New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Chapter 4: Carbohydrates

Star Star Star Star Star
1 review
by: Elizabeth Weathers

Chapter 4: Carbohydrates NTR 213-05

Elizabeth Weathers

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These notes cover all of chapter 4 and additional information related to the chapter that may not have been discussed in class
Introductory Nutrition
Laurie H. Allen
Nutrition 213
75 ?




Star Star Star Star Star
1 review
Star Star Star Star Star
"Why didn't I know about this earlier? This notetaker is awesome, notes were really good and really detailed. Next time I really need help, I know where to turn!"
Jessie Heathcote III

Popular in Introductory Nutrition

Popular in Environmental Science

This 12 page Bundle was uploaded by Elizabeth Weathers on Thursday February 11, 2016. The Bundle belongs to NTR 213-05 at University of North Carolina - Greensboro taught by Laurie H. Allen in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 55 views. For similar materials see Introductory Nutrition in Environmental Science at University of North Carolina - Greensboro.


Reviews for Chapter 4: Carbohydrates

Star Star Star Star Star

Why didn't I know about this earlier? This notetaker is awesome, notes were really good and really detailed. Next time I really need help, I know where to turn!

-Jessie Heathcote III


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 02/11/16
Carbohydrate Functions:  To provide energy  Cushioning and lubrication  Cell membrane signaling Examples of Carbohydrates:  Galactose: used by nerve cells and used to make breast milk  Ribose & deoxyribose (monosaccharides): used in DNA & RNA  Ribose: in B vitamin riboflavin Carbohydrates Complex Simple Polysaccharides: Disaccharides: Monosaccharides: (poly = many) (di = two) (mono = one) Glycogen: used in Lactose: in milk & Galactose: used by animal sugar storage, dairy products, made nerve cells and used to contained in the up of 1 glucose and 1 make breast milk muscles and liver galactose unit Glucose: simple Starch: used in Maltose: a sugar which is the main plant sugar storage disaccharide formed source of energy for from two units of living organisms, Fiber (soluble, glucose, A.K.A. malt circulates in the blood insoluble): used in plant structure sugar Fructose: a six- Sucrose: table carbon sugar found sugar, made from I especially in honey and glucose and 1 fructose fruit, as well as unit vegetables REMINDER: there is a set capacity of glucose the body can store as glycogen, any excess is converted to fat Fiber Soluble Fiber vs. Insoluble Fiber  Dissolves in water  Does not dissolve in water  Partially digested by bacteria in large  Not digested by bacteria in large intestine intestine  Helps lower cholesterol  Increase bulk & prevent constipation  Ex: pectins, gums, & some  Ex: cellulose, some hemicelluloses, hemicelluloses & lignin REMINDER: the human body cannot break down the bonds in fiber by itself, intestinal bacteria are needed to help the digestion of soluble fiber Whole Grains vs. Refined Grains  Whole grains: contain the whole kernel ,  Refined grains: foods processed including the brain, germ, and endosperm to remove course parts such as the bran and germ which removes the fiber and some vitamins and minerals Enrichment • The process of fortifying grains with some of the nutrients removed during processing • Legislation requires the fortification of grains with some specific nutrients Interpreting Food Labels Refined Sugar  Refined sugars contain calories but lack fiber and other nutrients  Sugars from whole foods such as fruit and vegetables are more nutrient dense Empty Calories  calories derived from food containing little or no nutrients Carbohydrate Digestion Lactose Intolerance  Low levels of enzyme lactase in small intestine  The disaccharide lactose cannot be broken down into monosaccharides  Lactose passes into the large intestines where it is digested by bacteria  Symptoms: gas, abdominal distension, cramping, diarrhea  Alternate calcium sources: tofu, legumes, dark green vegetables, canned salmon/sardines, calcium-fortified foods, calcium supplements, lactase-treated milk Put It Together question from the textbook chapter: Based on this graph, Americans whose ancestors came from which parts of the world are most likely to have a low calcium intake because they can’t drink milk? Indigestible carbohydrates  Fiber: not broken down by human enzymes  Oligosaccharides: 3–10 sugar units; some are not broken down by human enzymes  Resistant starch: natural structure of the grain protects the starch molecules or cooking and processing alter digestibility  Ex: legumes, unripe bananas, and cold cooked potatoes, rice, and pasta Hormones at Work: Insulin: Increased Glucose Decreased blood Insulin Secretion taken into blood glucose cells glucose Glucagon: Decreased Glucagon Glucose Increased blood Secretion released blood glucose from liver glucose Blood Glucose Regulation Think Critically question from textbook chapter: What would happen to blood glucose levels if insulin were not available? TEACHER’S