HIST 1051 Bundle
HIST 1051 Bundle COMM 1001
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Lecture 1 Modernity vs. Tradition during the Jazz Age Pluralism: Urbanization -On the one hand it’s true, the 1920’s were characterized by much greater social diversity or pluralism, for one thing the country was undergoing rapid urbanization. -The 1920 census showed that for the first time in American history more Americans lived in urban as opposed to rural settings and the city took on greater cache in American culture, for example the New Yorker magazine was founded in 1925 and its very first issue declared that the magazine was “not for the little old lady from Dubuque”, an indication of the way in which the era’s urban dwellers tended to look down their noses at country folk. New Immigration -Cities were growing not only bigger but also diverse as newcomers arrived. Many of these newcomers were foreign immigrants. -As you may know from previous history classes, the new immigration which began back in the 1880’s and constituted perhaps the largest wave of foreign immigration to the U.S. in American history, ended in the 1920’s. -But not before depositing perhaps as many as 25 million foreign born immigrants to the U.S. these immigrants were referred to as new immigrants in part because they hailed from southern and eastern Europe in places such as Italy, Poland, Russia, as opposed to western Europe, the ancestral home of Americas older and more well established immigrants. -After all, all we Americans are immigrants some of us just got here before others. -Their religion also marked these immigrants as new. -Typically they were catholics or jews as opposed to old immigrants who tended to be protestants. -These new immigrants arrived to America speaking languages other than English such as Russian, polish, Italian, and yiddish. This marked them as different as well. -Stereotypically entering the country through New York’s Ellis Island, new immigrants tended to settle in New York or other major industrialized cities in the northeast where work was most plentiful. -As new immigrants arrived and settled, they made American society far more diverse than it had been before. The Great Migration -Northern cities also swelled as a result of internal migration that is due to people moving to urban areas from the countryside. For example some one million African Americans migrated from the rural south to the urban north as part of the Great Migration which lasted from 1910 to 1929. -Anthropologists and sociologists speak of the push pull factors involved in human migration. -In the case of the great migration, the factors that pushed African Americans out of the south are easy to identify. -They sought to escape the racial oppression that prevailed throughout the Jim Crow South. -Southern blacks were pulled by the greater economic opportunity available in the north, they sought jobs and the federal gov’t in Washington D.C. say in automobile factories in Detroit or in the meatpacking industry in Chicago. -Northern cities became far more plural or diverse thanks to the Great Migration prior to which the vast majority of African Americans lived down south. -The Great Migration also had cultural and political effects. -Culturally the Great Migration transplanted Mississippi Blues, New Orleans Jazz to places such as Kansas City, Chicago, New York City where musicians transformed the blues and jazz into new musical styles. -In New York, the GM gave rise to the Harlem Renaissance, the flowering of black cultural and intellectual life that occurred during the 20’s. -Centered in New York’s thin predominantly black neighborhood of Harlem, the destination of many great migrants, the Harlem Renaissance featured jazz performed by Louis Armstrong, Duke Ellington and literature and poetry written by Langston Hughes and Zora Neale Hurston and James Weldon Johnson, among others. -The Harlem Renaissance also featured a political component led by such figures as W.E.B DuBois and Marcus Garvey. -A Black nationalist, Marcus Garvey urged his followers to relocate to Africa, a program of empowerment designed to unite all people of African descent on behalf of a common cause namely in Garvey’s words, “to redeem Africa from European colonialism and to make the continent the center of renewed black strength in the world, where blacks could develop their own independent institutions in a sense of racial pride. -Garvey’s views were controversial and his movement ultimately failed, but his organization the Universal Negro Improvement Association or UNIA had some 4 million new members at one point making Garvey the leader of the single largest black organization in U.S. history prior to the civil rights movement and his philosophy would go on to influence the civil rights movement in the form of such figures like Malcom X, Stokely Carmichael, or Black Panthers who touted black power. Nativism -Growing social pluralism was met by equally strong opposition in the form of nativism. -Nativism was a racist movement that sought to protect the interest of native born or old stock Americans from immigrants and non-whites who nativists charged were poisoning and ruining American society. -Nativists sought to protect what they called 100% Americanism, their ideal biologically determined Republic in which only white native born protestants were considered true citizens by purifying it of immigrants, non-whites, and their allegedly corrupting influences. -Nativists targeted African Americans during the Red Summer of 1919, a summer marked by Race riots in cities like Washington D.C. and Tulsa Oklahoma. -The most notorious of those riots occurred in Chicago. The influx of African Americans due to the Great Migration increased competition for jobs between whites and blacks thus raising racial tensions. -One day these tensions came to boil when a black teenager went swimming at a segregated beach in Chicago and strayed across the imaginary line separating the black from the white part water. -The teen died after being struck by a rock thrown by a white man. His death angered the black community especially after the white police force refused to arrest the man that threw the rock. -After several days of race riots in Chicago, over 3 dozen people lay dead, most were black. -The re-emergence of the Ku Klux Klan was another form of nativism. Most people know of the first emergence of this Klan during Reconstruction and the third version of the Klan that opposed the civil rights movement. -Founded in Georgia in 1915, the second clan spread rapidly beyond the south to states such as Indiana, Oregon. It operated very much in