Pols. 220 Finals Study Guide
Pols. 220 Finals Study Guide POLS 220 001
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Date Created: 02/11/16
POLS 220 Final Exam Study Sheet The midterm will take place on Wednesday December 9th from 10am-12pm in the EDU 103 lecture hall. The exam will consist of 15 Multiple Choice questions, 5 IDs and 1 short essay question. You will not be permitted to use notes, books, or the internet. Multiple Choice (2 points each; 30 points total) IDs (4 points each; 20 points total) On the second part of the exam, you will define only 5different concepts. You will choose 5 concepts from a list of 9 to define. Please limit your definition to 1-3 sentences. The concepts on the exam will be taken from the following list: Decommodification: Makes it possible for individuals to survive independently of market activity without selling labor power on the market like a commodity, which leads to the creation of the welfare state. involves provision of social programs i.e. health care, unemployment, disability. The Washington Consensus The Washington Consensus refers to a set of broadly free market economic ideas, supported by prominent economists and international organizations, such as the IMF, the World Bank, the EU and the US. Essentially, the Washington consensus advocates, free trade, floating exchange rates, free markets and macroeconomic stability. The Washington consensus was important for determining policy towards economic development in Latin America, South East Asia and other countries ECONOMIC PLANS AFTER WWLL; FAIRLY DOMNANT IN WHICH IT TOOK THE WORLD BANK AND IMF DECIDED TO PRESSUR COUNTRIES INTO CHANGING OTHER GOTVS INTO BEING MORE PRDUCTIVE, THUS FOLLWINGSMITHIAN ECONOMICS. GOVERMENTS TAKE A BACK SPACE TO LET WAY TO LETTING THE INVISIBLE HAND ORRECT ANYMISTAKES IN ECONOMY: FREE MARKET NEOLIBERALISM: DEALS WITH PRIVITAZATION; LOWERING TARIFFS ANF ENGAGIN IN ORE FREE TRADE, LEADS TO MORE REGULATIONS AT NATIONAL TRADING LEVEL. Import Substituting Industrialization/Export-led Industrialization ISI: Latin America; reduce need for foreign imports Used to try and jump start industrialization to grow quickly. INCREASES ECONOMY FROM WITHIN, yet alsomakes product sell very expensive bc product is only consumed on domestic ground. CUTS DOWN ON OUTWARD DEPENDENCE -expensive, can lead to debt due to too much money borrowed abroad -loses competitive edge creation of crappy products Export-led Industrialization (ELI): manufacturingemphasizes goods for export, not domestic consumption graeter products -devalues currency to sell goods cheaper abroad -Japan’s miracle is an example, other Asian Tigers as well: -more govt intervention (via industrial policy) for product to be better and increase competition (Smithian economics) -open economies -specialization to commercial and financial services Inclusive vs. Extractive Institutions: Acemoglu article Difference between extractive and inclusive colonies Inclusive institutions ex: in asettler colony, everything was designed o create a new mini version of their homeland. Political/economic etc institutions in which the after math and rode to freedom is much harder bc established colonizers did not want to leave and institutions were more intact. Extractive colonies were where all resources were extracted and ppl controlled aftermath leads to colonies would lead independence trough ballot box bc colonist ppl didn’t really care and so it was easier to vote them out. The Welfare State: German guy that created the welfare state Creation of welfare enables people to survive without having to put your labor on the market; DECOMODIFIES CAPITALISM Varies in the following forms: 1. history of class relations: relative alliance of middle class 2. ethnic composition homogenous vs. multi-ethnic societies 3. political culture social trust levels 4. institutional design PR vs. FPTP Uni vs. Bi-cameral legislatures 5. state strength tax extraction present? Redistribution of wealth requires a strong state in order to have a successful/existing welfare state 6. globalization the more integrated a national economy to the global economy, the greater the relative bargaining strength of global capital DIFFERENT TYPES OF WELFARE STATES ARE: 1.social democratic 2. Christian democratic 3. extremist model Institutional Drift: Process by which institutions change due to neglect is a law but cops do not enforce it, thus people may engage in that activity bc there’s no penalty inequality in the U.S. Political structure makes it hard to get anything done (4 veto points) -Laws that are enforced selectively policies do not adapt to society’s needs thus permitting inequality levels to increase. Ex. Hedgefunds (exclusive to extremely rich ppl ONLY where only the rich thrive, but since the richest are the ones benefiting from them, they are permitted to continue. Intersectionality of Identity: the concept used to describe the fact