Geology notes January 9th
Geology notes January 9th Geol 2150
Popular in Geologic History of Dinosaurs
Popular in Environmental Science
This 2 page Bundle was uploaded by Imani Notetaker on Thursday February 11, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Geol 2150 at Bowling Green State University taught by Dr. Peg Yacobucci in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Geologic History of Dinosaurs in Environmental Science at Bowling Green State University.
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Date Created: 02/11/16
geology Phylogenetic Systematics Recall that evolution is "descent with modification" Phylogeny is the history of descent, the family tree for life. No thing turns into another thing. Traits are accumulated over time. Systematics Organisms appear to form natural groupings forming a hierarchy (Nest set) idea of classifying and labeling organisms idea that animals and plants are different This pattern is produced by evolution (nested sets) More anatomical characters in common = more closely related =more recent common ancestor siblings v. cousins siblings- common ancestor is parents cousins- common ancestor is grandparents the more similar your look the closer the ancestor the less similar you look the further the ancestor Phylogenetic systematics aka Cladistics Techniques for reconstructing evolutionary histories and defining "natural" groups Based on principle that anatomical similarity reflects closeness of relationships Characters are specific, discrete observable anatomic features But are all characters equal? No Bones in forelimbs of pterosaurs, birds, and mammals are Homologies = similar because inherited from common ancestor ex- Grandma has curly red hair mom has curly red hair you have curly red hair. Wings of pterosaurs, birds, and bats are analogies = Evolved independently in the 3 groups. Analogies are superficial, few other characters support that grouping Homologies are detailed, preponderance of evidence supports Ancestral v. Derived Characters Character homology analogy if Primitive- limited use ancestral feature shared more widely than in the group of interest if Derived- great use The distribution of shared derived characters defines natural groups Teeth - ancestral character Perforate acetabulum (hip bone) - share derived character in dinosauria Predentary Bone (Lower jaw bone that holds teeth in front of denture bone) - Shared derived character in Ornithischia Cladogram are diagrams that show branching order Made up of branches and nodes, with taxon labels at tips Branch lengths are arbitrary - do not reflect absolute time! just order of branching.
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