the public in the 1920’s. They rallied in the streets such as Pennsylvania Ave. in Washington, D.C. in 1926. This was an indication of just how strong nativism was in the decade. -The Klan was dedicated to protecting 100% Americanism by intimidating and committing violent acts against African Americans but the Klan of the 1920’s also defined new immigrants, Catholics, and Jews as the threats to 100% Americanism and the Klan began to target those groups as well. Immigration Restriction -The National Origins Act of 1924 was another example of nativism. -The Act was a legal yet discriminatory measure designed to limit foreign immigration to the U.S. -It accomplished that by setting an annual quota that limited new arrivals among each national group to just 2% of those already residing in the U.S. -The Act was discriminatory because it did not use the most recent census, rather it used an old census, the 1890 census which was taken long before those new immigrants arrived in the U.S. -By taking the 1890 census over the 1920 census, it lowered the number of immigrants allowable under that 2% formula and therefore discriminated against new arrivals. -The Act continued to define U.S. immigration law for more than 40 years until 1965 when the act was finally recognized as discriminatory and replaced with a new less discriminatory act which still governs U.S. immigration policy to this day. -Philadelphia Inquirer cartoon,“Put Them Out and Keep Them Out,” expressing anti-immigrant sentiment in 1919. Sacco and Vanzetti -Nicolo Sacco Bartolomeo Vanzetti were Italian immigrants and also anarchists who were arrested in May 1920 for murder that occurred during a payroll robbery. -The case on Sacco and Vanzetti was based on very very flimsy evidence and even today almost a century later, questions remain whether they were guilty or innocent, but what is clear is that they didn’t receive a fair trial. -They were tried not by jury of their peers but by jury composed entirely of old stock Americans and the presiding judge was a nativist who promised to convict “those Italian anarchists bastards”. -Both were convicted of committing murder and in 1927, they were executed. -Throughout the whole 7 year ordeal (remember they both were arrested back in 1920), the case became a cause célèbre both domestically and internationally as their defenders claim they had been wrongfully convicted only because of their ethnicity and radical political views. The “New Woman” vs. Old Customs: The Struggle for Female Suffrage -Women made major advancements in the 1920’s in terms of their political empowerment and also social liberation. -The U.S. Constitution only provided for male suffrage that is women were not allowed to vote and as a result American women had little political power. The suffrage movement sought to change that. -The movement for female suffrage was a long-standing one that stretched all the way back to 1848 Seneca Falls Collection where such suffragists like Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott issued a declaration of sentiments demanding the right to vote for women. -Eclipsed in the middle of the nineteenth century, by the movement to abolish slavery, the movement for female suffrage picked up steam again at the end of the nineteenth century with the Progressive Era. -Such progressives as Alice Paul, Carrie Chapman Catt, pushed for the right to vote along with such other reforms such as temperance, protective labor laws. -In both 1913 and 1917, Alice Paul and Carrie Chapman Catt and others led marches on Washington to demand the right to vote. -Women served in WWI as nurses, clerks, and in various auxiliaries resulted in more support for suffrage and during the war suffragists met with some success at the state level as the legislatures of several states mostly in the west passed laws granting women the right to vote for the first time. -Those states included Wyoming, and the 1917’s Wyoming Jeanette Rankin became the first woman ever elected to the U.S. Congress in part because the states newly enfranchised female viewers mobilized strongly behind her candidacy. -With such success at the state level, the suffrage movement finally experienced some success at the federal level in 1919 when the U.S. th Congress passed the 19 amendment to the U.S. Constitution which read “the right of citizens to vote shall not be denied or bridged on account of sex.” -When the 19 amendment went into affect in 1920 after all the necessary states had ratified it, American women could vote for the first time. Social Liberation and Pusback -Politically empowered, some women began to push for greater social liberation as well by challenging the prevailing gender norms that had been inherited from the Victorian Era. -Those traditional and restrictive norms confined women to what scholars refer to as “the domestics fear” meaning that women were expected to remain in the home and out of the publics fear. This powerful norm insisted that the proper woman should be a good daughter or wife subservient in every way to their father or husband. She should wear modest, restrictive clothing like the corsette, an undergarment seen by scholars today as an instrument of female subordination. -The proper woman should remain chased outside of marriage. Those were some of the things that women should do according to the norm. -But there were things that the norm insisted that women should not do like smoke, drink, make known her political views, discuss sex in public, nor should she perform paid work outside the home if she could help it. -Women did lots of unpaid labor in the home such as cooking, cleaning, and child-rearing which women were expected to do. -During the 20’s, a new feminine archetype, “the flapper”, arose symbolizing the new woman and her attempts to break free from that traditional gender norm and perhaps no flapper was greater known than the Hollywood movie actor, Clara Bow who symbolized the young, urban, usually single woman who wore modern stylist clothing including slacks, and dresses with shorter hemlines. -A woman who did work outside her home, Clara Bow herself was a well known movie actor who drank and smoked in public, discussed sex in public, and engaged in extra marital intercourse. -Women experienced greater social liberties in the 1920’s as a consequence of their political empowerment, the passage of the 19 amendment, and also simply the time period differences. -Female liberation also had something to do with technology just as the introduction of the birth control pill was partial to the feminist movement of the 1960’s and 1970’s. -The wider availability of contraceptives