that one’s identity is composed of various aspects of one’s life -sexuality -race -other -NOTE: Different part of one’s identity affect people differently i.e. white women’s rights vs. minority women’s rights vary. Types of political violence (civil war, genocide, terrorism, revolution): a) Civil war: armed combat within states’ territorial boundaries by two or more (initially) groups subject to common authority Not all revolutions can b) Revolution: armed combat by 2+ groups aimed at seizing be civil wars, but civil control of the state, which is ultimately successful. wars can be revolutions c) Terrorism: actual or threatened use of violence by (bc civil wars must non-state actors for political purposes, often against civilians. include the state as a participant d) Genocide: coordinated, deliberate attempt to eliminate all members of an ethnic, religious or cultural groupthrough means of mass murder. Rebels Second Order Causes: First order causes: are NOT -globalization backlash -ideology terrorists -globalized insurgency -economics -asymmetric war -grievance (injustice) Adam Smith vs. Karl Marx -Know their ideals and what they think about the industry and nation building. -why do nations increase their Productive capacity? Adam Smith: promoted of the free economy/ laissez faire economics Argues that the specialization of a specific task (assembly line) leads to greater productivity (works only in agricultural/rural societies) division of Labor comes from the human need to truck, barter and exchange to work in everyone’s best interest. Did not take into account that in the labor market, there will always be a sector of the labor division that cannot sell their labor on the market i.e. old ladies and babies. Karl Marx: Believed human being are “free conscious producers” Talks of the history of class struggles (slave vs. Master; all about the economic relationships of people) -“Alienation of Labor:” one doesn’t own a product Makes people dumb bc they are not allowed to imagine/create things. said that capitalism would sow the seeds of its own destruction bc it needs to expand, thus leading to overproduction and exploitation of work force which would inevitanly lead to the lower classes- the Proletariat- taking over the Bourgeoisie and eliminating the existence of the state. The “Invisible Hand”: followed by Smith, the Invisible hand is the unobservable market force that calibrates the rise and fall of supply and demand rates in free market economies, thus implying little to no government intervention; laissez faire. Japanese “Miracle”/Asian “Tigers” All these countries used ELI in order to get out of the recession, but countries such as Singapore show that Japan’s growth was NOT due to culture or work ethic. Japan’s ability to grow their economy after WWII 55 fold due to their change in Industrial policies [active intervention of govt.] to increase the amount of stuff they made and then export it. (was firm specific, not industry wide) Also had a special alliance with U.S which carried a security umbrella; no army spending Problem w/Japanese miracle is that it is unsustainable. This was not bc of awesome work ethic or Japanese “culture” Geography thesis: Smith argument Guns germs and steel argument: Temperate vs. tropical Abundance vs. lack of resources Ability to trade When certain places were colonized, disease struck them, thus epidemic spread, leading to mass death tolls. People who were colonized to be extractive colonies were able to rise much quickly and efficiently towards independence than settler colonies path dependency. Institutions argument for developing thesis Mafias vs. Drug Cartels: Mafias Drug Cartels smaller Big network whose interactions are “Racketeers”- create the problem, but also loosely associated, thus they are an provide the protection against the Association of criminals, NOT organized problem. crime. Similar to states, it provides protection to a select few bc it is a private good. Hard to combat bc they are so decentralized. Sexual Division of Labor: Traditional role of men being breadwinners and women being at home which carries the idea of- Privileging men and men work- what is considered “work” Financial dependence is created Gender disadvantage due to certain institutions. The formal and informal economy Public vs. private sphere Authoritarian resilience: an observable phenomenon in Arab Uprisings in which the tools and tactics the state uses various things to maintain the power that it has. Varies from state to state. when people have some type of grievance, the avenues and outlets in their certain regime dictate how the issue will be addressed (how can they politically participate?) 