Chapter 4: Carbohydrates
Chapter 4: Carbohydrates NTR 213-05
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This 12 page Bundle was uploaded by Elizabeth Weathers on Thursday February 11, 2016. The Bundle belongs to NTR 213-05 at University of North Carolina - Greensboro taught by Laurie H. Allen in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 55 views. For similar materials see Introductory Nutrition in Environmental Science at University of North Carolina - Greensboro.
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Date Created: 02/11/16
Carbohydrate Functions: To provide energy Cushioning and lubrication Cell membrane signaling Examples of Carbohydrates: Galactose: used by nerve cells and used to make breast milk Ribose & deoxyribose (monosaccharides): used in DNA & RNA Ribose: in B vitamin riboflavin Carbohydrates Complex Simple Polysaccharides: Disaccharides: Monosaccharides: (poly = many) (di = two) (mono = one) Glycogen: used in Lactose: in milk & Galactose: used by animal sugar storage, dairy products, made nerve cells and used to contained in the up of 1 glucose and 1 make breast milk muscles and liver galactose unit Glucose: simple Starch: used in Maltose: a sugar which is the main plant sugar storage disaccharide formed source of energy for from two units of living organisms, Fiber (soluble, glucose, A.K.A. malt circulates in the blood insoluble): used in plant structure sugar Fructose: a six- Sucrose: table carbon sugar found sugar, made from I especially in honey and glucose and 1 fructose fruit, as well as unit vegetables REMINDER: there is a set capacity of glucose the body can store as glycogen, any excess is converted to fat Fiber Soluble Fiber vs. Insoluble Fiber Dissolves in water Does not dissolve in water Partially digested by bacteria in large Not digested by bacteria in large intestine intestine Helps lower cholesterol Increase bulk & prevent constipation Ex: pectins, gums, & some Ex: cellulose, some hemicelluloses, hemicelluloses & lignin REMINDER: the human body cannot break down the bonds in fiber by itself, intestinal bacteria are needed to help the digestion of soluble fiber Whole Grains vs. Refined Grains Whole grains: contain the whole kernel , Refined grains: foods processed including the brain, germ, and endosperm to remove course parts such as the bran and germ which removes the fiber and some vitamins and minerals Enrichment • The process of fortifying grains with some of the nutrients removed during processing • Legislation requires the fortification of grains with some specific nutrients Interpreting Food Labels Refined Sugar Refined sugars contain calories but lack fiber and other nutrients Sugars from whole foods such as fruit and vegetables are more nutrient dense Empty Calories calories derived from food containing little or no nutrients Carbohydrate Digestion Lactose Intolerance Low levels of enzyme lactase in small intestine The disaccharide lactose cannot be broken down into monosaccharides Lactose passes into the large intestines where it is digested by bacteria Symptoms: gas, abdominal distension, cramping, diarrhea Alternate calcium sources: tofu, legumes, dark green vegetables, canned salmon/sardines, calcium-fortified foods, calcium supplements, lactase-treated milk Put It Together question from the textbook chapter: Based on this graph, Americans whose ancestors came from which parts of the world are most likely to have a low calcium intake because they can’t drink milk? Indigestible carbohydrates Fiber: not broken down by human enzymes Oligosaccharides: 3–10 sugar units; some are not broken down by human enzymes Resistant starch: natural structure of the grain protects the starch molecules or cooking and processing alter digestibility Ex: legumes, unripe bananas, and cold cooked potatoes, rice, and pasta Hormones at Work: Insulin: Increased Glucose Decreased blood Insulin Secretion taken into blood glucose cells glucose Glucagon: Decreased Glucagon Glucose Increased blood Secretion released blood glucose from liver glucose Blood Glucose Regulation Think Critically question from textbook chapter: What would happen to blood glucose levels if insulin were not available? TEACHER’S TIP: Students often confuse glucagon and glycogen. A way to remember glucagon is: “when your glucose is gone, you are happy you have glucagon.” Cellular Respiration: How Cells use Glucose to Harvest Energy C H O + O 6 12 6 2 glucose + oxygen CO + H O +ATP 2 2 Carbon dioxide + water + energy Glycemic Index vs. Load vs. Response Glycemic index: Glycemic load: Glycemic response: ranking of how a food compares the measures how affects blood glucose effect of typical quickly and how relative to an equivalent portions of food on high blood glucose amount of carbohydrate blood glucose levels rise after from a reference food, carbohydrate such as white bread or consumption pure glucose Ex: white bread = 100, kidney beans = 25 What Happens when Carbs are Limited Ketones Ketones/Ketone bodies: acidic molecules produced by fat breakdown when carbohydrates are not available to cells Heart, muscle and kidneys use ketones for energy Brain adapts to use ketones after 3 days Produced with starvation, and/or low-carb diets, diabetes The use of ketones for energy helps spare glucose & decrease the amount of protein needed to be broken down Ketosis: increased ketones in blood Ketoacidosis: acidic blood from increased ketones in blood Ketogenic Diet Used in treating certain health conditions: Epilepsy Traumatic Brain Injury Metabolic Disorders Possibly Alzheimers Parkinsons disease Carbohydratesin HealthandDisease Diabetes Mellitus Diseases characterized by high blood glucose Type I: decreased insulin secretion Autoimmune destruction of insulin-secreting cells in the pancreas Type II: insulin resistance The body either resists the effects of insulin or doesn't produce enough insulin to maintain a normal glucose level Gestational: first observed during pregnancy Diabetes Mellitus Signs & Symptoms High blood glucose since insulin does not signal cells to take up glucose Causes weight loss since the body breaks down fat Causes increased hunger Increased glucose in urine Water tries to dilute glucose causing increased excretion of water causing dehydration and thirst Blurred vision Water tries to dilute glucose in the eye Diabetes Mellitus Management Control blood sugar levels Limit carbohydrate intake Increase whole grains, decrease refined sugars Type I & some Type II patients need insulin injections Type II patients often take oral drugs Exercise Exercise and weight loss in Type II helps prevent, reverse, and manage the disease Low saturated fat, low trans fat Diabetes Mellitus Complications Hypoglycemia Low blood sugar levels Caused by: Overmedication with insulin Abnormal insulin or other hormone secretion or response Fasting hypoglycemia: when a person has not eaten and usually has some other condition Reactive hypoglycemia: too much insulin response after a high-carbohydrate meal Dental caries (cavities) Bacteria in mouth digest carbohydrates and produce acid which damages tooth enamel Increased risk: Increased intake of sucrose and starch Frequent exposure Carbohydrates & Weight Management Weight gain caused by excess calories from carbohydrates, protein, fat or alcohol Type of carbs consume effect how hungry you feel Diet high in refined carbs may shift metabolism toward more fat storage Nonnutritive (artificial) Sweeteners Replace sugar in the diet Pros: Decrease dental caries Control blood sugar Cons: Associated with weight gain Present in low nutrient density foods May be dangerous at high doses Cardiovascular Disease High-sugar diets increase blood lipids High blood glucose damages blood vessels Soluble fiber decreases cholesterol absorption and synthesis High-fiber diets decrease blood pressure, weight, blood glucose, and heart disease Diets high in fruits and vegetables increase fiber and protective antioxidants Soluble Fiber & Cholesterol Bowel health High-fiber diets decrease: Constipation (if adequate water is consumed) Hemorrhoids (varicose veins in the anus and rectum) Diverticula (outpouching of the large intestines) Colon cancer?? Carbohydrate Recommendations Enough carbohydrate to meet glucose needs Choosing types for health & disease prevention RDA for carbohydrate =130 g/day Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range for carbohydrate = 45–65% of total calorie intake Adequate Intake for fiber = 38 g/day for men & 25 g/day for women 2010, 2015 Dietary Guidelines and MyPlate Dietary Guidelines specifically recommend reducing intake of sugar-sweetened beverages MyPlate recommends 6 oz of grains (half should be whole grains), 2 cups of fruit, and 2 2 cups of vegetables for a 2000-calorie diet • increase whole grains, fruits and vegetables, and reduced-fat dairy products • limit foods high in refined grains and added sugars
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