were important in the 1920’s. Prior to that time the distribution of contraceptives was illegal under federal and state law but Margaret Sanger sought to change that by leading the effort to legalize birth control. -Sanger risked arrest by demonstrating publicly also by founding the Birth Control Review, a journal designed to publicize the cause and also to distribute information about contraception which was illegal in most places. -Sanger lobbied for legislative change and she succeeded in getting several states including New York State to legalize physician prescribed contraceptives. -As a result, contraception was made legal for the first time giving the woman control over her own body and the freedom to be sexually active with less fear of becoming pregnant. -Margaret Sanger is regarded by many as an important contributor to women’s liberation. -The new woman of the 1920’s existed only within certain limits. -Only a small minority of women were actually flappers. -Working women received pay unequal to men and also found themselves restricted to pink collar occupations as teachers, nurses, typists, clerks, waitresses, and domestic servants in the case of African American women. -The Equal Rights Amendment(ERA) was a proposed amendment to the U.S. Constitution that stated that women and men should have equal rights anywhere in the U.S. -Written by the suffragist Alice Paul, the ERA was first introduced to the U.S. Congress in 1923. The proposed amendment did not pass Congress and it wouldn’t pass congress for almost 50 years until 1972 and even then the required number of states failed to ratify the ERA which has yet to become part of the U.S. Constitution. -Politically speaking, women gained much more power and socially speaking their behavior changed as well in the 20’s. Culturally speaking, not much changed as traditional attitudes, traditional gender norms remained mostly in place by the end of the decade. Secularism vs. Spiritualism: Prohibition -The 20’s witnessed what we would call today a culture war between religious and secular people and that war included several battles. th -One battle had to do with prohibition. Ratified in 1919, the 18 amendment which prohibited the manufacture, sale, and transport of alcoholic beverages became effective in 1920. -Arguably the last major reform of the progressive era, prohibition was the crowning achievement of the temperance movement, a movement that had pushed for the prohibition of alcohol since back in the late nineteenth century. A broad coalition of groups composed the temperance movement. -The movement included nativists who wanted to ban alcohol because they associated it with immigrants, catholics. -Womens groups also endorsed prohibition as a measure to protect women’s health against drunkenness that often led to violence against women. -The movement included Protestant leaders, but not Catholic leaders who tended to be wets, because most Protestant leaders regarded the consumption of alcohol as a sin and prohibition as a way to morally improve society. -Prohibition remained the law of the land throughout the 1920’s but it didn’t work, that is the consumption of alcohol didn’t decrease or increase, instead consumption remained flat throughout the decade. -Why did prohibition not work?? 1. The Law was poorly enforced. Prohibiting the manufacture, sale, consumption, and transportation of alcohol into the U.S. was a big job, even in the best of circumstances but the amount of money the U.S. Congress devoted to the laws enforcement by the U.S. Justice Dept wasn’t nearly enough. -Federal agents had inadequate resources and manpower to combat the legal manufacturing and bootlegging of alcohol that occurred in the 1920’s by such organized crime figures as Al Capone who operated out of Chicago. -Prohibition was really out of step with the liberated modern temper of the 1920’s so much so that defying the law became the cool thing to do. -Criminals supplied the alcohol to be sure but it was ordinarily law abiding American citizens who visited speakeasies and purchased booze from bootleggers or who bought alcohol from pharmacies and this was the most common way in which middle class Americans doctors, lawyers, college professors bought alcohol during the 1920’s because their was an exemption written into the law that allowed pharmacies to dispense alcohol for “medicinal purposes”. -A “doctor” would “write a prescription” for alcohol for medicinal purposes and you would go down to your corner drug store and dispense the alcohol to you in a brown paper bag. -This is how people got around the act because most people in the 1920’s wanted to drink and overtime it became clearer that prohibition was a failure and in 1933 the unpopular law was repealed and to celebrate President Roosevelt’s signature of the repeal law, Anheuser Busch had a team of Clydesdale deliver a case of beer to the white house. -New York agents pour prohibited alcohol into the sewer following a raid, 1921. The Scopes Trial -The Scopes Trial of 1925 was the biggest battle between secularists and spiritualists. -The 1920’s witnessed a revival of religiosity particularly among Protestant Fundamentalists that is those who literally interpreted the bible and regarded the bible as the fundamental truth. -Protestant fundamentalists sought not only to spread the gospel but also to restore traditional values rooted in the bibles fundamental truths which they believed were under increasing threat from the decades materialism, hedonism, and also science based secularism. -The career path of Aimee Semple McPherson serves as a good illustration of the rise of Protestant Fundamentalism in the 1920’s. She was a minister who founded a Pentecostal church in Los Angeles during the decade. -She preached against materialism and morality and secularism especially evolution. -McPherson complicates the image of Protestant Fundamentalist. To be sure she other fundamentalists sought to restore traditional values as they define them but she herself was very modern in a number of ways. -First and most obviously she was a woman serving a very public role as a minister. She could be seen as an embodiment of the female liberation in so characteristic of the 20’s. -She was an evangelist who used modern means of mass communication to spread the gospel and to save souls. To be specific, her sermons were broadcast by radio which allowed her to spread her message well beyond Los Angeles. -She became not only a well known religious figure but became one of the decades most recognizable media celebrities but she was just one of a numerable religious leaders who