Geology Lab Notes
Geology Lab Notes 80176 - GEOL 1010 - 001
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80176 - GEOL 1010 - 001
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This 3 page Bundle was uploaded by mmendoz on Thursday February 11, 2016. The Bundle belongs to 80176 - GEOL 1010 - 001 at Clemson University taught by Alan B Coulson in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Physical Geology in Environmental Science at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 02/11/16
1/14/16 Geology Lab Mineral identification What is a mineral? Naturally occurring Inorganic Crystalline structure – atoms in a fixed pattern Solids Fixed chemistry – chemical formula H20, HCl Difference between rock and mineral Mineral is a single entity Rock is made up of minerals Identifying a mineral Color is misleading Minerals come in different colors Can be the same mineral but a different color Streak Color of the mineral when grounded into powder Hardness Moh’s hardness scale Higher the number, the harder the mineral Basic tools Write as a range. EX 3<mineral A<5 Transparency Transparent Translucent Opaque Taste They will have distinct taste Luster – how mineral reflects light Metallic – looks like metal (ex. aluminum foil) Submetallic – duller. Not as shiny. Still somewhat metal looking Vitreous – glassy. Stained glass Dull – clay. Dirt. Silky – soft glow. Sheen look Greasy – grease in a frying pan. Not good looking Effervescence Fizz with hydrochloric acid (HCL) Crystal form Blockish. Cube shape Magnetism Whether the rock is magnetic Breakage pattern Cleavage – area of each mineral breaking along flat surfaces Occur in pairs or parallel planes Fracture – does not break away from flat planes Striations – thin straight parallel lines on cleavage surface 1/21/16 Lab #1 Quiz next week Short answer questions from first week of lab Mineral id questions Learn most distinguishing feature Lot of mineral id on the midterm Magnetite is magnetic Halite tastes salty 1/27/16 Lab #2 Igneous Rocks Formed when magma on lava cools allowing mineral crystals to form 2 categories Plutonics (intrusive) Cool in earth (below ground) Large grains Cool at slower rate Volcanic (extrusive) Cool close to or at earths surface Small grains Cool more faster ID Pegamatic – very large grains; >1cm Phaneritic – course grained ; <1cm Porphrytic – large grain in matrix of smaller grains (chocolate chip cookie) Aphanetic – small grains; <1mm Glassy – no grains visible; cool very fast Vesicular – small holes in rock; light weight; honey comb; result of gas bubbles Pyroclastic – made of pyroclasts ejected from volcano; lack of crystalline appearance Composition Minerals present Color index Felsic – light colored minerals Intermediate – mix of high Si and low Si; greyish color Mafic – dark colored minerals Ultra mafic – greenish, yellow color; very high temperature Color index exceptions Granite – felsic Lab #4 Email topic for presentation. Metamorphic rocks Form when pre-existing rock is exposed to significant hear, pressure, or hydrothermal fluids Change texture & composition of rock Identification 2 main types Foliated – mineral crystals arranged in foliation or sheet – like structures Non – foliated – lack layered appearance more crystalline appearance Foliated textures Slaty – minerals in flat sheets, break along smooth planes Phyllitic – wavy or wrinkled foliation Schistose – scaly or glittery appearance, can have large grains Gneissic (zebra) – felsic & mafic minerals in alternating light and dark bands Non foliated textures Crystalline – medium to large grains in interlocking mass Microcrystalline – like crystalline but smaller grains Sandy – made of sized grains that are not interlocking Glassy
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