o Collective Rationalizations Pressures Toward Conformity Jniformity 0 Self censorship o Illusion of unanimity o Mindguards censor from outside infoideas 0 Pressure on Dissenters in Group to conform Ways to Prevent Groupthink Appoint a Devil s Advocate Invite fresh ideas and criticism Leader withhold opinion up front Set up independent groups and subgroups Discuss with outside sources Gather anonymous feedback Embrace whistleblowing call someone out on an illegal or immoral act Value good decision over cohesiveness Cuban Missile Crisis S s amp W s Strength 0 Practical utility heuristic and lay value Weaknesses o Scopenarrow o Intemal Validity Extemal Validity Major Premise Organizations must have procedures for dealing with all the info it needs to send and receive to accomplish its goals The main goal of orgs is making sense of ambiguous information To accomplish this orgs enact select and retain information they are successful to the extent that they are able to reduce ambiguity The Only Constant is Change Organizations are constantly changing to keep up with societal needs Knowledge comes from a variety of sources and dif culties arise when we have to decipher and distribute the info General Systems Theory Major Premise people politics and structure continually in uence each other Helps to explain the in uence of info from an orgs external environments and to understand the in uence that an org has on its external environments Organizations are made up of different departments who are responsible for different tasks often these departments need info from other sourcesdepartments in order to complete their task overall successfailure of the org as a whole Importance of FEEDBACK Darwin s Theory of Sociocultural Evolution Darwin s belief that only the ttest can survive The eventual goal of all organizations is survival Organizations and members must adapt to social surroundings in order to prosper and survive Assumptions of Organizational Information Theory Human organizations exist in an information environment The information an organization receives differs in terms of equivocality o Equivocality the extent to which organizational messages are uncertain ambiguous or unpredictable Human organizations engage in info processing to reduce equivocality of info Key Concepts Information Environment 0 Concept to understand how orgs are formed and how they process info 0 Information environment the availability of all stimuli in an organization 0 2 strategies to reduce message equivocality determine rules for reducing equivocality 0 Rules guidelines in organizations as they review responses to equivocal information 0 Duration organizational rule stating that decisions regarding equivocality should be made in the least amt of time 0 Personnel org rule stating that the most knowledgeable workers should resolve equivocality 0 Success org rule that a successful plan of the past will be used to reduce current equivocality o Effort decisions regarding equivocality should be made with the least amt of work Cycles 0 Series of comm behaviors that serve to reduce equivocality 0 Act comm behaviors indicating a person s ambiguity in receiving a message Response reaction to equivocality Adjustment org responses to equivocality Double interact loops cycles of an org interviews meetings to reduce equivocality Stages in Reducing Equivocality Enactment how info will be received and interpreted by the org 0 Sensemaking creating awareness and understanding in situations that are complex or uncertan Selection decide which past rules to use OR use double interacts to create new ones Retention remember or document rulerecipe O O O Main Premise org members create use and interpret symbols in order to create and sustain their sense of org reality The Cultural Metaphor Organizational culture a set of shared beliefs and values that control org members interactions with each other and with those outside the org People are like spiders who are suspended in webs that they create at work Assumptions Org members create and maintain a shared sense of organizational reality resulting in a better understanding of values in an org 0 Values standards and principles in a culture The use and interpretation of symbols are critical to an org s culture 0 AKA slogans 0 Physical symbols building art dress objects 0 Verbal symbols jargon jokes nicknames metaphors amp narratives stories 0 Behavioral symbols rituals Cultures vary across orgs and the interpretations of actions within these cultures are diverse Ethnographic Understanding Observing organizations by immersing oneself into the organization Field joumal Thick description explanation of the layers of meaning in a culture Communicative Performance A metaphor that suggests a symbolic process of understanding human behavior in an org Ritual Performances regular and recurring presentations 0 Personal rituals routines done at the workplace each day 0 Task rituals routines associated with a particular job 0 Social rituals routines that involve relationships with others 0 Org rituals routines pertaining to org overall faculty meetings etc Passion Performances org stories that employees share with one another Social Performances org behaviors intended to demonstrate cooperation and politeness with others Political Performances org behaviors that demonstrate power or control communicating a desire to in uence others Enculturation performances org behaviors that assist employees in discovering what it means to be a member of an org Weakness scope is broad Maj or Premise news media leads the public to assign relative importance to various public issues Media Agenda Public Agenda what you see in the media becomes what you see as important Maj or concepts Media Agenda I Homogenization of news into a set of topics addressed by all members of the news media I Salience of issuesevents in the media Public agenda I Salience of issuesevents in the mind of the public Need for orientation I Publics desire to be informed I Increased by uncertainty and personal salience Events I Discrete happening limited in space and time Issues I Series of related events that fit together in a broad category Media gatekeepers I Decisionmakers regarding media agenda Changes in AgendaSetting Model Initial model linear I Agenda shaped largely by dominant politicians and mainstream news outlets Updated model multiaxial I Contemporary media environments blur boundaries between the public and private agendas I Media Agenda gt Public Agenda gt Policy Agenda I Own personal experiences affects everything that comes in Agendasetting in the contemporary media environment online and cable news personalized information environment new gatekeepers individuals and blogs implications The Daily Me I polaziation of