denounced Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution in the 1920’s. -The English naturalist Charles Darwin first developed his theory of human evolution in the late nineteenth century but it wasn’t until the 1920’s that his theory became popularized in the U.S. -As it became well known religious leaders more and more regarded Darwin’s work as a threat by teaching that humans evolved from other life forms. -His work would leave people to question not only the accuracy of the bible which of course spelled out the story of human creation in the book of genesis but also the very existence of God. -Many theologians saw Darwinism at the core of scientific rational secularism, a growing world view that appeared incompatible with a faith based belief system and so religious and conservative political leaders took aim at evolution. -Several state legislatures passed laws that banned the teaching of evolution in public schools. -Tennessee’s legislature in 1925 that prohibited the states public schools from the teaching of “any theory that denies the story of the divine creation of man as taught in the bible and taught instead that man has descended from a lower order of animals.” -The law prohibited the teaching of the scientific theory of human evolution and required that instead creationism be taught. -Biology teacher John Scopes volunteered to test the legality of the Tennessee law by teaching evolution to his class. Scopes was arrested, charges were pressed, and his trial was held in Dayton, Tennessee in 1925. -Scopes was defended by Clarence Darrow, one of the nation’s top labor and civil liberties lawyers. -William Jennings Bryan, the former presidential candidate and secretary of state, served among the attorneys prosecuting the case. -Creationists won the trial as Scopes was convicted of violating the State of Tennessee’s anti-evolution law and was fined $100. -Speaking more generally, evolutionists won. -Big city journalists from N.Y., Boston, Philadelphia, Chicago, who went to Dayton in the summer of 1925 to cover the trial mocked the views of creationists to the readers back home as indefensible, outdated, and out of tune with the times. -Bryan defended the story of human creation as told in the bible as the literal truth. Did God in fact create the world in 6 days? Darrow asked. Was Eve in fact created from Adams rib? Was Jhona actually swallowed by the whale? Yes Bryan answered in each case. -After the scopes trial, protestant fundamentalism fell into a long decline that would last until the 1970’s when fundamentalism experienced a dramatic revival. Lecture 2 The Great Depression-1929-1940 -The stock market crash of October 1929 marked the end of the prosperity of the 20’s and the beginning of the Great Depression, the severest economic crisis in U.S. history that would endure until 1940. -Most people think the crash caused the depression but that’s not actually the case. While it did help ruin the confidence of investors and consumers, the crash was merely a symptom of an already sick economy. Causes of the Great Depression -The causes of the GD were so complex that economists and historians some of the best minds in the world continue to debate them to this very day. -Ben Bernanke who chaired the federal reserve from 2006 to 2014 -Before he directed the nation’s central bank, Bernanke was an economist at Princeton University where he studied the causes of the Great Depression. The lessons he learned influenced his policy starting in 2008 Bernanke found himself chairing the fed as the economy plunged into the great recession, the nations severest economic crisis since the 1930’s. -Bernanke received mixed reviews, no doubt will he be remembered as one of the strongest chairs in the feds history and his activism stemmed in part from his understanding that actions in the part of the federal reserve helped cause the GD in 1929. -The Classic Laissez-Faire or the Free Market Theory. Popular before and at the beginning of the GD, Laissez-Faire theory holds that the market is a self functioning mechanism that operates best with the least amount of interference from gov’t regulators. -The theory also holds that while it may contract from time to time the market will eventually correct itself if allowed to do so. -Such contemporary Laissez-Faire thinkers such as President Herbert Hoover and his treasury secretary Andrew Melon insisted that the downturn that began in 1929 was natural and temporary and would eventually correct itself. -Furthermore they insisted that the downturn was necessary and healthy for it would weed out any unsound business practices that had been allowed to grow and survive in the prosperity of the 20’s. -Hoover and Melon believed that the system Capitalism was fundamentally sound and they opposed governmental intervention on the grounds that it was both unnecessary and unwise and it would unsettle the market. Hoover said the market must be left to heal itself. He objected on principle to governmental programs designed to alleviate the depressions ill effects such as unemployment. -Based on the work of the British economists John Maynard Keynes, a second theory Keynesianism arose to prominence during the depression itself and Keynesianism would continue to be the dominant school of economic thought until the 1960’s. -Keynes general theory which he published in 1936, holds that the market doesn’t always work well and that state intervention is sometimes necessary to make it operate better. HIST Study Guide Chapter 15: Westward Expansion Lecture: The Myth of Westward Expansion: Manifest Destiny, coined in 1845, is defined as the belief that the US was destined to expand first across North America (westward) then to overseas. -“…the fulfillment of our manifest destiny to overspread the continent allotted by Providence for the free development of our yearly multiplying millions.” - New York City newspaper editor John O’Sullivan (1845) What does this mean? Westward expansion was God’s will that god had provided open space in the west to be inhabited and used by Euro Americans. -Whites and Christians had a duty to do so, to expand westward and exploit the land, settle it, cultivate it, make it bloom was to do God’s work. -The west was not uninhabited, as the native americans were already there which presented a problem from the standpoint of whites. -Manifest destiny came to the rescue offering a solution: Native Americans were not white nor were they Christian therefore they were “uncivilized savages” unfit to inhabit the land according to manifest destiny. This ideology encouraged whites to occupy the west in order to Christianize and civilize the region. -Manifest