1. Neotraditionalism: cultural, religious or traditional aspects that structure states and unites them (Quran) 2. Coercion/ Repression Violence, torture, things can be taken away (food or employment) 3. Rentierism/ Developmentalism People get revenues from rents (oil) Exchange of economic welfare for social/political rights The Accidental Guerrilla: deals with the willingness of aperson to be defensive as caused by outside forces [greed/ grievance] People join resistance because there is hope of change. GRIEVANCE: VS. GREED: Political/economic exclusion People seek some sort of profit Hutus and Tutsis (benefits/incentives) differences Diamonds in Sierra Leone case Accidental Guerilla Syndrome: Phase 1: infection Phase 2: Contagion Phase 3: Intervention Phase 4: Rejection Totalitarianism: N. Korea Different from authoritarianism in the sense that totalitarianism boards on the ideology of hyper nationalism this controls people No representation of people whatsoever Faces no opposition Gender politics questions Essay question (50 points) Cite specific articles You will be asked to answer ONE short essay question from a list of three questions. Remember to answer only ONE question! To prepare for this portion of the exam, please make sure you understand: —compare and contrast welfare state types and their origins: bizmark; Marx [connection to decommodification; welfare states represent the deconm. Of welfare states thus eliminating the destruction of capitalism]: Gosta Esping- Anderson. differences in gender inequality throughout the world: reference world bank report (Ch. 1 and 2.) talk about Amartya Sen. (Guy that came out with term “missing women:” number of women that would exist if it were not for infant mortality rates, violence against women sex- selective abortion, infanticide etc. -talk about economic inequality - Less reproduction due to lack of women; single men -formal and informal sector of the economy and their roles —greed, grievance, opportunity in civil wars a. greed: insurgency of organized crime goes after natural resources as a way of “looting” the state, bc state lets only a select few be wealthy. -tends to happen where unemployment rates are high, few opportunities, and govt has little power to control them. -wars are waged for some sort of incentive, not rights or self-determination. EX: Sierra Leone: financed their side of the war with diamond profits. b. Grievance: socio/economic/political exclusion Created under a situation where the repression is so great, that survival can be better guaranteed by participating in the conflict. -no avenue or outlet to alleviate them EX) Hutus and Tutsis issue of fairness where Hutus revolted against Tutsis bc they were seen as superior and were given more opportunities. c. Opportunity: Since the state can’t do much to stop them, nor can control the day-to-day actions, they see no need to listen to them -poor power projection -difficult terrain -foreign govts support insurgents through funds or other aid. EX) Democratic Republic of Congo: capital is so far away from location of conflict, they can’t project power, and also bc the rough terrain and huge forests. —inequality producing institutions in the United States: hacker / Pearson article —path-dependency vs. government industrial policy and economic growth Tropical vs. temperature Institutions Inclusive institutions: relate to productivity and acquiring wealth Exclusive institution: central planning of the economic policy Govt industrial policy: i.e. Japanese miracle Bc japan was in economic shambles the govt became very involved in promoting industries by passing laws and make the economy more efficient (passed laws that would promote growth) —authoritarian resilience in the Middle East 1. Tunisia: wanted to overthrow regime Public immolation of lighting oneself on fire caused people to follow his example and revolt,. 2. Were successful, but signs of the old regime came back with the election Egypt Followed Tunisia’s example Sprung due to labor strikes and youth movement which got attention through social media Were successful due to help from the Skaff which were also resentful of the former regime and decided to help out protestors instead -however, Egypt has been followed by a second military coup, so success has not been complete 3. Bahrain: taken down immediately with violence Simply wanted more rights. -heavily influenced by women Maryam Al Khawaja Mathesieectmsful rthroDestruction of Pearl Monument -large protests and continuous abuse of human rights 4. Morocco: wanted a revised constitution- not to topple the regime Was a “compromised” uprising Regime quickly compromised with protestors to make amends to constitution, but all was a lie -people did not revolt after let down of compromise 5. Yemen: big influence from military groups Severe splits between north/south Yemen -Sala regime stepped down -protests against Sala’s decision to use Islam as reason to oppress women and restrict their right to protests ongoing civil war 6. Libya: civil chaos Much more casualties Division of Libya Gadafi was not liked, not even by his allies
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