public opinion I disappearance of a coherent national agenda Policy Agenda 0 Set of salient issues and events for politicians 0 Set of decisions and actions by policymakers Personal experience 0 Sets of decisions observations and actions by individuals 0 Relied upon most if I Need for orientation 393 Con icting evidence 393 Con icting media reports 393 Media credibility is low Framing 0 Selection of theme for news story the spin diff gatekeepers gt diff framing The Original Agenda Not What to Think But What to Think About Mass media has the ability to transfer the salience of items on their news agendas to the public agenda Position amp length of story as 2 main criteria of prominence Key Premise we remember behaviors enacted by others amp we enact the behaviors when viewed as rewarding We leam what we prefer by Modeling watching how someone responds to something amp imitating this Different from Cultivation Theory Single viewing and behavioral focus Spread of TV Violence through Modeling We leam by observing others Young role models are people like superheroes tv characters 3 stages in the link between TV violence and actual harm Attention 0 Simple distinctive prevalent useful and depicted positively Retention 0 We can leam novel behavior without any practice or direct reinforcement for its consequences 0 The action will lie dormant available for future use 0 Store events visual images amp verbal codes Motivation 0 Without sufficient motivation we will never enact the behaviors o Motivated by both intemal and extemal forces Research on Factors that Increase Likelihood of Modeling Identi cation with model Realistic model No competing models Motivational State Main Premise repeated vewing of media s predominant messages shape our perception of the world Interested in leaming the effects of television watching Casual Argument an assertion of cause and effect that television conceptions of social reality Cult Analisis predicts and explains the longterm formation and shaping of perceptions understandings and beliefs about the world as a result of consumption of media messages Transmissional Perspective sees media as senders of messages across space people can use this info as they wish Ritual Perspective depicts media as representative of shared beliefs Developing Cultivation Analysis Late 60sEarly70s people were concemed about how television was affecting people in society Gerbner s task was to produce an annual Violence Index yearly content analysis of primetime network programming to assess the amt of violence represented MAIN CONCEPT TV and other media play an extremely important role in how people view their world most people get their info from mediated sources therefore media can shape a person s sense of reality Assumptions of Cultivation Analysis TV is essentially and fundamentally different from other forms of mass media TV shapes our society s way of thinking and relating 0 TV doesn t try to persuade us but paints more of a picture of what the world is like 0 TV is a medium of socialization and enculturation 0 Watching violent TV makes us feel afraid because it cultivates within us the image of a mean and dangerous world The in uence of TV is limited 0 Ice Age analogy television doesn t have a single major impact but in uences viewers through steady limited effects Processes and Products of Cultivation Analysis FourStep Process 0 Message system analysis detailed content analyses of tv programming 0 Formulation of questions about viewers social realities o Surveying the audience 0 Comparing the social realities of light and heavy viewers I Cultivation differential the percentage of difference in response between light amp heavy TV viewers Mainstreaming and Resonance o Mainstreaming the tendency for heavy viewers to perceive a similar culturally dominant reality to that pictured on the media although this differs from actual reality 0 Resonance occurs when viewer s lived reality coincides with the reality pictured in the media Heavy Viewers have stronger Chance for Violence Fear of walking alone at night Perceived police activity Mistrust of others Mean World Index 0 Most people are just looking out for themselves 0 You cant be too careful in dealing with people 0 Most people would take advantage of you if they got the chance Television BLURS traditional distinctions of people s views of their world BLENDS people s realities into TV cultural mainstream and BENDS that mainstream to the institutional interests of TV and its sponsors Our opinions often change over time People who believe that they hold a minority viewpoint will remain in the background people who think they re in the majority will be more encouraged to speak The Court of Public Opinion Interpretations of public opinion have been misguided Public legal social and socialpsychological concems of people Opinion expression of attitude Public Opinion attitudes and behaviors expressed in public to avoid isolation Public opinion is limited by time and place Public opinions is shaped by the media Assumptions of Spiral of Silence Theory Society threatens deviant individuals with isolation fear of isolation is pervasive o Asche s line conformity study This fear of isolation causes individuals to try to assess the climate of opinion at all times 0 Receive info from personal observations and the media 0 Quasistatistical sense personal estimation of the strength of opposing sides on a public issue 0 Pluralistic ignorance mistaken observation of how most people feel Public behavior is affected by public opinion assessment 0 Either by speaking out or remaining silent Media s In uence Ubiquity the belief that media is everywhere Cumulativeness belief that media repeat themselves Consonance belief that all media are similar in attitudes beliefs and values Dual climates of public opinion difference between the population s perception of a public issue and the way the media report on the issue The Train Test Led to many assumptions about this theory examples there are various ways of speaking out people will voice opinions if they believe they are in the majority view and if the opinion aligns with societal norms etc The Hard Core Groups at the end of the spiral who are willing to speak out at any cost Parsimony how easy a theory is to understand High Social Exchange Functional Group Original Agenda Setting Cultivation Low New Agenda Setting Spiral of Silence Org Info Falsifiability whether there is a way to prove it wrong High Social pen Functional Group Cultivation Low Social Exchange Extemal Validity High Social Exchange Original Agenda Setting socialobservational Leaming theory Cultivation theory Low Functional Group Logical Consistency whether a theory makes sense
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