destiny became a stable of late nineteenth century popular culture appearing in paint and print. -Many of the eras paintings depicted the idea of manifest destiny such as the 1872 painting, American Progress by John Gast. -If manifest destiny helped motivate westward expansion as it happened then the myth of westward expansion became inseparable from American identity. -Based on the US census taken in 1890, the US government discovered that there was no longer a clear line b/w settled and unsettled areas west of the Mississippi river. (there was no longer a frontier) -The closing of the frontier troubled Frederick Jackson Turner. He point out in his 1893 speech, it was on the frontier where Americans became Americans where they developed certain traits that came to define the American character. -In his speech he advanced his frontier thesis in which he argued that americans forced to fend for themselves all alone and on the frontier became self reliant and independent, ingenious, and industrious and democratic and individualistic. Those traits not only defined the American character, they provided the building blocks for self government and enterprise. -But with the west settled, turner worries about the nations future so his frontier thesis ended by urging Americans to go on a never-ending quest for new frontiers to conquer where the US would constantly renew itself. -Turner was the first of many scholars to argue that the frontier experience is at the very heart of American identity. -Starting in the 1880’s with Buffalo Bill Cody’s Wild West Show, the myth of westward expansion became a source of popular entertainment as well. -A soldier and buffalo hunter, buffalo Bill Cody was a minor player in the actual settling of the west. His real claim to fame was as the organizer of what became known as Buffalo Bills Wild West Show which first performed under that title in 1883. -An elaborate outdoor pageant much like something someone might see at a fair or rodeo today. His show featured in addition to sharp shooting and horse riding demonstrations, re-inactments of famous events in the settling of the west. -His shows spread the gospel of manifest destiny as it traveled across the US and the world. It was the first to turn the myth of westward expansion into a cultural comedity that remained closely identified with the US in the years to come. -Hollywood continues to be a powerful force in the global marketplace and wouldn’t be what it is today without the western. American motion picture industry and western movies grew up together. One of the industries first big hit was a western: 1903 silent film The Great Train Robbery. -Actor and American icon John Wayne brought civilization to the west. -From the settlers perspective, westward expansion was a positive process. They were drawn to the west for many reasons. -Passed by Congress in 1862, the Homestead Act granted 160 acres of western land to each head of household (a man) if he settled and remained on that land for 5 years. -Essentially this act gave away free land and that was a very attractive prospect to the landless poor working class folk back east. Free land gave them an opportunity to start over and perhaps achieve the American Dream. Settlers traveled up to 2000 miles to their new homes west by train, covered wagon, horseback, and even on foot. This journey took up to 6 months during which time migrants endured scarce drinking water, heat, winter chill, and constant threat of attacks by Indians. -Once arrived, many of the newcomers succeeded in making the western desert bloom. Western farmers and ranchers were so successful in raising livestock and crops that the domestic market became oversaturated with their production by the early 1890’s causing prices to drop dramatically and touching off a major economic depression. -Roughy ¾ of the settlers were white men but there was also a surprising amount of diversity, about ¼ were women. Many newcomers were nonwhite as well some 200,000 chinese migrants lived on the west coast mostly in California. Most worked as contract laborers constructing the transcontinental railroad. -Pressured by nativists interests who did not want foreign immigrants, Congress passed the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882- the first anti immigration law in US history. -This act prohibited further entry by the chinese into the US. -Mexican and Mexican Americans were numerous as well. Much of the west had been Mexican territory up until 1848. Mexican cowboys introduced much of the technology including saddles that became useful in the US. -1/4 of all cowboys on cattle drives were African Americans. 1/5 of all cowboy soldiers who fought the indian wars in the west were African americans. They were known as Buffalo Soldiers. Half a million blacks were exodusters who left the segregated south after the collapse of reconstruction there in 1877 and headed west to settle in places such as Kansas where they found some relief of racism prevailed in the Jim Crow South. Ecological Costs: -The settlers did make a successful go of it in terms of making the desert bloom and harvesting the natural resources found in the west, but their success came at a steep price. -Unregulated mining and logging left permanent scars on the landscape, overhunting led to the extinction of the bison and the number of buffalo had reduced in size by the end of the nineteenth century -The destruction of bison negatively impacted Native Americans, Indian welfare depended on buffalo. The tribes not only ate the meat but turned the skin into coats, bones into tools, weapons, and utensils. -Without bison, Native Americans lost a significant part of their livelihood. Native Americans: -Westward settlement had winners and losers- the winners got to write the history and as a result until quite recently US history severely underplayed the extent of the loss suffered by Native Americans. -The theft of Native American lands is only the beginning. -When Christopher Columbus arrived in the new world in 1492, there were about 50 million Native Americans living in the Americas. By the time the west had been conquered around 1900 or so, there was roughly 200,000 native americans. -Most experts consider this an instance of genocide, defined as the systematic destruction of a specific racial, ethnic, or religious group. -The biggest cause of death, disease, had little to do with westward expansion. -When Europeans first made contact with the new world, they brought with them diseases such as small pox to which they were generally immune but Indians weren’t immune because they had not been exposed to small pox