TIP: Students often confuse glucagon and glycogen. A way to remember glucagon is: “when your glucose is gone, you are happy you have glucagon.” Cellular Respiration: How Cells use Glucose to Harvest Energy C H O + O 6 12 6 2 glucose + oxygen CO + H O +ATP 2 2 Carbon dioxide + water + energy Glycemic Index vs. Load vs. Response  Glycemic index:  Glycemic load:  Glycemic response: ranking of how a food compares the measures how affects blood glucose effect of typical quickly and how relative to an equivalent portions of food on high blood glucose amount of carbohydrate blood glucose levels rise after from a reference food, carbohydrate such as white bread or consumption pure glucose  Ex: white bread = 100, kidney beans = 25 What Happens when Carbs are Limited Ketones  Ketones/Ketone bodies: acidic molecules produced by fat breakdown when carbohydrates are not available to cells  Heart, muscle and kidneys use ketones for energy  Brain adapts to use ketones after 3 days  Produced with starvation, and/or low-carb diets, diabetes  The use of ketones for energy helps spare glucose & decrease the amount of protein needed to be broken down  Ketosis: increased ketones in blood  Ketoacidosis: acidic blood from increased ketones in blood Ketogenic Diet  Used in treating certain health conditions:  Epilepsy  Traumatic Brain Injury  Metabolic Disorders  Possibly Alzheimers  Parkinsons disease Carbohydratesin HealthandDisease Diabetes Mellitus  Diseases characterized by high blood glucose  Type I: decreased insulin secretion  Autoimmune destruction of insulin-secreting cells in the pancreas  Type II: insulin resistance  The body either resists the effects of insulin or doesn't produce enough insulin to maintain a normal glucose level  Gestational: first observed during pregnancy Diabetes Mellitus Signs & Symptoms  High blood glucose since insulin does not signal cells to take up glucose  Causes weight loss since the body breaks down fat  Causes increased hunger  Increased glucose in urine  Water tries to dilute glucose causing increased excretion of water causing dehydration and thirst  Blurred vision  Water tries to dilute glucose in the eye Diabetes Mellitus Management  Control blood sugar levels  Limit carbohydrate intake  Increase whole grains, decrease refined sugars  Type I & some Type II patients need insulin injections  Type II patients often take oral drugs  Exercise  Exercise and weight loss in Type II helps prevent, reverse, and manage the disease  Low saturated fat, low trans fat Diabetes Mellitus Complications Hypoglycemia  Low blood sugar levels  Caused by:  Overmedication with insulin  Abnormal insulin or other hormone secretion or response  Fasting hypoglycemia: when a person has not eaten and usually has some other condition  Reactive hypoglycemia: too much insulin response after a high-carbohydrate meal Dental caries (cavities)  Bacteria in mouth digest carbohydrates and produce acid which damages tooth enamel  Increased risk:  Increased intake of sucrose and starch  Frequent exposure Carbohydrates & Weight Management  Weight gain caused by excess calories from carbohydrates, protein, fat or alcohol  Type of carbs consume effect how hungry you feel  Diet high in refined carbs may shift metabolism toward more fat storage Nonnutritive (artificial) Sweeteners  Replace sugar in the diet  Pros:  Decrease dental caries  Control blood sugar  Cons:  Associated with weight gain  Present in low nutrient density foods  May be dangerous at high doses Cardiovascular Disease  High-sugar diets increase blood lipids  High blood glucose damages blood vessels  Soluble fiber decreases cholesterol absorption and synthesis  High-fiber diets decrease blood pressure, weight, blood glucose, and heart disease  Diets high in fruits and vegetables increase fiber and protective antioxidants Soluble Fiber & Cholesterol Bowel health  High-fiber diets decrease:  Constipation (if adequate water is consumed)  Hemorrhoids (varicose veins in the anus and rectum)  Diverticula (outpouching of the large intestines)  Colon cancer?? Carbohydrate Recommendations  Enough carbohydrate to meet glucose needs  Choosing types for health & disease prevention  RDA for carbohydrate =130 g/day  Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range for carbohydrate = 45–65% of total calorie intake  Adequate Intake for fiber = 38 g/day for men & 25 g/day for women 2010, 2015 Dietary Guidelines and MyPlate  Dietary Guidelines specifically recommend reducing intake of sugar-sweetened beverages  MyPlate recommends 6 oz of grains (half should be whole grains), 2 cups of fruit, and 2 2 cups of vegetables for a 2000-calorie diet • increase whole grains, fruits and vegetables, and reduced-fat dairy products • limit foods high in refined grains and added sugars


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

75 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Janice Dongeun University of Washington

"I used the money I made selling my notes & study guides to pay for spring break in Olympia, Washington...which was Sweet!"

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.