before. -Consequently small pox desolated the native population. -Some causes of death were related to westward expansion: the destruction of bison deprived many tribes of a major food source, starvation was not an uncommon cause of death as a result. Then there was the outright killing of natives that resulted from the Indian wars in the late nineteenth century. -As more and more whites poured into the west, native americans rose up to defend themselves. Native Americans were hopelessly outgunned. -The massacre that occurred at Wounded Knee South Dakota in 1890: a few years earlier in 1888, a man named Wavoka experienced a vision which told him that a “great spirit” would save his people if they performed a ritual known as the “Ghost Dance”. -This dance spread rapidly among other tribes becoming a sort of craze and soon the Lakota took it up in South Dakota. -To the whites, the ghost dance appeared to be some kind of Indian uprising so the US army was sent in to suppress it with a mixture of force and diplomacy. -In 1890, army officials invited sue to peace talks held at an army base near wounded knee creek. After the Indians arrived a single shot rang out. To this day no one know who fired first, soldiers or the Indians. Conclusion: How was the West won? Was expansion a heroic tale or not? Book Notes: -Nannie Stillwell Jackson lived in eastern Arkansas lowlands and kept a diary of her life as a late nineteenth century farmwife. -She had a tedious daily work routine and generosity that represented human ecology-interaction b/w people and their environment- of her region and times. -A widow, she married a widower 10 years younger than her who drank, stayed out late, and disliked her independence. -She participated in as supportive network of neighboring farm women. -Nature was her enemy -Her experiences were shared across the American West and South where people worked hard and against the changing environment. -Where she lived, the nearby Missouri Pacific Railroad provided access to the outside world and goods. During her life, a “New South” emerged, built upon railroads, factories, and cities. -Farther west, the population grew rapidly as new migrants came in to develop the land and extract its wealth. -The region known as the “South” had a stable meaning, it encthpassed most of the states and territories beneath the 39 parallel westward to the Mississippi River and some times including Oklahoma and Texas. Its population rose from 12.5 million in 1870 to 20 million in 1890. -The meaning of the “West” changed. In the 18 century the west encompassed everything beyond the Appalachian Mts. With settlement of the Midwest after the civil war, the west spanned the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean including plains between the Mississippi and the Rocky Mts, the Rockies, and the mountains and valleys of the far west. -before Migrants arrived the west was occupied by Native Americans whose human ecology of communities utilized natural resources differently than those who later occupied the region. -Between 1870 and 1890 the white population there swelled from 7 million to 17 million, overwhelming native and Hispanic communities. -Newcomers built communities in the west and south and exploited the environment for profit more than the Indians did. They excavated the earth for minerals, felled forests for homes, built railroads, dammed rivers, and plowed farmland with machines. -Their goal was buying and selling in regional, national, and international markets. -Nannie Jackson participated in such changes. -The abundance of exploitable land and raw materials filled whites with faith that anyone persistent enough could succeed. This confidence rested on the belief that whites were somehow superior. -As they transformed the landscape their market economies transformed the nation. Both hope and hardship shaped the new human ecology. Transformation of Native Cultures: -Native American economic system was eroded after 1850. -Southwestern and Plains Indians economies were devastated by declining buffalo herd due to drought, diseases brought by white-owned livestock, excessive native American hunting and trade, white settlement on indian lands used for grazing, and whites’ efforts to eliminate the buffalo to make way for railroads. -Northwestern Indian economies which relied on salmon fishing suffered when white commercial fisheries diminished salmon supplies and dammed up rivers and tributaries that were vital for fishing stocks. -The US government misunderstood these differences b/w Indian groups, often negotiating faulty treaties or failing to guarantee land rights as promised in these agreements. -As Indians became dependent on trade with whites they raised fewer crops and their need for cash to purchase goods forced them to sell their land, making it easier to force them onto reservations. Extraction of Natural Resources: -Mining for precious metals, cutting trees for lumber, and drilling for oil drew many people west to seek fortune and a better life. -It also transformed the natural landscape, contributed to environmental wastefulness, and sparked a debate b/w the desire for progress and the need to preserve nature. -This gave rise to a conservation movement after the civil war. -Recreational hunter and families who depended on wild game for meat lobbied legislatures, artists and tourists pressured congress to protect Yosemite valley by granting it to California for public use, and in 1862 the Yellowstone river region in Wyoming became first national park. -congress authorized president Benjamin Harrison to create forest reserves led by activist john muir, who founded the environmental group the Sierra Club in 1892. Age of railroad expansion: -During civil war era, government subsidies for railroad construction among the largest in us history, included massive land grants, which companies could use for interstate routes or sell to finance construction. –federal land grants topped 180 million acres while states handed over another 50 million acres and cities and towns helped by offering loans or buying railroad stocks. -Through the Newlands Reclamation Act (1902) congress supported the sale of western lands in parcels smaller than 160 acres to individuals, with the funds being used to finance irrigation projects in the region. -That in turn facilitated agricultural and economic development and western urbanization. Cities and towns developed along railroad hubs, shipping farm products and goods nationwide. Farming the plains: -migrants hoped to find a better life in the west but instead experienced loneliness, isolation, lack of essential products and services they previously knew, and shortages of lumber to build homes. -but the arrival of the railroad, extension of the postal service into the west, and advent of the mail-order business ended some of these problems by bringing consumer goods and people to the region. -new technology and mechanization also made farming easier and the creation of social clubs, churches, and other organizations helped ease social isolation. The South after reconstruction: -in the south the number of farms doubled but most farmers rented land rather than owned it- the opposite of the west. -southerners in the post civil war era relied on sharecropping or tenant farming where land was rented and farmers borrowed money for supplies. -this simply pushed poor farmers further into debt especially when merchants inflated prices and interest. -the souths reliance on staple crops of tobacco and cotton required human labor. On balance, were the 1920s a modern or traditional decade? Discuss the debates surrounding social pluralism, women, and secularism. The 1920’s was essentially a modern decade. The 1920’s were characterized by much greater social diversity or pluralism, for one thing the country was undergoing rapid urbanization. The 1920 census showed that for the first time in American history more Americans lived in urban as opposed to rural areas and the city took on greater cache in American culture. Cities were growing not only bigger but more diverse as new foreign immigrants arrived. These immigrants arrived from southern and eastern Europe in places such as Italy, Poland, and Russia. Their religion also marked them as “new.” Many were catholic or jews as opposed to old immigrants who were Protestants. They also speaked different languages such as Russian, polish, and Italian. They settled in major industrialized cities where work was most plentiful. They made American society far more diverse than ever before. African Americans from the rural south also pushed north to escape racial oppression that prevailed throughout the Jim Crow South. Northern cities became far more plural or diverse thanks to the Great Migration. Women made major advancements in the 1920’s in terms of their political empowerment and also social liberation. Women were not allowed to vote and as a result American women had little political power. The suffrage movement sought to change that. Such progressives as Alice Paul, Carrie Chapman Catt, pushed for the right to vote along with such other reforms such as temperance, protective labor laws. When the 19 amendment went into affect in 1920, American women could vote for the first time. Politically empowered, some women began to push for greater social liberation as well by challenging the prevailing gender norms. Those traditional and restrictive norms confined women to what scholars refer to as “the domestics fear” meaning that women were expected to remain in the home and out of the publics fear. This norm insisted that the proper woman should be a good daughter or wife subservient in every way to their father or husband and should wear modest, restrictive clothing. The norm insisted that women should not smoke, drink, make known her political views, discuss sex in public, nor should she perform paid work outside the home if she could help it. Women did lots of unpaid labor in the home such as cooking, cleaning, and child- rearing which women were expected to do. Women experienced greater social liberties in the 1920’s as a consethence of their political empowerment, the passage of the 19 amendment, and also simply the time period differences. The 20’s witnessed what we would call today a culture war between religious and secular people and that war included several battleth One battle had to do with prohibition. Ratified in 1919, the 18 amendment which prohibited the manufacture, sale, and transport of alcoholic beverages became effective in 1920. Prohibition was the crowning achievement of the temperance movement, a movement that had pushed for the prohibition of alcohol since back in the late nineteenth century. The movement included nativists who wanted to ban alcohol because they associated it with immigrants and Catholics. Women’s groups also endorsed prohibition as a measure to protect women’s health against drunkenness that often led to violence against women. The movement included Protestant leaders because most of them regarded the consumption of alcohol as a sin and prohibition as a way to morally improve society. Prohibition remained the law of the land throughout the 1920’s but it didn’t work. The consumption of alcohol didn’t decrease or increase, instead consumption remained flat throughout the decade. Most people in the 1920’s wanted to drink and overtime it became clearer that prohibition was a failure. The 1920’s was a decade of profound change into modern times. What caused the Great Depression and how did it affect Americans? How did Franklin Roosevelt deal with the Depression? Were his policies successful? What effects did they have on the economy, society, and politics? The Great Depression of 1929 was the most severest economic crisis U.S. History that lasted until 1940. The causes of the Great Depression were so complex that economists and historians, who have some of the best minds of the world, continue to debate them to this very day. Most people think the Stock Market Crash of October 1929 caused the depression, but this was not actually the case. While this crash did help ruin the confidence of investors and consumers, it was merely a symptom of an already sick economy. Although there were many causes of the Great Depression, some were more noteworthy than others. The Classic Laissez-Faire, or the Free Market Theory was one cause of the Great Depression. This theory holds that the market is a self-functioning mechanism that operates best without government interference. Laissez-Faire thinkers such as President Herbert Hoover and his secretary Andrew Melon resided in this theory and believed that governmental intervention was unnecessary, unwise, and would unsettle the market. These thinkers objected on principles to governmental programs designed to alleviate the depressions ill affects such as unemployment. Keynesianism was another theory developed from the works of John Maynard Keynes that led to the cause of the Great depression. This theory holds that the market doesn’t always work well and state intervention is sometimes necessary to make it operate better. Keynes pointed out that the maldistribution of wealth was the chief cause of the depression. There was a huge wealth gap in the 20’s that resulted in underconsumption, overproduction, and deflation. He argued that a stimulus package was necessary to be put in the hands of consumers, stimulate the economic activity, and inflate the economy. Monetarism was another cause of the great depression. This school of economic thought challenged Keynesianism. Monetarists argued that the depression was caused less by fiscal than monetary factors. They blamed the federal reserve for not taking strong enough action to re-inflate the economy such as lowering the discount rate. The last contributing factor to the cause of the depression the International School thought. This focused on factors such as the collapse of post WWI reparations and loans cycle and tariffs which cut U.S. imports and exports by 2/3 and brought international trade to a virtual standstill. The answer to the question what caused the great depression helps determine economic policy to this very day. The Great Depression took an enormous toll on people. It caused massive unemployment as much as 25%. Those employees that were fortunate enough to still have their jobs saw their hours being cut which meant a reduction in pay. The Great Depression didn’t effect everyone equally though, it fell hardest on middle class and especially working class Americans, among African Americans with the worst hit. Blacks were typically the first fired and the last hired. Unemployed or underemployed workers could no longer afford to pay their rent and they were often evicted from their homes. Widespread homelessness followed and Americans often congregated to hoovervilles located on the margins of cities across the nation. Widespread hunger was a consequence of the Great Depression as well. There were so many needy people left jobless, homeless, and hungry. The Depression took a severe psychological toll on people. America’s individualistic culture taught that success was earned through hard work. Many Americans thought they were failures. Roosevelt dealt with the depression when he was elected to office in the 1932 election. He launched his New Deal which addressed three main points: relief, recovery, and reform. His New Deal sought to provide relief to those Americans victimized by the depression, stimulate economic recovery from the depression, and implement basic reforms to lessen the likelihood that another such catastrophe would occur in the future. The New Deal’s first priority was to provide relief to the millions of Americans who were jobless or harmed by the depression. Many New Deal agencies provided relief through programs such as the Works Progress Administration which provided jobs to the unemployed. The Emergency Banking Relief Act dealt with the banking crisis that had plagued American financial institutions ever since the beginning of the depression. The 2 ndNew Deal ushered in some of the most significant reforms in 20 century U.S. history. Some reforms sought to decrease the likelihood that another economic downturn would occur in the future. FDR embraced progressive reform throwing his support behind the Social Security Act which provided retirement pensions, unemployment insurance, and was funded by payroll taxes. The act didn’t provide benefits or institute healthcare coverage but it did create a social safety net for the first time in U.S. history. Americans commonly remember World War II as the “Good War.” Was World War II indeed the “Good War?” Measure the war’s stated principles against actual foreign and domestic events in your response. World War II was was a just war from the American perspective. It was not the “Good War” as many Americans made it out to be. Americans remember WWII as the good war because it was a just war fought for a noble cause against an evil enemy in that victory benefited the US in several tangible ways. The WWII was much more complex than the Good War image might have us believe. Atomic bombs were in preparation as to completely end World War II. Truman declared that using the atomic bomb would save American lives. The US followed an island hopping strategy as to get closer to invade Japanese home islands. American airplane dropped an atomic bomb on the city of Hiroshima killing as many as 140,000 Japanese. The US dropped a second bomb on Nagasaki killing 80,000 people. Japan then surrendered ending WWII. Truman declares the dropping of the bombs for political reasons as to contain the Soviet Union. The treatment of Japanese Americans casts out on the benign image of WWII. FDR signed executive order 9066 in Feb 1942 which gave the US military the power to transport those Japanese Americans to relocation centers located in states like Utah where the detainees were to remain until the duration of the wartime emergency. The EO66 operated the internment of Japanese Americans. This was one of the worst violations of civil liberties in US history. This brings to the table to what extent was the second world war fought in defense of freedom. African Americans faced continued racial discrimination and segregation which contradicted the claim that the US fought the war in the name of freedom. Therefore I believe the Cold was not a Good War in the sense that it brought along more negative influences than positive influences. What was the Cold War? What caused it? How did the United States fight it? What effects did the Cold War have on American society? The Cold War was a war primarily between the U.S. and the Soviet Union beginning in 1947. American officials believed that the best defense against the Soviet threat was a strategy called “containment”. In 1946, in George Kennan’s Long Telegram, he explained that the Soviet Union was a serious threat to US national security. He though soviet leaders were not reasonable people, rather they were radicals trying to communize the world. His telegram was widely read in Washington that the Soviet Union meant to do harm to the US. The Cold War began when Truman put Kennan’s containment strategy to practice. American officials encouraged the development of atomic weapons like the ones that had ended World War II. This began a deadly “arms race.” In 1949, the Soviets tested an atom bomb of their own. In response, President Truman announced that the United States would build an even more destructive atomic weapon: the hydrogen bomb, or “superbomb.” As a result, the stakes of the cold war were high. The threat of nuclear annihilation had a great impact on American domestic life. People built bomb shelters in their backyards. They practiced attack drills in schools and other places. In these and other ways, the Cold War was a constant presence in Americans’ everyday lives.
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